The Excretory System- The Removal of Cellular Waste

Removal of cellular waste material.
What is the purpose of the Excretory System?
Nitrogenous waste.
What is cellular waste?
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Ammonia

Waste from the breakdown of amino acids(proteins) and other cellular functions

Removed from cells, moved into the blood

Is poisonous if it builds up in the body

What is Nitrogenous waste?
Ammonia quickly damages vital organs, even in small quantities

Can become life threatening

Why must Ammonia be removed or converted?
The Brain
Heart
Muscles
What vital organs could Ammonia damage?
Ammonia
Urea
Uric Acid
What are the types of Nitrogenous waste?
Highly toxic

Must be quickly excreted from the body with water

Large quantities of Ammonia are converted to a less toxic form Urea

Explain Ammonia.
Lower toxicity

Stores short term in the body by the bladder

Excreted as a liquid from the body which is urine

Explain Urea.
Lowest toxicity

Stored longer in the body

Excreted as a paste, contains little water.

Explain Uric Acid.
May excrete ammonia continuously with water.
What are Aquatic Organisms method of removal from the body?
Across cell membrane.
What are Single celled organisms method of removal from the body?
Across skins surface/gills.
What are Small Multicellular’s method of removal from the body?
From gill or kidney.
What are Large Multicellular’s method of removal from the body?
Water conservation is an issue

Need to convert ammonia to a less toxic form

What are Terrestrial Organism’s method of removal from the body?
Converts Ammonia to to Urea using Nephridia a kidney like structure
What are Earthwarm’s method of removal from the body?
Converts Ammonia to uric acid

Does not dissolve in water

No toxic effect to embryo in eggs

What are Insects, Reptiles, and birds method of removal from the body?
Converts Ammonia to a less toxic form which is urea, then uses kidneys to remove it.
What are Mammals method of removal from the body?
Urea is

Excreted out of the circulatory system

Not recycled

Is removed

Is Urea excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Water is

Excreted out

Recycled

Removed

Is water excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Salt and ions are

Excreted out

Recycled

Removed

Are salt and ions excreted out of the circulatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Sugars are

Excreted out

Recycled

Not removed

Are sugars excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Amino acids are

Not excreted out

Not recycled

Not removed

Are amino acids excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Hormones are

Excreted out

Recycled out

Removed to bladder

Are hormones excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Blood cells are

Not excreted

Not recycled

Not removed

Are blood cells excreted out of the circularlatory system, recycled out of the circulatory system, and removed from the bladder?
Urea

Water

Salt/Ion

Hormones

The chemical composition of urine is primarily….
Skin-Sweat removes, urea, ammonia, and water

Lungs, exhales, ammonia, urea, and water

What are other human excretory organs and how do they excrete waste?
Made by the brain

Regulates water loss

What are Antidiuretic Hormones(ADH)?
More water is being reconverted

Urine is more concentrate- Darker

What happens when ADH is increasing?
Water is removed

Urine is dilute- lighter

What happens if ADH is decreasing?
No

The chemical reactions in plants do not produce toxic nitrogenous waters

No protein digestion for ATP energy

Ammonia/nitrogen is recycled within the plant for useful purposes

Do plants have an excretory system? Explain why or why not.
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