The Extent Of Environmental Disclosure In Annual Reports Accounting Essay

3.1 Introduction

The survey extends the old research as what has been mentioned in chapter one of this thesis and therefore uses the same measuring of environmental coverage. The intent of this survey is to look into environmental coverage in one-year study. Rather than that, this survey besides identify the factor that can be influence company determination to unwrap environmental coverage in one-year study.

Sample Selection and Data Collection

The population of this survey is all public companies listed of the chief board of Bursa Malaysia as of 31 December 2009. However, all fiscal house are excluded from the sample, as these sector are restricted by certain regulations from regulative organic structures such as Bank Negara Malaysia and Ministry of Finance. Harmonizing to Roscoe ( 1975 ) , sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research. Therefore, The concluding sample consist of 100 companies indiscriminately selected were considered appropriate. The one-year study is regarded as the chief signifier of company communicating ( Zeghal & A ; Ahmed, 1990 ; Unerman, 1999 ) and it is besides widely available ( Buhr, 1998 ; Unerman, 1999 ) . Hence, this survey considers the information disclosed in one-year studies. All the one-year studies of the companies that have full informations were downloaded from Bursa Malaysia and company web site.

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Research Design

The preliminary trial was conducted by referred to Kulim ( Malaysia ) Berhad as a benchmark. There are several grounds led to the determination to utilize Kulim ( Malaysia ) Berhad in this pre-testing. Based on the ACCA MaSRA 2010 Winner, Kulim ( Malaysia ) Berhad are clearly links sustainability scheme to concern aims, specific runing environment and stakeholders. Besides, the transparently list marks and committednesss in term of people, planet and net income and the current result. In add-on, this company clearly lists its biodiversity marks and position of undertakings, and elaborates on its preservation partnerships and its wildlife defence programmes, which include directing its security caput for wildlife protection preparation in Thailand. This company besides have a strong internal audit map which assesses environmental hazards harmonizing to the ISO 14000.

Method used for this thesis is content analysis as many research worker have done antecedently ( Yusoff et al,2005 ; Ten, 2004 ; Wilmhurst & A ; Frost, 1999 ; Smith et Al, 2007 ; Ten, 2009 ) . Beattie and Thomson ( 2007 ) high spot and illustrate the job originating from the content analysis stems from the construct boundary job and coding dependability, volume of revelations, type of revelations and the unit of analysis and unit of measuring. Milne and Adler ( 1999 ) added that content analysis demands to show the dependability of informations collected utilizing those instruments to allow replicable and valid illations to be drawn from informations derived from content analysis. However one-year study is an of import papers and high credibleness used by a figure of stakeholder ( Rizk et al 2,008 ; Yusoff and Lehman, 2009 ) . Corporate one-year studies were exhaustively read because environmental has been presented in many different ways and in assorted subdivisions of the studies.

As mentioned in the chapter 1, the aim of this survey is to analyse the environmental revelation among Malayan Public Listed Company in one-year study and analyze the factors that may act upon a company to supply environmental revelation. Specifically, this survey examine whether high fiscal public presentation influences environmental revelation, environmental sensitive companies influence the environmental revelation, ISO 14000 accredited companies influences environmental discloasure every bit good as purchase influences the environmental revelation.

3.2 Measures of Dependent Variables

Cooper and Schindler ( 2008 ) cited that dependant variable or standard variable is the variable measured, predicted or otherwise monitored by the research worker and expected to be affected by a use of the independent variable.

The dependent variables in this survey is environmental describing. To analyse the extent of revelation, 24 identified revelation points in the mark sheet were utilized to capture these points from the companies corporate study. This revelation point are adopted from Yusoff and Lehman ( 2004 ) . Consistent with the survey done by Cho ( 2009 ) , this research worker utilizing environmental revelation matrics to better the quality, credibleness and relevancy of sustainability coverage. A content analysis utilizing dichotomous step was chosen to mensurate the dependant variable. Each point will be coded as 1 if the point was disclosed in the corporate study and 0 mark will be assigned for non-disclosure of an point. Harmonizing to Beck, Campbell and Shrives ( 2010 ) , by following a matrix attack to environmental revelation, multiple information features can be taken into history when analysing revelation.

Since there are 24 entire points developed in the mark sheet, the companies possible scope mark of environmental revelation will be from 0 to 24. After completing the informations aggregation procedure, entire revelation by each companies for the twelvemonth will be calculated as follows:

a = a?‘ B * 100


a = revelation mark by each company ( 0 a‰¤ a a‰? 24 )

B = single points disclosed by each GLC under each class

Measurement of Independence Variable

Based on Figure X, there are four independent variables in this survey, which are industry type, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 company and purchase. Harmonizing to Cooper and Schindler ( 2008 ) , an independent variable is the variable manipulated by the research worker, thereby doing an consequence or alteration on the dependant variable. In other words, alteration in independent variable will do alteration in dependant variable, whether in the same way or the other manner unit of ammunition.

To carry through the research objectives, this survey will analyze whether the types of industry, the public presentation, ISO 14000 companies and besides the purchase will do an consequence on the entire environmental among Malayan Public listed company.

Fiscal Performance

An accounting- based variable was used in this survey as a placeholder of fiscal public presentation. Accounting public presentation used is return on assets ( ROA ) as this is the most popular accounting public presentation index and was often used in other surveies. ( Stanwick & A ; Stanwick, 1998 ; Leary, 2003 ) . The primary intent of puting in assets is to bring forth gross revenues, which in bend leads to net incomes. The return on assets ratio measures the profitableness per dollar of investing in the house. Rather than that Return on equity besides one of the accounting public presentation that looks at the company ‘s net incomes from the point of view of the company ‘s proprietor ‘s. its steps the profitableness per dollar of investing in the house by the proprietors. The ratio is derive from the undermentioned step:

Tax return on Assets= ( Net incomes Before involvement and Tax / Total assets ) * 100

Tax return on Equity = ( Net incomes Before involvement and revenue enhancement / Total equity ) * 100

Environmental Sensitive company

The extent of environmental revelation in one-year studies may differ from industry to industry. Its due to a figure of ground. Harmonizing to Pahuja ( 2009 ) the ground is foremost the fright that the revelation of information could perchance help the company ‘s rivals varies among industries and thereby, may take to industry difference in the extent of revelation. Second, to keep a healthy relationship between the company and puting community, each company within industry may seek to guarantee that its one-year study is enlightening. It ‘s a dummy variable. Table ten shows list of industries with the codifications used in arrested development equations.




Environmental sensitive company


Non environmental sensitive companies

ISO 14000 Companies

ISO 14000 companies is a dummy variables whereby the company affect will be coded as:




ISO 14000 accredited companies


Non ISO 14000 accredited companies


Leverage are measured by debt to equity ratio. In briefly, entire debt by entire equity. Long-run creditors will see this figure as a step of how aggressive your house is. If your concern is already levered up with debt, they may be loath to offer extra funding. The ratio is derived from the undermentioned step:

Entire debt to entire assets = ( entire debt / entire stockholder ‘s equity ) * 100

3.5 Theoretical Model

Theoretical model is a conceptual theoretical account of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of the relationships among several factors that have been identified as of import to the job ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . These several factors are identified as variables that the relationship of one or more variables postulate a relational statement called hypotheses. Harmonizing to Cooper and Schindler ( 2008 ) , hypotheses have besides been described as statements in which we assign variable to instances. Therefore, it is of import to foreground the relationship among variables to assist this survey organize a hypothesis for empirical testing.

Industry Type

Industry rank

Fiscal Performance



ISO 14000


Debt to equity

Environmental revelation

Independent Variables

Dependent Variables

Figure: The Framework of the survey

Hypothesiss Testing

In research, a hypothesis serves several of import maps such as it guides the way of the survey and provides a model for forming the decisions that result ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2008 ) . Consequently, Sekaran ( 2003 ) added that the development of hypotheses in the survey is done after variables are identified and relationship between variables is established. Hence, it is important to understand good the variable chosen before hypotheses can be developed. The undermentioned subdivision will discourse some findings on the association between the dependant variable, which is the environmental revelation with the independent variables, which are type of industries, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 companies every bit good as purchase.

Furthermore, a figure of old researches into factors that stimulate the extent and nature of empirical revelation have been concerned with the impact of corporate features ( for illustration, Aljifri, 2008 ; Celik et al. , 2006 ; Lynes et al. , 2008 ) . Among steadfast features that are subjected to empirical testing are company size, profitableness, sector type, naming position, degree of external force per unit areas, purchase and degree of foreign investing. This survey focuses on four house features, which are the type of industry, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 companies and purchase.

Environmental sensitive company

Environmental revelation patterns are affected by some other factors like fouling nature of industry, foreign association of the company, its association of the company, its associations with big concern houses or place of the company in the planetary market. ( Pahuja, 2009 ) As for that Pahuja ( 2009 ) have been explore the environmental revelation patterns by selected big fabricating companies in India and take into consideration these issue.

There was an addition in the figure of surveies analyzing the motives behind Malayan environmental revelations utilizing different theoretical positions and Methodologies. ( Ten, 2009 ; Yusoff and Lehman, 2009 ) . Environmental information is a strategic mechanism used towards heightening good corporate repute.

Therefore, from the above findings, the first hypothesis is every bit stated below:

H1: There is relationship between environmental revelation and environmental sensitive company

Fiscal public presentation

Environmental inaugural incur cost since companies need to finance every activity it undertakes to carry through the societal duty. For illustration, to be portrayed as a good citizen, house gives a contribution out of their fiscal resources to assist those in demands. Community programme or even merchandise sweetening towards environmental friendly that the company organized besides incurs cost. Harmonizing to Tsoutsoura ( 2004 ) , the procedure of following the environmental activities has much need for the house ‘s direction to seek more efficient ways of runing their concern. From an economic position, a company is expected to prosecute in such activities if the sensed benefits exceeded the associated cost to finance those activities. Benefits of prosecuting in this activity must countervail the extra cost allocated to finance it.

Many old researches have conducted research to happen out whether a house ‘s public presentation truly affected company environmental activities attempts. Balabanis et Al. ( 1998 ) found that there is a nexus between environmental revelation and economic public presentation in the top British companies found that past, concurrent and subsequent economic public presentation is related to both environmental public presentation and revelation. In add-on, Turban et Al. ( 1997 ) found that companies engaged in environmental activities lead to cut down turnover, enlisting and preparation costs since they have increased ability to pull and retain employees. Therefore, these companies have the ability to hike their public presentation by following environmental patterns and besides bring forth sustainable long-run public presentation since they need non incur extra cost of engaging new employees, avoid developing cost and so on.

In add-on, survey by Klassen and McLaughlin ( 1996 ) suggests that a company public presentation is affected by its societal public presentation through both market additions and cost nest eggs. They point out some singular points to back up that on the market side, clients are more interested towards environmentally and socially oriented companies. This has proved that encompassing in CSR activities helps companies to retain and spread out their market and attraction among interested and loyal investors and clients.

Despite of that, Ullman ( 1998 ) argued that assorted consequences between environmental revelation and fiscal public presentation might be due to the different steps applied. McGuire et Al. ( 1988 ) argued that fiscal public presentation steps are better forecasters for environmental activity while Jaggi and Low ( 2000 ) opined that return on plus ( ROA ) and return on equity ( ROE ) are of import.

Based on the above treatment, the 2nd hypothesis is developed as follows:

H2: There is relationship between the environmental revelation mark and house public presentation.

ISO 14000 Companies

Sumiani et Al. ( 2007 ) had been examined the revelations made by top 50 Malayan public companies to research the describing behavior of ISO-certified companies. They found that out of 36 unwraping companies, 13 were ISO14001 certified and all the ISO-certified houses provided some signifier of environmental revelation in their one-year studies. However, Ten ( 2009 ) noted that non all ISO 14000 companies showed an environmental revelation.

Based on the above treatment, the 3rd hypothesis is developed as follows:

H3: There is relationship between the environmental revelation mark and ISO 14000 companies.


Harmonizing to bureau theory higher monitoring costs would be incurred by houses that are extremely leveraged. To cut down these costs, houses are expected to unwrap more information. Leverage is the ratio of debt that is refer to the non current liabilities and plus that is refer to average entire plus. ( Razeed, 2009 ; Ten, 2004 ) . The more the companies rely on debt funding, the more company will supply an environmental revelation to be seen as a company is being seen as a company with lower hazard.

Pahuja ( 2009 ) stated that the companies with higher debt-equity ratio are expected to unwrap more environmental information than the companies with lower debt -equity ratio. In his survey, ratio of entire debt to equity was used as it has a important impact on the ability of an organisation to obtain extra financess. It gives some thought about the protection given to loaners if the organisation become insolvent.

Based on the above treatment, the 4th hypothesis is developed as follows:

H4: There is relationship between the environmental revelation mark and purchase.

3.7 Regression Model

For through empirical observation proving the impact of selected variables on the environmental revelation patterns of the companies, multiple arrested development analysis was done. In the absence of contrary information, additive relationship was presumed among the variables in each of the equations. As mentioned before, environmental coverage patterns are influence non merely by quantitative variables ( like fiscal public presentation or purchase ) , but besides by variables that are basically qualitative in nature or nominal graduated table in nature ( such as environmental sensitive company or ISO 14000 companies ) . One manner to “ quantify “ is by building an unreal variable that takes on values of ‘1 ‘ or ‘0 ‘ ; ‘1 ‘ indicates the presence of that property and ‘0 ‘ bespeaking the absence of that property ( Pahuja, 2009 ) .

To integrate qualitative or nominal graduated table variables in the arrested development equation ( such as environmental sensitive company or ISO 14000 companies ) , dummy variables have been used.

To analyze influence of the selected variables on environmental revelation patterns of the companies following dependent and independent variable were identified and integrate in the arrested development equation.

Arrested development theoretical account

Env Score = I?0 + I?1 ( EBIT ) + I?2 ( EPS ) +I?3 ( ROA ) + I?4 ( ROE ) + I?5 ( NET MARGIN ) + I?6 ( SECTOR ) + I?7 ( ISO ) + I?8 ( LEVERAGE ) + Iµ I


Env Score = entire environment tonss of all environmental information

I?0 = intercept

I?1, I?2, aˆ¦aˆ¦I?8 = alteration in environmental associate with unit alteration in several variables

EBIT = gaining before involvement and revenue enhancement

EPS = gaining per portion

ROA = return on plus

ROE = return on equity

Net MARGIN = net net income border

SECTOR = dummy variable for type of industry

0 = non environment sensitive 1 = environment medium

ISO = silent person variable for ISO 14001 enfranchisement

0 = non ISO company 1 = ISO company

LEVERAGE = mean debt to plus ratio

Iµ = mistake term

Analysis of Datas

The information was analyze utilizing content analysis method from the one-year study of these company

Multiple arrested development method was used to analyse the relationship of the selected variable of house feature on environmental revelation patterns of the sample companies. The estimated arrested development equations were evaluated on the footing of the marks and the size of the estimated parametric quantities, coefficient of correlativity among the single variables, R2 or adjusted R2. F trial and t- trial. In the present survey, dummy variables were used to integrate qualitative variables like sector and ISO 14000 companies into the arrested development equation. SPSS is used to happen the largeness of the environmental information disclosed by the Malayan Listed Company in their corporate one-year study

3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive analysis are used to research the informations collected ( Coakes et al. , 2008 ) . This analysis is peculiar utile in this survey to find and explicate the environmental revelation mark by GLCs in their corporate one-year studies. The descriptive analysis is besides used to analyze the frequence distribution of revelation mark and figure of companies and steps of cardinal inclination and variableness like the manner, average and mean of revelation mark and scattering, which provide information on upper limit, lower limit and standard divergence. Furthermore, descriptive analysis is besides conducted to explicate the environmental revelation finding by independent variables identified in this survey ( for illustration, types of industry, fiscal public presentation, ISO 14000 enfranchisement and Leverage ) .

Inferential Analysis

Inferential trials will be performed to deduce the relationship between two variables, differences of variables among different sub-group and to analyze how the discrepancy in a dependent variable is explained by several independent variables ( Sekaran, 2003 ) .

3.8.3 Correlation Analysis

Correlation looks at the relationship between two variables in a additive manner ( Coakes et al. , 2008 ) . This analysis will assist to place whether one variable is related to another. Hence, correlativity analysis will be performed to analyze the being of the relationship between environmental revelation tonss and corporate features of the companies.

Before executing the correlativity analysis, it would be best to transport out trial of normalcy. The normality trial is performed to place the normalcy of informations. Normality trial will assist to warrant which type of trial to farther be carried out either parametric or non-parametric for illative statistics. Therefore, Kolmogorov- Smirnov statistics is used to find the normalcy of informations in this survey. If the consequence from the trial marked a significance degree which is greater than 0.05 ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) , it is assumed that the information is usually distributed. Two types of correlativity trials that can be applied are the Pearson and Spearman coefficient. If the information is usually distributed ( p & gt ; 0.05 ) , parametric trial ( Pearson ) is applicable. On the other manus, the non-parametric trial ( Spearman ) is applicable if the information is non usually distributed ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) .

In similar, to prove the hypotheses by correlativity trial, 5 % significance degree will be determined. Therefore, the stated nothing hypotheses as described in the old subdivisions will be rejected if the p-value is lesser than the 0.05 degree of significance.

Chapter Summary

The survey extends the old research as what has been mentioned in chapter one of this thesis and therefore uses the same beginning for measuring of environmental coverage which utilizing environmental revelation index whereby the mark sheet incorporating 24 revelation points is developed in the points disclosed. Data was collected for one old ages. The justification for choosing one old ages because. The research design adopted is describes in this chapter. This survey employed content analysis to capture informations from the corporate study of Public listed Companies in Bursa Malaysia. To determined the realationship between variables, four hypotheses are tested. The consequences are discoursing based on the repeating relationship between variables, hypotheses development and old research workers. The analysis and consequences from the analysis that includes both the descriptive and illative analyses are gathered by executing statisticsal analysis on the information collected.


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