This chapter explains about the facts, theories and theoretical accounts of motive. Theories of motive e.g. Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, Pr. McGregor ‘s Theory X and Y, McClelland ‘s theory of demands, etc are discussed in deepness to increase the apprehension of the country under research. The debut and importance of motive, occupation satisfaction and sentiments of assorted writers are elucidated by reexamining assorted academic books, magazines, diaries and articles. The information presented below serves as foundation to the analysis of this research.
this new epoch, every administration treats its work force as an of import beginning of its competitory advantage. Employees are no more seen as merely loyal members of the company but they like to be treated with regard and they want their companies to give them chances to turn out themselves. Hence, Lawler ( 2003 ) says that it has become necessity for any company to handle people in a right manner in order to success and survive in the concern universe. An administration can increase productiveness and better public presentation merely when it invests in employees ( Gitman and McDaniel, 2008 ) .
For this ground, the company should be able to pull, retain and develop talented employees ( Pittorino et al. , 2005 ) . Understanding the factors that motivate employees and maximise productiveness has become a important occupation to be performed by directors.
Motivation is one of the extremely complex but misunderstood construct. Mills and Forshaw ( 2006 ) supported this statement as though there are an copiousness of motivational theories ; the administrations are unable to use the best theory of motive due to human existences complexness and assorted factors act uponing their behaviors. However, the chief concern of the survey of motive is with why people behave as they do ( Mullins, 2007 ) .
Motivation is the thrust to make something ( Tileston, 2004 ) ; it can be defined as the way and strength of one ‘s attempt to fulfill his/her demands ( Weinberg, et Al, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to Jones and George, ( 2004 ) , motive is considered as the psychological force that shows a individual ‘s degree of attempt applied in order to prevail with obstructions and achieve his/her mark and the manner he/she behaves in an administration. Furthermore, Latham 2007 ) describes motive as a procedure of cognitive resource allotment where a individual allocates his/her attempts as per importance of motivations or undertakings. To back up this statement, Robins ( 2005 ) says that persons have assorted degree of motive changing times and state of affairss.
Need and outlook at work
No persons are same and they perceive the same thing in different ways. Persons have different demands and outlook which they strive to carry through in different ways. If these demands and outlooks are non fulfilled, it will do them dissatisfied and the effects are turnover, absenteeism, etc. so actuating employees has been a tough undertaking for directors provided that employees react in different ways in the occupations assigned ( Beardwell and Claydon, 2007 ) . Since directors are entirely responsible for actuating employees, they should be capable of giving employees grounds to believe in themselves every bit good as administration where they are working ( Baldoni, 2005 ) . Employees become disgruntled and less motivated when directors fail to do employees cognize their drive forces. Harmonizing to redbreasts ( 2003 ) , there are three relationships where employees are less motivated when their demands and outlooks are non fulfilled. First relationship explains about the attempt and public presentation of employees. Directors should do their employees believe that maximal attempt exerted leads to the acknowledgment in public presentation assessments. This is non ever correct as in some instances, employees do non believe that their attempt will ensue in acknowledgment and they are less motivated to execute.
The 2nd relationship is about the employees ‘ public presentation and organizational wages. The employees are made believe that they will be rewarded for their outstanding public presentation or public presentation assessment. But there will be deficiency of motive because employees know that they will non be rewarded by the administration merely for the public presentation.
The last 1 is the relationship between wages received and reward expected. They are motivated merely when they get what they desire for. If opposite happens, they become disgruntled with the occupation. So It is directors who should cognize if the wages given lucifers with the one employees expect for.
Hence, directors should maintain these relationships as indispensable factors for employees to maintain motivated and long permanent keeping. Strengthening these relationships, the directors can actuate their employees and hike productiveness. Sutherland and Canwell ( 2004 ) says it is the primary duty of directors to keep motive by making such a work environment where employees will demo positive attitude and go committed and loyal and where they believe that they are valued and the administration gives important involvement in them.
Beginnings of motive
Motivation is the driving force that comes within an single to fulfill his/her unsated demands. Needs and outlooks are drivers that motivate an person to accomplish those demands. These incentives are frequently considered in footings of being internal or external. Harmonizing to Mac and Sockel ( 2001 ) , the internal incentives are related with intrinsic demands that satisfies an person while external incentives are environmental factors brought up to single by administration.
General theories on motive
The chief concern of all theories of motive is the apprehension of human behavior. Drafke and kossen ( 2002:273 ) explains that “ these theories provide the footing for both directors and employees to understand how to actuate others ; how others are seeking to actuate and how that individual can prosecute more in his/her ain motive attempt and others ‘ attempts in seeking to actuate him/her. ”
Though many psychologists studied motive and satisfaction for many decennaries, the advancement was really slow. The grounds behind this was
The construct of motive was dev
Herzberg two factor theory
Herzberg put forward the position that productiveness of an employee is based non merely the occupation satisfaction but besides on work motive Pattanayak ( 200 ) . Robbins ( 2003 ) elucidates that harmonizing to Herzberg, an person ‘s relation and attitude towards work can find success or failure. Peoples have two sets of demands that are related to occupation satisfaction and others to occupation dissatisfaction ( Nelson and Quick,200 ) . Elementss of the occupation that led to occupation satisfaction are labelled as incentives and elements to dissatisfaction are labelled as hygiene factors. Intrinsic factors or incentives such as accomplishment, acknowledgment, promotion, the work itself and duty are related to occupation satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction is the consequence of extrinsic factors or hygiene factors such as working conditions, occupation security, supervising, wage and administration policies. Di Cesare and Sadri ( 2003 ) province that Herzberg is interested in the extremes where employees either experience good or bad about the work, this leads to development of incentives and hygiene factors. Herzberg states that the antonym of occupation satisfaction is non occupation dissatisfaction and hence, occupation dissatisfaction is non the antonym of occupation satisfaction.
Herzberg ( 2003 ) suggests nine factors that motivate employees and they are cut downing clip spent at work, fringe benefit, sensitiveness preparation, gyrating rewards, bipartisan communicating, occupation engagement, human relation preparation, communicating and employee guidance. He besides compared motive with that of internal self-charging battery suggesting that the energy or the positiveness should come from within the employees to go motivated ( Bassett-Jones and Lloyd, 2005 ) . Herzberg argues that an employee is motivated to fulfill it growing needs ; it is founded upon satisfaction innate of a sense of accomplishment, acknowledgment, duty and personal growing. He farther says that acknowledgment is transformed into feedback, duty to self-regulation, authorization to pass on, exert control over resource and answerability and in conclusion, growing and promotion are transformed into the new expertness. Though hygiene theory is one of the popular theories of motive, the findings done from past empirical surveies show that wage, acknowledgment and duty are classified as both a incentive and hygiene factors.
Vroom ‘s Expectation theory
The anticipation theory, aimed at work motive, is founded on the thought that an person ‘s motive is based on his/her desire for an result and the chance that his/her attempt will take to needed public presentation. Robbins ( 2003 ) defines outlook theory as, “ the strength of a inclination to move in a certain manner depends on the strength of an outlook that the act will be followed by a given outvome and on the attraction of that result to the person ” ( Robbins, 2003:173 ) . Vroom ‘s anticipation theory focal points on three relationships:
Effort public presentation result
Effort-performance relationships: the chance remarked by an person that using an excess attempt will take to public presentation.
Performance-reward relationship: the grade to which the person believes that excess attempt exerted public presentation will take to the achievement of coveted result.
Reward-personal end relationship: the grade to which person ‘s ends are satisfied by organisational wagess and the grade to which person is personally attracted to the wagess.
McClelland ‘s theory of demands
( Richard L. Daft, Patricia G. Lane, 200 ) proposed that there are certain types of demands that are acquired during an individua ‘s life-time. These demands are learned and socially acquired through interaction with the environment ( Patrick J. Montana, Bruce H. Charnov,200 ) , theory focal points on three demands:
Need for accomplishment: it drives to stand out, to accomplish in relation to a set of criterions, to endeavor to win. Persons with this thrust desire to make something more expeditiously get the better ofing challenges to accomplish the aims.
Need of power: it is the demand to do others act in a manner that they would non hold behaved otherwise. Persons with this demand are placed in competitory state of affairss to be concerned with deriving influence over single, group or organisation.
Need for association: it is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship. Persons with this desire tend to hold a strong desire to be liked or accepted by others and therefore maintain harmonious relationship with others.
Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y
In this theory, Douglas McGregor assumes that the directors handle their employees based on their behaviors and nature. These premises are categorised as Theory X and Theory Y. theory X states that workers are lazy, incapable of taking duty, dislike work and necessitate a changeless supervising while theory Y assumes that people love work, complete undertaking with less supervising and have duty ( Dzimbiri,2009 ) .
Goal puting theory
The end puting theory proposed by Locke provinces that a individual is likely to give a higher public presentation if the ends are specific and hard. Besides these, there are besides other factors along with feedbacks such as end committedness, undertaking complexness and national civilization that influence the goal-performance relationship. Meyer, et Al. ( 2004 ) elucidates that motive comes from the ends an single sets up based oh his/her demands, personal values and perceptual experience that shaped via experience at work. The
Wayss of actuating employee to guarantee better public presentation
The employees ‘ experiences at work show their feeling towards their occupations either positively or negatively. Employee motive is taken into history by every administration as one of the major challenging undertakings. Motivation can be classified as positive or negative. The directors should promote positive motive to heighten public presentation. On the contrary, when the public presentation is demotivating, the attack adopted would be determined by prevailing state of affairs.
Communication is ever an effectual manner to better motive and enhance productiveness. There should be bipartisan communicating between directors and staff that generate feedbacks on the public presentation.
Job engagement strategy
Engagement strategy enables staff to go a member of determination devising squad and show their positions on organizational determinations. This leads staff to be responsible to increase their efficiency and productiveness at work.
If an organisation can retain the employees by supplying them with the periphery benefit. This prevents turnover if efficaciously usage and increase the productiveness.