The Federalist No.’s 10 and 51
The Federalist, No. 10, by James Madison is a clear expression of views and policies for a new government. Madison was a strong supporter and member of the Federalists whose main beliefs favored the Constitution. They also believed that the Articles of Confederation needed to be rewritten so that a new central government would control the power of the states.
Madison differentiates between a Democracy and a Republic and later on decides on a Republic as his choice of government. A Republic is a type of government run by representatives who are elected by its citizens. Madison states that ?however small the Republic may be, the Representatives must be raised to a certain number in order to guard against the cabals of a few; and that however large it may be, they must be limited to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitude.? This means that the Republic should have a certain number of representatives large enough to overpower any outsiders, but not too many where-as nothing could be accomplished due to disagreement.
Madison speaks of the problems of the present attempts at a new government saying ?our governments are too unstable, that the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties, and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice, and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and over-bearing majority?.
The crucial issue of Madison’s time was the right of the people. The people should be involved in their government, and know about how their government can work with them.
Madison’s, The Federalist, No. 51 discusses separation of powers in the government and more of the Republican system of government. Madison says outright that ?we see it particularly displayed in all the subordinate distributions of power, where the constant aim is to decide and arrange the several officers in such manner as that each may be a check on the other.?
Madison states several things in his papers that will be used in the United States Constitution. He says: ?authority will be derived from and dependent on the society, because society is broken into so many parts, interests and classes of citizens??, ?government must protect the weak as well as themselves.?. ?Principles of justice? and the ?general good? of the people are also mentioned.
The Federalist was written to squash the fears of the people that a central government would impede on the people’s liberties. The Federalist, numbers 10 and 51, as summarized in These United States, says: ?A large and diverse republic, not a small homogeneous one, offered the best hope for safeguarding the rights of all citizens. This was because a large republic would include a multitude of contending interest groups, making it difficult for any combination of them to coalesce into a tyrannical majority that could oppress minority rights. With this argument Madison had developed a political rationale by which Americans could have both an empire and personal freedom.? (104)
James Madison’s The Federalist was written to explain to the people the new United States Constitution and to help convince the states to ratify it. Because of his papers, Madison’s strong ideas and feelings were used to create the great governing document, the United States Constitution.