The field and subfields of psychology are broad in Essay

scope and colossal in
size. Four major areas of psychology are social psychology, counseling
psychology, biological psychology/neuroscience, and cognitive psychology.

Social psychology is the study of thoughts, behaviors, and feelings in the
presence or imagined presence of others. Steinberg states that, “major
causes of morbidity and mortality among American teenagers are self-
inflicted behaviors.” He indicates “that it’s not hard to change people’s
attitudes and knowledge but it’s really hard to change their behavior” {,

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Counseling psychology covers the area of personal and interpersonal
functioning. Trainees and trainers in counseling psychology programs are
expected to be committed to the social values of respect for diversity,
inclusion, and equity {Bieschke, 2009 #120}.

Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that analyzes how the brain and
neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings – the
state of the body is central to guiding motivational behaviors {Berridge,
2010 #1157}. This field can be thought of as a combination of basic
psychology and neuroscience {Cherry, 2012 #1207}.

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental
processes, including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn
{Cherry, 2012 #1207}. The consciousness of the human mind {The Open
University, 2010 #1159} has long been a topic of fascination and curiosity
amongst writers, artists, and psychologists. Ultimately, the model for
cognitive therapy proposes that dysfunctional thinking (which influences
the patient’s mood and behavior) is common to all psychological
disturbances and that while therapy must be tailored to the individual,
there are, nevertheless, certain principles that underlie cognitive
behavior therapy for all patients {Beck, 2011 #1467}.


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