The Globalization of Markets Essay

The globalization of markets Theodore Levitt The worldwide success of a growing list of products that have become household names is evidence that consumers the world over, despite deep-rooted cultural differences, are becoming more and more alike – or, as the author puts it, “homogenized. ” In consequence, he contends, the traditional MNC’s strategy of tailoring its products to the needs of multiple markets may put it at a severe disadvantage vis-a-vis competitors who apply marketing imagination to the task of developing advanced, functional, reliable standardized products, at the right price, on a global scale.

A powerful force drives the world toward a converging commonality, and that force is technology. It has proletarianized communication, transport and travel. It has made isolated places and impoverished peoples eager for modernity’s allurements. Almost everyone everywhere wants all the things they have heard about, seen, or experienced via the new technologies. The result is a new commercial reality – the emergence of global markets for standardized consumer products on a previously unimagined scale.

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Corporations geared to this new reality benefit from enormous economies of scale in production, distribution, marketing and management. By translating these benefits into reduced world prices, they can decimate competitors that still live in the disabling grip of old assumptions about how the world works. Gone are accustomed differences in national or regional preference. Gone are the days when a company could sell last year’s models – or lesser versions of advanced products — in the less developed world. And gone are the days when prices, margins and profits abroad were generally higher than at home.

The globalization of markets is at hand. With that, the multinational commercial world nears its end, and so does the multinational corporation. THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY The multinational and the global corporation are not the same thing. The multinational corporation operates in a number of countries, and adjusts its products and practices in each – at high relative costs. The global corporation operates with resolute constancy – at low relative cost – as if the entire world (or major regions of it) were a single entity; it sells the same things in the same way everywhere. Global vs. ultinational Which strategy is better is not a matter of opinion but of necessity. Worldwide communications carry everywhere the constant drumbeat of modern possibilities to lighten and enhance work, raise living standards, divert and entertain. The same countries that ask the world to recognize and respect the individuality of their cultures insist on the wholesale transfer to them of modern goods, services and technologies. Modernity is not just a wish but also a widespread practice among those who cling, with unyielding passion or religious fervor, to ancient attitudes and heritages.

H Who can forget the televised scenes during the 1979 Iranian uprisings of young men in fashionable French-cut trousers and silky hody shirts thirsting with raised modern weapons for blood in the name of Islamic fundamentalism? II In Brazil, thousands swarm daily from preindustrial Bahian darkness into exploding coastal cities, there quickly to install television sets in crowded corrugated huts and, next to battered Volkswagens, make sacrificial offerings of fruit and fresh-killed chickens to Macumban spirits by candlelight. During Biafra’s fratricidal war against the Ibos, daily televised reports showed soldiers carrying bloodstained swords and listening to transistor radios while drinking Coca-Cola. ^ In the isolated Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk, with no paved streets and censored news, occasional western travelers are stealthily propositioned for cigarettes, digital watches, and even the clothes off their backs. The organized smuggling of electronic equipment, used automobiles, western clothing, cosmetics and pirated movies into primitive places exceeds even the thriving underground trade in modern weapons and their military mercenaries.

A thousand suggestive ways attest to the ubiquity of the desire for the most advanced things that the world makes and sells – goods of the best quality and SUMMER 1984 reliability at the lowest price. The world’s needs and desires have been irrevocably homogenized. This makes the multinational corporation obsolete and the global corporation absolute. The Republic of Technology Daniel J. Boorstin, author of the monumental trilogy The Americans, characterized our age as driven by “the Republic of Technology [whose] supreme law . . is convergence, the tendency for everything to become more like everything else. ” In business, this trend has pushed markets toward global commonality. Corporations sell standardized products in the same way everywhere autos, steel, chemicals, petroleum, cement, agricultural commodities and equipment, industrial and commercial construction, banking and insurance services, computers, semiconductors, transport, electronic instruments, pharmaceuticals and telecommunications, to mention some of the obvious.

Nor is the sweeping gale of globalization confined to these raw materials or high-tech products, where the universal language of customers and users facilitates standardization. The transforming winds whipped up by the proletarianization of communication and travel enter every crevice of life. Commercially, nothing confirms this as much as the success of McDonald’s from the Champs Elysees to the Ginza, of Coca-Cola in Bahrain and Pepsi-Cola in Moscow, and of rock music, Greek salad, Hollywood movies, Revlon cosmetics, Sony televisions and Levi jeans everywhere. High-touch” products are as ubiquitous as high-tech. Starting from opposing sides, the high-tech and the high-touch ends of the commercial spectrum gradually consume the undistributed middle in their cosmopolitan orbit. No one is exempt and nothing can stop the process. Everywhere everything gets more and more like everything else as the world’s preference structure is relentlessly homogenized. Consider the cases of Coca-Cola and PepsiCola, which are globally standardized products sold everywhere and welcomed by everyone.

Both successfully cross multitudes of national, regional and ethnic taste buds trained to a variety of deeply ingrained local preferences of taste, flavor, consistency, effervescence and aftertaste. Everywhere both sell well. Cigarettes, too, especially American-made, yearly make global inroads on territories previously held in the firm grip of other, mostly local, blends. These are not exceptional examples. (Indeed, their global reach would be even greater were it not for artificial trade barriers. ) They THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY xemplify a general drift toward the homogenization of the world and how companies distribute,financeand price products. ^ Nothing is exempt. The products and methods of the industrialized world play a single tune for all the world, and all the world eagerly dances to it. Ancient differences in national tastes or modes of doing business disappear. The commonality of preference leads inescapably to the standardization of products, manufacturing, and the institutions of trade and commerce. Small nation-based markets transmogrify and expand.

Success in world competition turns on efficiency in production, distribution, marketing and management, and inevitably becomes focused on price. The most effective world competitors incorporate superior quality and reliability into their cost structures. They sell in all national markets the same kind of products sold at home or in their largest export market. They compete on the basis of appropriate value — the best combinations of price, quality, reliability and delivery for products that are globally identical with respect to design, function and even fashion.

That, and little else, explains the surging success of Japanese companies dealing worldwide in a vast variety of products – both tangible products like steel, cars, motorcycles, hi-fi equipment, farm machinery, robots, microprocessors, carbon fibers, and now even textiles, and intangibles like banking, shipping, general contracting, and soon computer software. Nor are high-quality and low-cost operations incompatible, as a host of consulting organizations and data engineers argue with vigorous vacuity. The reported data are incomplete, wrongly analyzed and contradictory.

The truth is that low-cost operations are the hallmark of corporate cultures that require and produce quality in all that they do. High quality and low costs are not opposing postures. They are compatible, twin identities of superior practice. ^ To say that Japan’s companies are not global because they export cars with left-hand drive to the United States and the European continent, while those in Japan have right-hand drive, or because they sell office machines through distributors in the United States but directly at home, or speak Portuguese in Brazil is to mistake a ‘ In a landmark article, Robert D.

Buzzell pointed out the rapidity with which barriers to standardization were falling. In all cases they succumbed to more and cheaper advanced ways of doing things. See “Can You Standardize Multinational Marketing? “, Harvard Business Review, November-December 1968, p. 102. ^ There is powerful new evidence for this, even though the opposite has been urged by analysts of PIMS data for nearly a decade. See “Product Quality: Cost Production and Business Performance – A Test of Some Key Hypotheses” by Lynn W.

Phillips, Dae Chang and Robert D. Buzzell, Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 83-13. SUMMER 1984 difference for a distinction. The same is true of Safeway and Southland retail chains operating effectively in the Middle East, and to not only native but also imported populations from Korea, the Philippines, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Britain and the United States. National rules of the road differ, and so do distribution channels and languages. Japan’s distinction is its unrelenting push for economy and value enhancement.

That translates into a drive for standardization at high quality levels. Vindication of the Model T If a company forces costs and prices down and pushes quality and reliability up – while maintaining reasonable concern for suitability – customers will prefer its world-standardized products. The theory holds, at this stage in the evolution of globalization, no matter what conventional market research and even common sense may suggest about different national and regional tastes, preferences, needs and institutions.

The Japanese have repeatedly vindicated this theory, as did Henry Ford with the Model T. Most important, so have their imitators, including companies from South Korea (television sets and heavy construction), Malaysia (personal calculators and microcomputers), Brazil (auto parts and tools), Colombia (apparel), Singapore (optical equipment) and, yes, even from the United States (office copiers, computers, bicycles, castings). Western Europe (automatic washing machines), Rumania (housewares), Hungary (apparel), Yugoslavia (furniture) and Israel (pagination equipment).

Of course, large companies operating in a single nation or even a single city don’t standardize everything they make, sell, or do. They have product lines instead of a single product version, and multiple distribution channels. There are neighborhood, local, regional, ethnic and institutional differences, even within metropolitan areas. But although companies customize products for particular market segments, they know that success in a world with homogenized demand requires a search for sales opportunities in similar segments across the globe in order to achieve the economies of scale necessary to compete.

Such a search works because a market segment in one country is seldom unique; it has close cousins everywhere precisely because technology has homogenized the globe. Even small local segments have their global equivalents everywhere and become subject to global competition, especially on price. The global competitor will seek constantly to standardize his offering everywhere. He will THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY digress from this standardization only after exhausting all possibilities to retain it, and he will push for reinstatement of standardization whenever digression and divergence have occurred.

He will never assume that the customer is a king who knows his own wishes. Trouble increasingly stalks companies that lack clarified global focus and remain inattentive to the economics of simplicity and standardization. The most endangered companies in the rapidly evolving world tend to be those that dominate rather small domestic markets with high value-added products for which there are smaller markets elsewhere. With transportation costs proportionately low, distant competitors will enter the now sheltered markets of those companies with goods produced more cheaply under scaleefficient conditions.

Global competition spells the end of domestic territoriality, no matter how diminutive the territory may be. When the global producer offers his lower costs internationally, his patronage expands exponentially. He not only reaches into distant markets, but also attracts customers who previously held to local preferences and now capitulate to the attractions of lower prices. The strategy of standardization not only responds to worldwide homogenized markets but also expands those markets with aggressive low pricing.

The new technological juggernaut taps an ancient motivation – to make one’s money go as far as possible. This is universal; not simply a motivation but actually a need. The hedgehog knows The difference between the hedgehog and the fox, wrote Sir Isaiah Berlin in distinguishing between Dostoevski and Tolstoy, is that the fox knows a lot about a great many things, but the hedgehog knows everything about one great thing. The multinational corporation knows a lot about a great many countries and congenially adapts to supposed differences.

It willingly accepts vestigial national differences, not questioning the possibility of their transformation, not recognizing how the world is ready and eager for the benefit of modernity, especially when the price is right. The multinational corporation’s accommodating mode to visible national differences is medieval. By contrast, the global corporation knows everything about one great thing. It knows about the absolute need to be competitive on a worldwide basis as well as nationally and seeks constantly to drive down prices by standardizing what it sells and how it operates.

It SUMMER 1984 treats the world as composed of a few standardized markets rather than many customized markets. It actively seeks and vigorously works toward global convergence. Its mission is modernity and its mode, price competition, even when it sells top-of-the-line, high-end products. It knows about the one great thing all nations and people have in common: scarcity. Nobody takes scarcity lying down; everyone wants more. This in part explains division of labor and specialization of production. They enable people and nations to optimize their conditions through trade.

The medium is usually money. Experience teaches that money has three special qualities: scarcity, difficulty of acquisition and transience. People understandably treat it with respect. Everyone in the increasingly homogenized world market wants products and features that everybody else wants. If the price is low enough, they will take highly standardized world products, even if these aren’t exactly what mother said was suitable, what immemorial custom decreed was right, or what market research fabulists asserted was preferred.

The implacable truth of all modern production -whether of tangible or intangible goods – is that large-scale production of standardized items is generally cheaper within a wide range of volume than small-scale production. Some argue that CAD/CAM will allow companies to manufacture customized products on a small scale – but cheaply. But the argument misses the point. (For a more detailed discussion, see the ruled insert, “Economies of scope. “) If a company treats the world as one or two distinctive product markets, it can serve the world more economically than if it treats it as three, four, orfiveproduct markets.

Remaining differences Different cultural preferences, national tastes and standards, and business institutions are vestiges of the past. Some inheritances die gradually; others prosper and expand into mainstream global preferences. So-called ethnic markets are a good example. Chinese food, pita bread, country and western music, pizza and jazz are everywhere. They are market segments that exist in worldwide proportions. They don’t deny or contradict global homogenization but confirm it. Many of today’s differences among nations as o products and their features actually reflect the respectful accommodation of multinational corporations to what they believe are fixed local preferences. THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY Economies of scope One argument that opposes globalization says that flexible factory automation will enable plants of massive size to change products and product features quickly, without stopping the manufacturing process. These factories of the future could thus produce broad lines of customized products without sacrificing the scale economies that come from long production runs of standardized items.

Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), combined with robotics, will create a new equipment and process technology (EPT) that will make small plants located close to their markets as efficient as large ones located distantly. Economies of scale will not dominate, but rather economies of scope – the ability of either large or small plants to produce great varieties of relatively customized products at remarkably low costs. If that happens customers will have no need to abandon special preferences. I will not deny the power of these possibilities.

But possibilities do not make probabilities. There is no conceivable way in wbich fiexible factory automation can achieve the scale economies of a modernized plant dedicated to mass production of standardized lines. The new digitalized EPTs are available to all. Manufacturers with minimal customization and narrow product-line breadth will have costs far below those with more customization and wider lines. They believe preferences arefixed,not because they are but because of rigid habits of thinking about what actually is. Most executives in multinational corporations are thoughtlessly accommodating.

They falsely presume that marketing means giving the customer what he says he wants rather than trying to understand exactly what he’d like. So they persist with high-cost, customized multinational products and practices instead of pressing hard and pressing properly for global standardization. I do not advocate the systematic disregard of local or national differences. But a company’s sensitivity to such differences does not require that it ignore the possibilities of doing things differently or better. There are, for example, enormous differences among Middle Eastern countries. Some are socialist, some monarchies, some republics.

Some take their legal heritage from the Napoleonic Code, some from the Ottoman Empire, and some from the British common law; SUMMER 1984 except for Israel, all are influenced by Islam. Doing business means personalizing the business relationship in an obsessively intimate fashion. During the month of Ramadan, business discussions can start only after 10 o’clock at night, when people are tired and full of food after a day of fasting. A company must almost certainly have a local partner; a local lawyer is required (as, say, in New York), and irrevocable letters of credit are essential.

Yet, as Coca-Cola’s Senior Vice President Sam Ayoub noted: “Arabs are much more capable of making distinctions between cultural and religious purposes on the one hand and economic realities on the other than is generally assumed. Islam is compatible with science and modern times. ” Barriers to globalization are not conflned to the Middle East. The free transfer of technology and data across the boundaries of the European Common Market countries is hampered by legal and financial impediments. And there is resistance to radio and television interference (“pollution”) among neighboring European countries.

But the past is a good guide to the future. With persistence and appropriate means, barriers against superior technologies and economics have always fallen. There is no recorded exception where reasonable effort has been made to overcome them. It is very much a matter of time and effort. A failure in global imagination Many companies have tried to standardize world practice by exporting domestic products and processes without accommodation or change – and have failed miserably. Their deficiencies have been seized on as evidence of bovine stupidity in the face of the impossible.

Advocates of global standardization see them as examples of failures in execution. In fact, poor execution is often an important cause. More important, however, is failure of nerve – failure of imagination. Consider the case for the introduction of fully automatic home laundry equipment in Western Europe at a time when few homes even had semiautomatic machines. Hoover Ltd, whose parent company was headquartered in North Canton, Ohio, had a prominent presence in Britain as a producer of vacuum cleaners and washing machines.

Due to insufficient demand in the home market and low exports to Europe, its large UK washing machine plant operated far below capacity. It needed to sell more semiautomatics or automatics. Because it had a “proper” marketing orientation. Hoover conducted consumer preference studies in Britain and each major continental THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY Exhibit Consumer preferences as to automatic washing machine features in the 1960s Features Shell dimensions* Drum material Loading Front porthole Capacity Spin speed Water-heating system Washing action Styling features

Great Britain 34″ and narrow Enamel Top Yes/no 5 kilos 700 rpm No** Agitator Inconspicuous appearance Kaly Low and narrow Enamel Front Yes 4 kilos 400 rpm Yes Tumble Brightly colored W. Germany 34″ and wide Stainless steel Front Yes 6 kilos 850 rpm Yes*** Tumble Indstructible appearance France 34″ and narrow Enamel Front Yes 5 kilos 600 rpm Yes Agitator Elegant appearance Sweden 34″ and wide Stainless steel Front Yes 6 kilos 800 rpm No*» Tumble Strong appearance * ** 34″ height was (in the process of being adopted as) a standard work-surface height in Europe.

Most British and Swedish homes had centrally heated hot water. * * * West Germany preferred to launder at temperatures higher than generally provided centrally. country. The results – portrayed in the Exhibit – showed feature preferences clearly enough among several countries. The incremental unit variable costs of customizing to meet just a few of the national preferences were: stainless steel vs. enamel drum, $2. 80; front porthole window loading, $1. 40; 800 rpm spin speed, $2. 10; water heater, $7. 0; 6 kilo capacity, $4. 20 – a total of $18. 20 per machine. Considerable plant investment was needed to meet other preferences. The lowest retail prices of leading locally produced brands in the various countries were: Sweden $375, France $319, West Germany $316, Britain $308 and Italy $159. Product customization in each country would have put Hoover in a poor competitive position on the basis of price, mostly due to the higher manufacturing costs incurred by short production runs for separate features.

Because Common Market tariff reduction programs were then incomplete. Hoover also paid tariff duties in each continental country. Creative analysis In the Hoover case, an imaginative analysis of automatic washing machine sales in each country would have revealed that: SUMMER 1984 11 H Italian automatics, small in capacity and size, low-powered, without built-in heaters, with porcelain enamel tubs, were priced aggressively low and were gaining large market shares in all countries, including West Germany. The best-selling automatics in West Germany were heavily advertised (three times more than the next most promoted brand), were ideally suited to national tastes, and were also by far the highest-priced machines available in that country. T Italy, with the lowest penetration of washing machines of any l kind (manual, semiautomatic, or automatic) was rapidly going directly to automatics, skipping the pattern of first buying handwringer, manually assisted machines and then semiautomatics. H Detergent manufacturers were just beginning to promote the technique of cold-water and tepid-water laundering then used in the United States.

The growing success of small, low-powered, low-speed, lowcapacity, low-priced Italian machines, even against the preferred but highly priced and highly promoted brand in West Germany, was significant. It contained a powerful message that was lost on managers confidently wedded to a distorted version of the marketing concept according to which you give the customer what he says he wants. In fact the customers said they wanted certain features, but their behavior demonstrated they’d take other features, provided the price and the promotion were right.

In this case it was obvious that, under prevailing conditions, people preferred a low-priced automatic over any kind of manual or semiautomatic machine and certainly over high-priced automatics, even though the low-priced automatics failed to fufill all their expressed preferences. The supposedly meticulous and demanding German consumers violated all expectations by buying the simple, lowpriced Italian machines. It was equally clear that people were profoundly influenced by promotions o^ automatic washers; in West Germany, the most f heavily promoted ideal machine also had the largest market share despite its high price.

Two things clearly influenced customers to buy: low price regardless of feature preferences and heavy promotion regardless of price. Both factors helped homemakers get what they most wanted – the superior beneflts bestowed by fully automatic machines. 12 THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY Hoover should have aggressively sold a simple, standardized highquality machine at a low price (afforded by the 17 percent variable cost reduction that the elimination of $18. 20 worth of extra features made possible). The suggested retail price could have been somewhat less than $280.

The extra funds “saved” by avoiding unnecessary plant modiflcations would have supported an extended service network and aggressive media promotions. Hoover’s media message should have been: this is the machine that you, the homemaker, deserve to have to reduce the repetitive heavy daily household burdens, so that you may have more constructive time to spend with your children and your husband. The promotion should also have targeted the husband to give him, preferably in the presence of his wife, a sense of obligation to provide an automatic washer for her even before he bought an automobile for himself.

An aggressively low price, combined with heavy promotion of this kind, would have overcome previously expressed preferences for particular features. Accepting the inevitable The Hoover case illustrates how the perverse practice of the marketing concept and the absence of any kind of marketing imagination let multinational attitudes survive when customers actually want the beneflts of global standardization. The whole project got off on the wrong foot. It asked people what features they wanted in a washing machine rather than what they wanted out of life.

Selling a line of products individually tailored to each nation is thoughtless. Managers who took pride in practising the marketing concept to the fullest did not, in fact, practise it at all. Hoover asked the wrong questions, then applied neither thought nor imagination to the answers. Such companies are like the geocentricists in the Middle Ages who saw with everyday clarity the sun revolving around the earth and offered it as Truth. With no additional data but a more searching mind, Copernicus, like the hedgehog, interpreted a more compelling and accurate reality.

Data do not yield information except with the intervention of the mind. Information does not yield meaning except with the intervention of imagination. The global corporation accepts for better or worse that technology drives consumers relentlessly toward the same common goals — alleviation of life’s burdens and the expansion of discretionary time and spending power. Its role is profoundly different from what it has been for the ordinary corporation during its brief, turbulent and remarkably protean history.

It orchestrates the twin vectors of SUMMER 1984 13 technology and globalization for the world’s beneflt. Neither fate, nor nature, nor God but rather the necessity of commerce created this role. In the United States two industries became global long before they were consciously aware of it. After over a generation of persistent and acrimonious labor shutdowns, the United Steel workers of America have not called an industrywide strike since 1959; the United Auto Workers have not shut down General Motors since 1970.

Both unions realize that they have become global – shutting down all or most of US manufacturing would not shut out US customers. Overseas suppliers are there to supply the market. Cracking the code of Western markets Since the theory of the marketing concept emerged a quarter of a century ago, the more managerially advanced corporations have been eager to offer what customers clearly wanted rather than what was merely convenient. They have created marketing departments, supported by professional market researchers, of awesome and often costly proportions.

And they have proliferated extraordinary numbers of operations and product lines – highly tailored products and delivery systems for many different markets, market segments and nations. Significantly, Japanese companies operate almost entirely without marketing departments or market research of the kind so prevalent in the West. Yet, in the colorful words of General Electric’s chairman John F. Welch, Jr. , the Japanese, coming from a small cluster of resource-poor islands, with an entirely alien culture and an almost impenetrably complex language, have cracked the code of Western markets.

They have done it not by looking with mechanistic thoroughness at the way markets are different but rather by searching for meaning with a deeper wisdom. They have discovered the one great thing all markets have in common – an overwhelming desire for dependable, world-standard modernity in all things, at aggressively low prices. In response, they deliver irresistible value everywhere, attracting people with products that market research technocrats described with superficial certainty as being unsuitable and uncompetitive.

Challenging tradition The wider a company’s global reach, the greater the number of regional and national preferences it will encounter for certain prod14 THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY uct features, distribution systems, or promotional media. There will always need to be some accommodation to differences. But the widely prevailing and often unthinking belief in the immutability of these differences is generally mistaken. Evidence of business failure because of lack of accommodation is often evidence of other shortcomings.

Take the case of Revlon in Japan. The company unnecessarily alienated retailers and confused customers by selling worldstandardized cosmetics only in elite outlets; then it tried to recover with low-priced world-standardized products in broader distribution, followed by a change in the company president and cutbacks in distribution as costs rose faster than sales. The problem was not that Revlon didn’t understand the Japanese market; it didn’t do the job right, wavered in its programs, and was impatient to boot.

By contrast, the Outboard Marine Corporation, with imagination, push and persistence, collapsed long-established three-tiered distribution channels in Europe into a more focused and controllable two-step system – and did so despite the vociferous warnings of local trade groups. It also reduced the number and types of retail outlets. The result was greater improvement in credit and productinstallation service to customers, major cost reductions and sales advances. In its highly successful introduction of Contac 600 (the imedrelease decongestant) into Japan, SmithKline Corporation used 35 wholesalers instead of the 1,000-plus that established practice required. Daily contacts with the wholesalers and key retailers, also in violation of established practice, supplemented the plan, and it worked. Denied access to established distribution institutions in the United States, Komatsu, the Japanese manufacturer of lightweight farm machinery, entered the market through over-the-road construction equipment dealers in rural areas of the Sunbelt, where farms are smaller, the soil sandier and easier to work.

Here inexperienced distributors were able to attract customers on the basis of Komatsu’s product and price appropriateness. Organizing to win In the cases of successful challenge to prevailing institutions and practices, a combination of product reliability and quality, strong and sustained support systems, aggressively low prices, and salesSUMMER1984 15 compensation packages, as well as audacity and implacability, circumvented, shattered and transformed very different distribution systems. Instead of resentment, there was admiration.

Still, some differences between nations are unyielding, even in a world of microprocessors. In the United States almost all manufacturers of microprocessors check them for reliability through a socalled parallel system of testing. Japan prefers the totally different sequential testing system. So Teradyne Corporation, the world’s largest producer of microprocessor test equipment, makes one line for the United States and one for Japan. That’s easy. What’s not so easy for Teradyne is to know how best to organize and manage, in this instance, its marketing effort.

Companies can organize by product, region, function, or by using some combination of these. A company can have separate marketing organizations for Japan and for the United States, or it can have separate product groups, one working largely in Japan and the other in the United States. A single manufacturing facility or marketing operation might service both markets, or a company might use separate marketing operations for each. Questions arise if the company organizes by product.

In the case of Teradyne, should the group handling the parallel system, whose major market is the United States, sell in Japan and compete with the group focused on the Japanese market? If the company organizes regionally, how do regional groups divide their efforts between promoting the parallel versus the sequential system? If the company organizes in terms of function, how does it get commitment in marketing, for example, for one line instead of the other? There is no one reliably right answer – no one formula by which to get it. There isn’t even a satisfactory contingent answer. What works well for one company or one place may fail for another in precisely the same place, depending on the capabilities, histories, reputations, resources and even the cultures of both. The earth is flat The differences that persist throughout the world despite its globalization affirm an ancient dictum of economics – that things are driven by what happens at the margin, not at the core. Thus, in ^ For a discussion of multinational reorganization, see Christopher A. Bartlett, “MNCs: Get Off the Reorganization Merry-Go-Round,” Harvard Business Review, March-April 1983, p. 38. 16 THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY The shortening of Japanese horizons One of the most powerful yet least celebrated forces driving commerce toward global standardization is the monetary system, along with the Today money is simply electronic impulses. With the speed of light it moves effortlessly between distant centers (and even lesser places). A change of 10 basis points in tbe price of a bond causes an instant and massive shift of money from London to Tokyo. Tbe system has profound impact on the way companies operate throughout the world.

Take Japan, wbere high debt-to-equity balance sheets are “guaranteed” by various societal presumptions about the virtue of “a long view,” or by government policy in other ways. Even here, upward shifts in interest rates in other parts of tbe world attract capital out of the country in powerful proportions. In recent years more and more Japanese global corporations have gone to the world’s equity markets for funds. Debt is too remunerative in high-yielding countries to keep capital at home to feed the Japanese need.

As interest rates rise, equity becomes a more attractive option for the issuer. Tbe long-term impact on Japanese enterprise will be transforming. As the equity proportion of Japanese corporate capitalization rises, companies will respond to the shorter-term investment horizons of the equity markets. Thus the much-vaunted Japanese corporate practice of taking the long view will gradually disappear. ordinary competitive analysis, what’s important is not the average price but the marginal price; what happens not in the usual case but at the interface of newly erupting conditions.

What counts in commercial affairs is what happens at the cutting edge. What is most striking today are the underlying similarities of what is happening now to national preferences at the margin. These similarities at the cutting edge cumulatively form an overwhelming, predominant commonality everywhere. To refer to the persistence of economic nationalism (protective and subsidized trade practices, special tax aids, or restrictions for home market producers) as a barrier to the globalization of markets is to make a valid point.

Economic nationalism does have a powerful persistence. But, as with the present, almost totally smooth internationalization of investment capital, the past alone does not shape or predict the future. (For reflections on the internationalization of capital, see the ruled insert, “The shortening of Japanese horizons. “) SUMMER 1984 17 Reality is not aflxedparadigm, dominated by immemorial customs and derived attitudes, heedless of powerful and abundant new forces. The world is becoming increasingly informed about the liberating and enhancing possibilities of modernity.

The persistence of the inherited varieties of national preferences rests uneasily on increasing evidence of, and restlessness regarding, their inefficiency, costliness and confinement. The historic past, and the national differences with respect to commerce and industry that it has spawned and fostered everywhere, is now subject to relatively easy transformation. Cosmopolitanism is no longer the monopoly of the intellectual and leisure classes; it is becoming the established property and deflning characteristic of all sectors everywhere in the world.

Gradually and irresistibly it is breaking down the walls of economic insularity, nationalism and chauvinism. What we see today as escalating commercial nationalism is simply the last violent death rattle of an obsolete institution. Companies that adapt to and capitalize on economic convergence can still make distinctions and adjustments in different markets. Persistent differences in the world are consistent with fundamental underlying commonalities; they often complement rather than oppose each other – in business as they do in physics.

There is, in physics, simultaneously matter and antimatter working in symbiotic harmony. The earth is round, but for most purposes it’s sensible to treat it asflat. Space is curved, but not much for everyday life here on earth. Business realities Divergence from established practice happens all the time. But the multinational mind, warped into circumspection and timidity by years of stumbles and transnational troubles, now rarely challenges existing overseas practices. More often it considers any departure from inherited domestic routines as mindless, disrespectful, or impossible.

It is the mind of a bygone day. The successful global corporation does not abjure customization or differentiation for the requirements of markets that differ in product preferences, spending patterns, shopping preferences, and institutional or legal arrangements. But the global corporation accepts and adjusts to these differences only reluctantly, only after relentlessly testing their immutability, after trying in various ways to circumvent and reshape them as we saw in the cases of Outboard Marine in Europe, SmithKline in Japan and Komatsu in the United States. 18 THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY Caveat lector?

Ted Levitt is disarmingly unrepentant. Having thrown tbe worlds of marketing and advertising into turmoil with his latest blockbuster article, “The globalization of markets,” he admits that it contains a good deal of exaggeration: f That the world’s needs and desires have been irrevocably homogenized (they actually haven’t); T That “everything gets more and more like everything else” (it actually l doesn’t); If That national and multinational companies that do not “go global” have little chance of survival (they may actually have a greater chance, though they will have to be nimble-footed).

Levitt, who for almost a quarter of a century has combined his professorship at the Harvard Business School with a more glamorous role as America’s leading marketing sage, also concedes that the article failed to make a quite basic distinction between products and hrands; that, just because the same product is sold in different countries its branding, positioning, promotion and selling need not be identical. They may be, as Levitt advocates, but the decision is not automatic. All I’m really trying to do is stress the need for companies to examine the similarities between consumer preferences, as well as the differences which still persist,” Levitt explains. “Ofcourse I’m exaggerating. ” If you’re trying to change human behavior, you don’t present people with convoluted or judiciously balanced arguments, he maintains. “When it comes to implementing the ideas in my article, I assume that the reader is someone of commonsense and prudence ” -From an article Tii& Financial Times of July 19,1984 by Christopher Lorenz, theFT’s Management Editor

There is only one signiflcant respect in which a company’s activities around the world are important, and this is in what it produces and how it sells. Everything else derives from, and is subsidiary to, these activities. The purpose of business is to get and keep a customer. Or, to use Peter Drucker’s more reflned construction, to create and keep a customer. A company must be wedded to the ideal of innovation offering better or more preferred products in such combinations of ways, means, places, and at such prices that prospects pre/er doing business with the company rather than with others.

SUMMER 1984 19 Preferences are constantly shaped and reshaped. Within our global commonality enormous variety constantly asserts itself and thrives, as can be seen within the world’s largest single domestic market, the United States. But in the process of world homogenization, modern markets expand to reach cost-reducing global proportions. With better and cheaper communication and transport, even small local market segments hitherto protected from distant competitors now feel the pressure of their presence.

Nobody is safe from global reach and the irresistible economies of scale. Two vectors shape the world – technology and globalization. The flrst helps determine human preferences; the second, economic realities. Regardless of how much preferences evolve and diverge, they also gradually converge and form markets where economies of scale lead to reduction of costs and prices. The modern global corporation contrasts powerfully with the aging multinational corporation.

Instead of adapting to superflcial and even entrenched differences within and between nations, it will seek sensibly to force suitably standardized products and practices on the entire globe. They are exactly what the world will take, if they also come with low prices, high quality and blessed reliability. The global company will operate, in this regard, precisely as Henry Kissinger wrote in Years of Upheaval about the continuing Japanese economic success – “voracious in its collection of information, impervious to pressure, and implacable in execution. Given what is everywhere the purpose of commerce, the global company will shape the vectors of technology and globalization into its great strategic fecundity. It will systematically push these vectors toward their own convergence, offering everyone simultaneously high-quality, more or less standardized products at optimally low prices, thereby achieving for itself vastly expanded markets and proflts. Companies that do not adapt to the new global realities will become victims of those that do.

Theodore Levitt is Edward W. Carter Professor of Business Administration and head of the marketing area at the Harvard Business School. This article is reprinted by special permission from the May-June 1983 issue of the Harvard Business Review. Copyright © 1983 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved. This article is contained in Professor Levitt’s new book. The Marketing Imagination, published by The Free Press and Collier Macmillan. 20 THE McKINSEY QUARTERLY


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