The Gouzenko Affair Sample Essay

-An international organisation
-Aims are easing cooperation in international jurisprudence. international security. economic development. societal advancement. human rights. and accomplishment of universe peace -The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations -Stops wars between states. and to supply a platform for duologue FLQ: ( 1963-1970 )

-Front de liberation du Quebec ( FLQ ; English: Quebec Liberation Front ) -Paramilitary group in Quebec
-Regarded as a terrorist organisation for its violent methods of action -Responsible for over 160 violent incidents which killed eight people and injured many more -Attacks ended in 1970 with the October Crisis

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-British Trade Commissioner James Cross was kidnapped and Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte was murdered -Supported the Quebec sovereignty motion
-FLQ members practised propaganda of the title and issued declarations that called for a socialist rebellion against oppressors identified with “Anglo-Saxon” imperialism -Wanted to subvert the Quebec authorities

-Wanted the independency of Quebec from Canada and the constitution of a French-speaking Quebecer “workers’ society” -Soviet Union denounced the FLQ’s snatch of Cross and the slaying of Laporte -Refused to acknowledge it as a national release motion

-Designated it as a “terrorist separationist organization” .
Baby Boom:
-A period of increased birth rates enduring from 1946 to about 1965 -The babe roar began with the births of kids who had been postponed during the Depression -Improved economic conditions caused a recovery that accelerated during World War Two

Lester B Pearson:
Liberal Party of Canada
( 1958. 01. 16 – 1968. 04. 05 )
John Diefenbaker:
Progressive Conservative Party
( 1956. 12. 14 – 1967. 09. 08 )
Brian Mulroney:
Progressive Conservative Party
( 1983. 06. 11 – 1993. 06. 12 )
Pierre E. Trudeau:
Liberal Party of Canada
( 1968. 04. 06 – 1984. 06. 15 )
Joseph Clark:
Progressive Conservative Party
( 1979 ) ? Merely 7 months

Quiet Revolution: ( 1959-1960 )
-Duplessis rejected thoughts that were ‘progressive’ and worked to back up the Catholic Church. the Gallic linguistic communication. and Quebec’s rural civilization -They wanted to do certain that things do non alter
-It was against the jurisprudence to organize a brotherhood or work stoppage
-Social conditions in Quebec had fallen behind those in the remainder of the state -Women could non vote in provincial elections until 1940
-And after that. married adult females in Quebec had much the same position and rights as kids -Under the new Broad leading. the Quebec society became more secular. traveling off from its old focal point on the Catholic Churches -Many people besides began to openly oppugn many societal criterions -Traditions based on a rural manner of life. such as high birth rates and early matrimonies. began to alter -Institutions such as instruction and wellness attention were transformed as people welcomed the move to make a societal safety cyberspace that was similar to that developing in the remainder of Canada.

Berlin Blockade: ( June 24th. 1948 – May 12th. 1949 )

Why they were in Berlin:
-Yalta conference
-Plan was to travel to Berlin. occupy Berlin and so go forth
-Stalin stays – Spread of communism
-Everyone was seeking to non travel to war against Russia because it’s a civilian country and there are tonss of people -People won’t support the bombardment of civilians
-They have already been at war for the last 7 old ages
-Open belligerencies that were acceptable ( democracy and freedom Vs oppressive fascism ) now there are no unfastened belligerencies -Allies didn’t want to travel to war and public wouldn’t be in favour Why encirclement was apparatus:

-Blockade was set up against Soviet Union
-Keeps out electricity. nutrient. different supplies
-Allies ship supplies to Berlin civilians ( don’t want to be the ground that civilians starve ) • Point of encirclement = to acquire the other individual to discontinue -Both sides were obstinate
-No one stopped

Berlin wall:
-Physically dividing East Germany from West Germany
-Agree to this because they don’t attention about the loss of land in Germany O Satisfies both sides
O Becomes a symbol of belligerencies between East ( Communists ) and the West Gouzenko Affair:

When was it?
– September 5. 1945 ( A abruptly while before the Cold War ) Who was involved?
-Igor Gouzenko was a Russian cypher clerk working in the Soviet embassy in Ottawa What happened?
-Embassy threatens to direct him back to Russia
-He left the embassy one dark transporting a figure of secret paperss

-Prime Minister wasn’t happy because they had a good relationship with Russia -When Ottawa City Police arrived at the flat. there was an angry exchange and the Soviets left without their cypher clerk or the stolen paperss -Gouzenko was taken by the metropolis constabulary to RCMP central office on September 7 for oppugning -Over at that place. he officially defected ( switched trueness to another side ) -He turned over the paperss that he had taken from the Soviet embassy to the RCMP -The documents proved the being of a Soviet undercover agent web runing inside several authorities sections in Canada and in the British High Commission in Ottawa -The Soviets besides had a undercover agent web in the Canadian-British atomic research undertaking to obtain secret atomic information from Canada. Great Britain and the United States. -The three leaders agreed to form a series of apprehensions. both in Canada and in Britain. some of which had to be delayed in order to acquire all suspects at one clip -Eventually 12 suspects. both British and Canadians. were arrested

Cold War:
-1945 to 1991
-The sides were the Western Bloc. dominated by the United States with NATO and other Alliess ; versus powers in the Eastern Bloc. dominated by the Soviet Union with the Warsaw Pact and other Alliess -Could besides be called a conflict between Communism and Anti-Communism -The Cold War was named because the two major powers did non run into in direct military combat -However. in their battle for planetary influence they engaged in ongoing psychological warfare and in regular indirect confrontations through proxy wars -The Cold War and its events have left a important bequest -Is frequently referred to in popular civilization. particularly in media having subjects of espionage and the menace of atomic warfare Soviet invasion of Manchuria ( 1945 ) :

-As agreed with the Allies at the Yalta Conference. the Soviet Union declared war against Japan on 9 August 1945 -By 10 August. the Red Army occupied the northern portion of the Korean peninsula as agreed -On 26 August. halted at the 38th analogue for three hebdomads to expect the reaching of US forces in the south -The Soviets agreed to the US business zone limit to better their negotiating place sing the business zones in Eastern Europe. and because each would accept Nipponese resignation where they stood Korean War: ( 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953 )

-War between the Republic of Korea ( South Korea ) . supported by the United Nations. and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ( North Korea ) . supported by the People’s Republic of China -Result of the political division of Korea by an understanding of the winning Allies -Korean Peninsula was ruled by the Empire of Japan from 1910 until the terminal of World War II -The war didn’t terminal. merely major belligerencies ended in ’53.

-There was no peace pact signed as normally happens to convey a war to its completion -An cease-fire was signed. basically a cease-fire understanding that left both sides without any existent closing. Map:

NATO 1949:
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-A military confederation
•Belgium. Canada. western European states
-Purpose of holding confederation merely after an terminal of the war
Os So nil interruptions out once more
•To guarantee to no longer have unfastened belligerencies
•Soviet Union create their ain confederation

WARSAW Pact – 1959:

-Between Czech. Hungary…
-These 2 treaties will get down an weaponries race
O who has the greatest capacity for devastation
-Military progresss need a batch of money
o Good for scientists and occupations
o Medical usage of atomic energy
•Nuclear imagination

Iron Curtain:
-Political. military. and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union after World War II -Sealed off itself and its dependent eastern and cardinal European Alliess from the West and other non-communist countries -Restrictions of the Iron Curtain were reduced in the old ages following Joseph Stalin’s decease in 1953 -Construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961
restored them

-Symbolized the ideological struggle and physical boundary spliting Europe into two separate countries from the terminal of World War II in 1945 until the terminal of the Cold War in 1991 -On either side of the Iron Curtain. provinces developed their ain international economic and military confederations: • Member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact. with the Soviet Union as the taking state • Member states of the European Community and of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and associated states with the United States as the taking state World War Two:

-The Allies were Great Britain. the Soviet Union and the United States -France was occupied by Germany early on and the Vichy authorities was a marionette of Germany thenceforth – Great Britain stood entirely against the Axis until Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 -In December of that twelvemonth. the United States entered the war after the Nipponese bombed Pearl Harbor -The Axis consisted of Nazi Germany. Italy and the Nipponese Empire -Italy was knocked out in 1944 when the U. S. and Great Britain invaded from the South and Mussolini was overthrown -Germany surrendered in May 1945 in the face of a oppressing invasion by all three major Allied powers -Japan surrendered in August of 1945 after the U. S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima and Nagasaki:

-On 8:15 A. M. on August 6. 1945. the atomic arm “Little Boy” was dropped on the metropolis of Hiroshima -This atomic bomb. the equivalent of 20. 000 dozenss of TNT. flattened the metropolis. killing 10s of 1000s of civilians -Seventy-six hours subsequently. on August 9. the “Fat Man” atomic bomb was detonated over Nagasaki -In Hiroshima. the bomb exploded over the centre of the metropolis. destructing everything in a one-mile radius -In Nagasaki. the bomb was detonated in an industrial vale flanked by a mountain goad so that the entire devastation took topographic point within a half a stat mi that shielded the major concern and residential territories Conscription:

-Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the debut of forced military service in Canada during World War II -Similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917. but was non as politically detrimental -After runs in Italy in 1943 and the Normandy invasion in 1944. combined with a deficiency of voluntaries. Canada faced a deficit of troops Peoples:

Der fuhrer:
-Adolf Hitler
-20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945
-Austrian-born German politician
-Leader of the Nazi Party
-Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945
-Dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945
-Was the Centre of Nazi Germany. World War II in Europe. and the Holocaust Mussolini:
-Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
-29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945
-Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party
-Ruled the state from 1922 to his throw outing in 1943
-Credited with being one of the cardinal figures in the creative activity of fascism -Mussolini was Dictator of Italy from 1930 to 1943
-Destroyed all political resistance through his secret constabulary -Outlawed workers to travel on work stoppage

Iosif vissarionovich dzhugashvili:
-Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin
-18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953
-Leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his decease in 1953 -Managed to consolidate power following the 1924 decease of Vladimir Lenin -Expanded the maps of his function. while extinguishing any resistance -Under the leading of Stalin. the construct of socialism in one state became a cardinal rule of Soviet society -Replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early 1920s with a extremely centralized bid economic system -Launching a period of industrialisation and collectivisation that resulted in the rapid transmutation of the USSR from an agricultural society into an industrial power -Economic alterations coincided with the imprisonment of several million people in Soviet correctional labor cantonments and the exile of many others to remote countries Churchill:

-Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill.
-30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965
-British politician. best known for his leading of the United Kingdom during the Second World War -Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the twentieth century. he served as Prime Minister twice ( 1940–45 and 1951–55 ) -Is the lone British premier curate to hold received the Nobel Prize in Literature -First individual to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States Roosevelt:

-Franklin Delano Roosevelt besides known by his initials. Roosevelt
-January 30. 1882 – April 12. 1945
-A cardinal figure in universe events during the mid-20th century -Lead the U. S. during a clip of world-wide economic depression and entire war -A dominant leader of the Democratic Party and the lone American president elected to more than two footings -Built a New Deal Coalition that realigned American political relations after 1932 -His domestic policies defined American liberalism for the center of the twentieth century

Causes of Depression:
1. Canada’s Dependence on the United States
Canada’s economic system depended on that of the United States. Over 65 per centum of our imports were from the United States and 40 per centum of our exports were sent to the U. S. When America went through the depression. they did non necessitate our resources any longer. a huge bulk of our exporting income was lost. 2. Over-Production and Over-Expansion

When mills produced more than the demand. they realised they had over expanded and slowed down production and laid off workers. As a consequence. the workers did non hold adequate money to purchase the merchandises that were being made and purchase the excess merchandises. This caused gross revenues to diminish even further and the rhythm of consumerism was disrupted. 3. Excessively Much Credit Buying

Many households took recognition from Bankss so they could buy whatever they wanted to at the clip they wanted to. This lead to many persons submerging in debt due to over buying. 4. Excessively Much Credit Buying of Stocks

Peoples bought on border because it would enable you to purchase a 1000 dollars’ worth of stocks for merely a hundred dollars recognition. The gimmick was that there was a high involvement rate and it would merely be worth it if the stocks rose rapidly in value. In October of 1929. stock values decreased and investors sold all their stocks in order to avoid losingss. The more stocks that were sold. the more the value of the stocks decreased. This caused stocks to lose a value of over 50 % . doing the economic system to deteriorate. 5. Canada’s Dependence on a Few Primary Merchandises

Canada depends on few primary merchandises to supply their gross for the economic system. Many events caused the During the depression. countries of Canada that depended chiefly on one of the few merchandises were enduring a great loss. Grasshoppers would eat all the wheat and drouths destroyed harvests. Industries such as flour Millss. railroads. besides slowed down without the production of wheat. Farmers could non pay their mortgages because they didn’t have any harvests to sell. 6. High Tariffs Choked Off International Trade

European states put high duties on imported goods which made Canada have to pay the states extra money in order to sell them their goods. This was a major subscriber to the start of the Great Depression because these duties decreased the Canadian gross from international exporting. Although this was a background cause of the Great Depression. we feel it is the least of import. Unions:

-People were forced by the events of the depression to analyze critically their topographic point in society -Industrial workers and shopkeepers began to resuscitate their brotherhoods -Craft brotherhoods like the Trades and Labour Congress ( TLC ) . which were reasonably conservative. were being challenged by newer brotherhoods like the CIO which sprang from the different on the job conditions of mass-production industries like the automotive industry Relief Camps:

-In 1931 the B. C. authorities established “relief camps” for individual and unemployed work forces -In these work cantonments. normally located in the wilderness far off from settled countries -Young work forces were employed edifice roads. airdromes. military bases and parks -The existent intent of the cantonments was to conceal the work forces in faraway countries. off from metropoliss where they tended to form and do “trouble” for the constabulary and authorities On-to-Ottawa Trek:

-The federal authorities refused to negociate with the alleviation cantonment strikers. despite the strong public support -At a immense forming meeting. strikers voted to take their ailments straight to Parliament Hill -On June 3. 1935. the first group climbed on board the boxcars and left Vancouver -By the clip the trekkers reached Regina. P. M. Bennett decided it was clip to set an terminal to this “insurrection“ ( revolution ) -By the terminal of the eventide of July 1. 1935. one individual was dead. several hundred were injured. and 1000s of dollars of belongings harm left downtown Regina in ruins -The events helped to discredit Bennett’s Conservative authorities – After the Trek. the authorities provided free transit back to the cantonments as a mark of peace -The cantonments were shortly dismantled and replaced by seasonal alleviation cantonments run by the states -Paid the work forces somewhat more for their labor than the earlier cantonments Rise of Totalitarian Government:

-A political system where the province holds entire authorization over the society and seeks to command all facets of public and private life wheresoever necessary -First developed on a positive sense in the 1920s by the Italian fascists -Became outstanding in Western anti-communist political discourse during the Cold War epoch -Highlighted sensed similarities between Nazi Germany and other fascist governments on one manus. and Soviet communism on the other Inflation:

-In the 1930s the critical error was the Fed’s failure to acknowledge its lender-of-last-resort duties -The consequence was non merely fiscal
hurt but the prostration of the US monetary value degree. which fell by 21 per cent between 1929 and 1932 -Since there was a high demand for trade goods. including nutrient and oil. their monetary values fell even faster than the overall monetary value degree. doing hurt among primary manufacturers -As US demand weakened. other states saw their currencies become overvalued -They were forced to raise involvement rates in the dentition of a deflationary crisis -And by raising involvement rates. foreign states transmitted deflation back to the US -Only when they delinked from the dollar and allowed their currencies to deprecate did deflation subside. Japan:

-In foreign policy there was a decisive rejection of international co-operation as the Nipponese ground forces engineered the ictus of Manchuria and Japan withdrew from the League of Nations. -When Japan went into war with China in 1937. the tendency towards dictatorship quickened gait -Trade brotherhoods were suppressed. with an Industrial Association for Service to Country taking their topographic point. while in 1940 the political parties were dissolved to do manner for the Imperial Rule Assistance Association -As Japan entered into confederation with Germany and Italy in 1940 and so slid towards war with America and Britain. there were no unfastened voices of dissent Internment Camp:

-An internment cantonment is a big detainment centre created for political oppositions. enemy foreigners. people with mental unwellness. members of specific cultural or spiritual groups or civilian dwellers of a critical war-zone -The term is used for installations where the inmates were selected by some generalised standards. instead than detained as persons after due procedure of jurisprudence reasonably applied by a judiciary -As a consequence of the mistreatment of civilians interned during World War II. the Fourth Geneva Convention was established in 1949 to supply for the protection of civilians during times of war “in the hands” of an enemy and under any business by a foreign power -Prisoner-of-war cantonments are internment cantonments intended specifically for keeping members of an enemy’s armed forces as defined in the Third Geneva Convention New Deal:

-A series of economic plans enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936 -Involved presidential executive orders or Torahs passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt -The plans were in response to the Great Depression. and focused on what historians call the “3 Rs” : Relief. Recovery. and Reform -Relief for the unemployed and hapless

-Recovery of the economic system to normal degrees
-Reform of the fiscal system to forestall a repetition depression 1920s:
Temperance Movement ( Prohibition ) :
-A motion to command intoxicant ingestion. originating early in the nineteenth century. when societal assistance was negligible and when a bulk of Canadians were freelance as husbandmans. fishermen or little business communities -Belief that self-denial was indispensable to economic success and that intoxicant was an obstruction to self-denial followed the determination to be temperate in the usage of intoxicant or to abstain wholly -Many concluded that the urban poorness developing with the growing of metropoliss in the mid-19th century was caused by drink. Persons Case:

-Edwards v. Canada ( Attorney General ) — besides known as the Persons Case -Constitutional instance which decided that adult females were eligible to sit in the Canadian Senate -The instance was put frontward by the Government of Canada because of the Famous Five -Began as a mention instance in the Supreme Court of Canada. which ruled that adult females were non “qualified persons” and therefore ineligible to sit in the Senate -The instance so went to the Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council. at that clip the tribunal of last resort for Canada within the British Empire and Commonwealth -The Judicial Committee overturned the Supreme Court’s determination -Established that Canadian adult females were eligible to be appointed senators -Canadian adult females had the same rights as Canadian work forces with regard to places of political power -Established what came to be known as the “living tree doctrine” -A philosophy of constitutional reading that says that a fundamental law is organic and must be read in a wide and broad mode so as to accommodate it to altering times Residential Schools:

-Indian residential schools of Canada
-Network of “residential” ( get oning ) schools for Aboriginal peoples of Canada -Funded by the Canadian government’s Department of Indian Affairs -Administered by Christian churches. most notably the Catholic Church in Canada and the Anglican Church of Canada -The system had beginnings in pre-Confederation times. but was chiefly active following the transition of the Indian Act in 1876. until the mid-twentieth century -An amendment to the Indian Act in 1920 made attending at an industrial or residential school compulsory for First Nations kids -Removed them from their households. deprived them of their hereditary linguistic communications. and exposed many of them to physical and sexual maltreatment at the custodies of staff and other pupils -Symbolized by the June 11. 2008 public apology offered

-Prime Minister Stephen Harper on behalf of the Government of Canada and the leaders of all the other parties in the Canadian House of Commons apologized Turning Autonomy:
-Canada gained autonomy by taking steady stairss during and after the war. -Gained a new sense of adulthood because of Canada’s major part to the war -Given the right to subscribe the pact of Versailles on its ain -Joined the League of Nations as a separate state from Britain -They were still a Dominion with the British Empire though

– Mackenzie was determined to force for Canadian liberty
-Canada gained complete liberty by 1931

Celebrated Five:
-Five Canadian adult females who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to reply the inquiry. “Does the word ‘Persons’ in Section 24 of the British North America Act. 1867. include female individuals? ” in the instance Edwards v. Canada ( Attorney General ) -The five adult females created a request to inquire this inquiry

-They sought to hold adult females lawfully considered individuals so that adult females could be appointed to the Senate -Canada’s Supreme Court summarized its consentaneous determination that adult females are non “persons” -This opinion was overturned by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council Mackenzie King:

Liberal Party of Canada
( 1919. 08. 07 – 1948. 08. 06 )
Arthur Meighen:
Conservative ( 1867-1942 )
( 1941. 11. 12 – 1942. 12. 09 )

-A “new breed” of immature Western adult females in the twentiess who wore short skirts. bobbed their hair. listened to wind. and flaunted their contempt for what was so considered acceptable behavior -Flappers were known for their signature “cupid” lips

-The “liberated” portion of the definition came along when adult females began traveling to speakeasies ( bars ) and have oning looser clothing-all of which were rather contrary to the tight apparels and proper distinguished adult females of the old times IN BETWEEN:

-Lasted for six hebdomads in the summer of 1919 in Winnipeg. Manitoba -Frustrated by unemployment. rising prices. hapless on the job conditions and regional disparities after World War I. workers from both the private and public sectors joined forces to close down or drastically cut down most services -The workers were orderly and peaceable. but the reaction from the employers. metropolis council and the federal authorities was aggressive -The work stoppage ended in “Bloody Saturday” when the Royal North-West Mounted Police attacked a assemblage of work stoppage protagonists -Two strikers were killed. 30 wounded and many arrested

-Workers won little in the work stoppage. and it was another 20 old ages before corporate bargaining was recognized in Canada TREATY OF VERSAILLES:
-The Peace Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919 by Germany and the Allied powers at the Palace of Versailles -The Treaty had about 440 Articles. with the add-on of Annexes -Begun in early 1919 and completed in April after several months of difficult bargaining. it was presented to Germany for consideration on 7 May 1919 -The German authorities was given three hebdomads to accept the footings of the pact -Its initial response was a drawn-out list of ailments. most of which were merely ignored -The pact was perceived by many as excessively great a going from U. S. President Wilson’s Fourteen Points ; and by the British as excessively rough in its intervention of Germany -Controversial even today. it is frequently argued that the punitory footings of the pact supported the rise of the Nazis and the Third Reich in 1930s Germany. which led to the eruption of World War II -Deprived Germany of around 13. 5 % of its 1914 district and all of its abroad ownerships -Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France

-An country of East Prussia was handed over to Lithuania. and the Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia -The German ground forces was limited to a upper limit of 100. 000 work forces
-A prohibition was placed upon the usage of heavy heavy weapon. gas. armored combat vehicles and aircraft -The German naval forces was likewise restricted to transporting under 10. 000 dozenss. with a prohibition on pigboats The League of States:

-The League of Nations was an international administration set up in 1919 to assist maintain universe peace -It was intended that all states would be members of the League and that if there were differences between states they could be settled by dialogue instead than by force -If this failed so states would halt trading with the aggressive state and if that failed so states would utilize their ground forcess to contend -In theory the League of Nations was a good thought and did hold some early successes. but finally it was a failure World War One:

Catalyst ( 28 June 1914 ) :
-Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne -Him and his married woman were shot dead in Sarajevo. by Gavrilo Princip. one of a group of six Bosnian Serb bravos coordinated by Danilo Ilic -The political aim of the blackwash was to interrupt off Austria-Hungary’s south-Slav states so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia -The assassins’ motivations were consistent with the motion that subsequently became known as Young Bosnia -Serbian military officers stood behind the onslaught

-Assignment of duty for the bombardment and slayings of 28 June is extremely controversial because the onslaught led to the eruption of World War I one month subsequently Background Causes:

-Militarism is the belief or desire of a authorities or people that a state should keep a strong military capableness and be prepared to utilize it sharply to support or advance national involvements -Germany. Russia and Britain were the largest Militaristic states in Europe merely earlier World War 1 Alliances

-A major ground that many states joined the First World War was Alliances -Countries would be willing to take you in as an ally if your armed forces was advanced -Once states had formed confederations. they felt the demand to remain loyal until the clip comes to interrupt off the confederation -The point of trueness was pushed so far that states were willing to come in the war with the state they were allied with -For illustration. Canada and Britain were Alliess and when Britain entered the war. Canada joined in to demo their trueness Patriotism

-A major factor that caused the eruption of the First World War was Nationalism -Countries wanted to be independent states and were encouraged by their confederations -For illustration. Serbian metropoliss wanted to be free from the authorities and were encouraged by Russia and the remainder of their confederations to get down a war Imperialism

-Imperialism involves the creative activity of settlements for the intent of spread outing power and taking land Alliances:
-France and Germany hated each other
-When Germany became a united state in 1870. France went to war and seek to halt it… but got WHOPPED!
-France besides lost Alsace-Lorraine in 1870
-The Gallic ne’er forgave the Germans
-In the nineteenth century. Germany’s Chancellor. Bismarck. solved this job by maintaining friends with RUSSIA and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
-The Bismarck allied with ITALY and AUSTRIA-HUNGARY ( The TRIPLE ALLIANCE. 1882 ) -When Kaiser Wilhelm became Emperor. he dumped the Russian Alliance -He kept the TRIPLE ALLIANCE. but this did non work out the job of Germany’s blockade
-Instead. in 1892. Russia made an confederation with France

-Although it was merely a Defensive confederation. it was Germany’s worst incubus -In 1907. Russia joined Britain and France to do the Triple Entente -By 1914. Europe had divided into two monolithic world power axis Battles:

Bend of the twentieth century ( Pre-World War ) :
Schlieffen Plan ( 1905 ) :
-The program was devised in 1905 by General von Schlieffen
-Its purpose was to do certain Germany did non contend a war on two fronts- against Russia and France at the same clip -This would be achieved by first get the better ofing France in six hebdomads and so taking on the Russians -The program required nervus to win: the Southern Army had to be intentionally weak so it would withdraw and acquire the Gallic to follow -Schlieffen died in 1913 and von Moltke took charge of the ground forces -He lacked Schlieffen’s nervus and feared that the weak Southern Army would drive back all the manner into Germany -Therefore he changed the ratio between the Northern ground forces and Southern ground forces from 10:1 to 10:4 by cut downing the size of the Northern ground forces -By altering the ratio. the stronger Southern Army drove the Gallic back. This meant fewer Gallic military personnels were drawn off from Paris -Von Moltke telegraphed Kaiser William: ‘Your Majesty. we have lost the war. ’ -This was true but it would take another 4 old ages before the Kaiser and Germany believed him Wilfred Laurier ( 1896-1911 ) ? Term:

-Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the longest Canadian premier curate -Prime Minister of Canada for 15 old ages and a member of the House of Commons for 45 old ages -Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the first francophone Prime Minister of Canada. fluently bilingual. and spent much of his clip in office seeking to equilibrate the involvements of the Gallic and English Canadians -Laurier was known for his ability to compromise

-recruited immigrants to the West
-provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan created in 1905
-two new transcontinental railroads begun
-His base against muster split the Liberal party


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