The History Of Internal Control Systems Accounting Essay

Internal control is a cheques and controls system that develop by the several degrees of direction to do certain effectual and efficient to carry on operations concern every bit good as reliably of concern reported to do certain direction decision-making is good based and that all relevant Torahs and ordinances are complied with. ( Trenerry, 1999 )

It is of import for managers of Rose Co to guarantee that the company has an effectual system of internal control because it helps to forestall fraud ; loss and inappropriate usage of resources to do certain the liabilities are identified and manage.

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This may ease the operation efficaciously and expeditiously towards the accomplishment of company ‘s public presentation, profitableness and ends. With the effectual system of internal control, it can be able to observe deceitful fiscal coverage and embezzlement of assets to guarantee that the fiscal study is dependable and do certain conformity with Torahs and ordinances. ( Hayes, Dassen, Schilder, & A ; Wallage, 2005 ) .

Performance reappraisals

It is the 3rd party to look into on public presentation independently alternatively of involved in the activity straight. It include reappraisals of existent public presentation like comparison to budgets, surprise cheques of processs, periodic comparings of accounting records and physical assets and a reappraisal of functional or activity public presentation. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 )

For illustration, the factor that unexpected public presentation through probe, Rose Co direction may do timely alterations in programs, schemes or take other appropriate disciplinary action.

Information processing

Information processing consists of two types which are application controls which provide a signifier of finding the information of fiscal statement and budgets. It merely applies to one peculiar activity such as control the paysheets that help to guarantee the dealing are processed wholly and accurately. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 )

For illustration, system of accounting package of Rose Co should supply sufficient information to do the accounting maps clearly. While general control activities support application controls that are working efficaciously and assist to guarantee the continued suited operation of information system. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 ) . This aid to command the Rose Co informations centre, system package acquisition, web operations and controls the entree of computing machine package.

Physical controls

It is the processs to do certain the physical security of assets, of import records, paperss and clean signifiers. These should be limited to authorized forces. If the assets and records that are non protected decently and adequately can be damaged, lost or stold by others. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 )

For illustration, the assets as stocks and securities of Rose Co should non be available to individuals who have non need to be managing them. Access to records should be denied to people who do non hold a record maintaining duty for them.

Segregation of Duties

It is of import feature of effectual internal control to divide the functional duties suitably. It seeks to avoid the individuals who can set the records and entree that record and command those assets. These responsibilities are divided between different people to extenuate the hazards of unequal and inappropriate actions. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 )

For illustration, when Rose Co approve the gross revenues dealing, transporting section obtain the ware detention from the stock list shops section implemented the dealing and transporting it to clients. Then gross revenues, recognition and transportation section created transcripts of certification for accounting section to used to enter the dealing and charging the clients. Therefore, none of single or section can put to death an unauthorised dealing.

Fiscal coverage is the procedure whereby a house states all its fiscal records. Financial describing supply fiscal information about the study entity that is utile to show and possible equity investors, loaners, and other creditors in doing determinations in their capacity as capital suppliers. ( Needles, 2011 ) . Fiscal coverage are the paperss and records to track and reexamine whether the house earns net income or loss, the public presentation and place of the house. Financial describing including external fiscal statement which are balance sheet, hard currency flows ‘ statement, statement of shareholders ‘ equity, income statement and etc.

Fiscal coverage intents are as follows: –

Supply the information about the fiscal province of the house to investors, creditors and other users whether their money investing worthy, whether they gain net income and dividend, enable the investors to judge whether to go on with their investing, and do rational investing, recognition and determinations.

With appropriate fiscal information through fiscal coverage may assist to heighten determination of scare resources allotment expeditiously. Financial coverage besides supply information about the economic resources of a house, effects of event, minutess every bit good as fortunes that resources claiming and alteration of resources.

Fiscal coverage does supply an economic history to utilize to mensurate houses ‘ public presentation and supply fiscal information to make up one’s mind the hereafter concern whether the concern should enlarge or contract.

Financial describing aid direction to explicate the policies and dispatch their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities of the concern every bit good. It besides helps direction to avoid the state of affairs which is unfavourable as direction able to cognize the tendencies and modify the policies harmonizing to analyze fiscal statements over a period of clip. ( Whittington & A ; Pany, 2010 )

Internal control can merely supply sensible confidence over fiscal coverage, it does non intended to supply absolute confidence because of built-in restriction. Therefore fiscal coverage may non forestall or observe misstatements. Restriction of fiscal coverage: –

The factors of economic, fiscal, and societal affect the fiscal place, but merely the factors of fiscal are being recorded in fiscal statements and left out factors of economic and societal. This may do the incorrect and inaccurate in fiscal statements when revealed the fiscal place.

The qualitative factors such as the efficiency and trueness of employees, repute and prestigiousness of concern with public, unity of direction do non province in the fiscal statement. These could be every bit of import to a concern. There merely province quantitative informations which can be step in footings of value.

Fiscal statements do non uncover the consequences of a house ‘ outgos on research and development, houses ‘ hereafter chances, new selling runs, new merchandise debuts, or new pricing schemes. This may misdirect persons in doing right determination.

The fiscal statement influence by personal judgements of the comptroller for case, the proviso of bad debts, proviso of depreciation and stock rating. Personal judgements of accountant ever misrepresent the true image of the concern.

Base on the instance survey above, the managers of Rose Co would non look to be justified in asseverating that the company ‘s hearers were negligent in non observing the fraud. The bar and sensing of fraud and mistake should be responsible by direction non the hearer. Management has to organize and keep the controls and responsible to guarantee that the controls are being right in topographic point. Directors and directors have the responsibility of attention to forestall and observe the fraud and mistake in internal control system, make the policies that make certain supply service efficaciously and protected assets, besides recommend and execute processs and reexamine carefully and seek to understand policies and processs presented to them for verification.

The hearer is non responsible for internal controls and non to assist the managers in forestalling and observing fraud and mistake. Auditor can remind managers about their duties but non responsible for the internal controls ‘ design and effectivity. The lone duty for hearers to acquire relevant audit grounds sufficiently and dependable to back up their thought that the systems are working accurately.

Case Study 2: Recruitment Co

The four aims of the internal controls should be exercised over non-current assets are as following: –

Transaction executing

The assets processs of utilizing, runing and physically traveling should be established follow by the mandate of direction because without authorised forces may non follow the processs. This may do in misused or stolen equipment and misplaced. ( Ricchiute, 2006 )


To guarantee the retired, added or disposed of non-current assets that recorded at the right sums, decently classified and recorded in the right period. This can be forestalling that the misstated assets and cost of gross revenues that cause by non recorded assets placed in production. ( Ricchiute, 2006 )

Transaction mandate

The non-current assets such as assets retirements, assets disposals and works add-ons should authorized follow by direction standards or otherwise, assets may ensue in misstated fixed plus records and misapplied hard currency by sold or purchased assets that without direction ‘s cognition. ( Ricchiute, 2006 )

Entree to assets

To guarantee the limitation to personnel authorized of accessing cost accounting, ageless and production of assets by direction. This may avoid the doomed, misused and destroyed of plus ‘s records that may ensue to misused and misstated of plus every bit good as misapplied of assets. ( Ricchiute, 2006 )

Non-current assets registry is the footing of an plus direction information system that contains relevant informations required for fiscal coverage ( Motubatse, 2005 ) . It is the plus database that gives the footing for the figures in the fiscal statements. It includes assets information such as purchase monetary values, expected life, status and current replacing cost. Recruitment Co can be registering their non-current assets as Appendix I illustration to assist a determination shaper to place and track the assets.

With the assets register information in the Appendix I, Recruitment Co can be incorporating the information of non-current plus, record it decently and right to do certain it list the equal information. Store the information as a information system into computing machine and keep the information to do certain the information is maintaining up to day of the month.

Non-current assets registry is purpose to assist the company to maintain tracking the inside informations of each non-current plus in order to do certain control decently and avoid embezzlement of a company ‘s assets. Registrations of non-current assets help to maintain tracking the right value of assets for the intents of depreciation revenue enhancement and insurance.

( I ) Disposal of non-current assets where a company may sell off assets that has ended its utile life. There is a net income or loss when assets dispose of because it makes a net income or a loss whenever company sells its assets. ( ACCA, 2009 ) . Disposal of autos can be in the manner of sale off, trade in, bit, recycle etc.

Recruitment Co. has 36 employees, most of who are provided with an executive type of company autos. Over 2 old ages these autos being usage, Recruitment Co will purchases and replace them, employees besides allow to buy and replace autos. This may ensue to sophisticate of the system and dealing of autos disposal.

Recruitment Co should heighten internal controls over disposal of autos because some of employees may or merchandise it the autos which are less than two old ages old or some of them may sell off those autos that the scrap sale monetary value non eligible with published monetary value lists and may dispose in unfavourable monetary value later. Hence, Recruitment Co should properly control autos disposals such as set up written process, support record up to day of the month, good command mandate process etc.

Internal control that Recruitment Co should use over the disposal of autos as follow:

Written Procedure

Recruitment Co. should set up written processs for all disposals of autos and comparison scraping sale monetary values sporadically with published monetary value lists to command the unauthorised minutess as to forestall the autos may disposed of at unfavourable monetary value.

Segregation of Duties

It should maintain divide the dealing maps such physical protection of disposal of autos, entering dealing every bit good as authorising dealing of disposal of autos as to prevents person that has a protective duties to sell the disposal autos at unfavourable monetary values so cover it up by doing illegal entries to the accounting record.

Mandate Procedures

It should decently take control of authorised dealing over disposal of autos and guarantee that person who is unauthorised non be able to alter the dealing of autos disposal of which already recorded. Otherwise, record of those autos disposals may misstated and misuse hard currency by sold the autos without direction ‘s cognition.


It should decently look into for the understanding of submitted minutess, processed minutess every bit good as physical counts with recorded of autos disposal. Reconciliations should be perform by person who has the authorized to entree dealing of autos disposals.

Recording adequately

It should plan and utilize papers, records of autos disposals adequately. Disposals of autos should recorded at the right sums decently classified and recorded in the right clip to forestall the misstated cost of autos disposals that cause by non recorded it in topographic point in production.

( I ) Recruitment Co. can non be able to reflected the dealing in its accounting records because it had non have the invoiced by 31 March 2005. Once it have receive the invoiced by 31 March 2005, it should enter the the dealing in its accounting records province Debit: Furniture Credit: Bank.

( two ) The processs should transport out by hearers as follow: –

Hearers should supervise whether whether the status and measure of goods that received are accurately and look into whether the arrival goods are credence and record it.

They should guarantee the goods received notes are lucifer with bills and look into whether it match with recognition notes of providers every bit good as goods returned notes.

Appendix I

Motor vehicle



Plate figure

Use Time period

Monetary value


Audi R8



3 Old ages


3 Old ages






2 Old ages

Toyota Prius



6 Old ages


3 Old ages

Office Equipment


Trade name


Monetary value







2 Old ages






1 Old ages



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