The History Of Plants Biology Essay

Prehistoric people chiefly depend on workss for their endurance including nutrient, medical specialty and shelter but with the transition of clip and promotions in scientific discipline, adult male explored the potency of workss for a figure of other intents therefore increasing their dependence on workss both straight and indirectly. Wild workss have ever been the affair of high concern and used for their potency of human existences [ 1 ] . Initially, the cognition of workss is based on mistake and test and the reliable cognition of the utilizations of medicative workss passed on after refinement and add-ons from one coevals to the other [ 2 ] . Medicative workss provide a existent option for primary wellness attention system in the development states [ 3 ] . Merchandises from 100s of species are being collected from hayfields and distant woods and which is subsequently on traded to international markets and consumed [ 4 ] . These patterns provide an of import beginning of income to the immense figure of rural families. About universe ‘s 70- 80 % population usage medical specialty for bring arounding different complaints and illness [ 5 ] .In developed states, the per centum of people utilizing traditional medical specialty have been decreased due to the handiness of wellness installations [ 6 ] . Certain countries in Himalayan Mountains are yet to be documented in the autochthonal utilizations of the medicative workss [ 7 ] .

Harmonizing to World Health Organization ( WHO ) “ a medicative works is a works which contains substance in one or more of its variety meats and that can be used for curative intents, or which are precursors for chemo-pharmaceutical semi-synthesis ” [ 8 ] . Harmonizing to the National Cancer Institute ( NCO ) , in the last 25 old ages at least 70 per centum of new drugs introduced in the United States are derived from natural beginnings [ 9 ] . It has been estimated from the literature that there are about 35,000 to 70,000 works species that have been used in one or another civilization for medicative intents at one or the other clip in the universe. At least 6,500 works species are used entirely for assorted complaints as place redresss in Asia [ 10 ] .

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1.2 Medicative Plants in Pakistan Pakistan is a rich beginning of herbs due to assortment of its clime and that are distributed over a broad scope and used for medicines.. About 600 works species have been identified as holding medicative values [ 11 ] . In Pakistan, chiefly medicative workss are used by Tibbia Dawakhana ( herbal medical centres of autochthonal doctors known as “ Hakims ” ) . In ayurvedic system of herbal intervention, pharmaceutical industries are being used for the extraction of assorted ingredients commercially [ 12 ] .

Medicative workss in Pakistan are considered to be of two wide classs.

First, those workss which are used in assorted preparations by local doctors in order to supply some alleviation to the local population in the development states.

Second, those workss which are in demand for their active ingredients by pharmaceutical companies [ 13 ] .

Plants have been used to bring around diseases for a really long clip. The usage of commmonly available medicative workss remains an of import for human wellness attention, particularly for the people populating in rural countries due to their inability to afford the dearly-won and synthetically prepared medical specialties. Since the antediluvian times, woods have been an of import beginning of medicative workss when people felt the medicative belongingss of workss therefore started utilizing them for human wellness attention. The Indian systems of medical specialty ( ISM ) is one of the most ancient medical specialty patterns and derives most of the stuffs from workss found in woods. Out of these about 400 workss are used in regular production of Unani, , Siddha, Ayurvedic and tribal medical specialty and about 25 % are from temperate and 75 % from tropical woods. 14 % of preparations are derived from bark, 7 % seeds, 6 % stems, 16 % whole workss, 10 % fruits, 6 % foliages, 4 % rootstocks, 3 % forests, 6 % stems, 30 % roots and merely less than 20 % species used are cultivated [ 14 ] .

1.3 Natural Merchandises

Natural merchandises can be defined as “ Chemical substances derived from populating systems e.g. workss, bugs and animate beings have been used in traditional medicative system in order to forestall and handle assorted human upset ” . From 1970-1980, the probe of natural merchandises reached its vertex as a human curative beginning in the Western pharmaceutical industry. Between 1981-2002, out of 877 molecules New Chemical Entities ( NCEs ) introduced approximately half were natural compounds, man-made compounds and semi-synthetic natural compounds parallels [ 15 ] .

Natural merchandises including minerals, workss and animate beings have been the footing of human disease intervention. Practically history of medical specialty gives us information about the being human civilisation and over the old ages by experimental and scientific attempts of scientists, the current recognized modern medical specialty has bit by bit developed but its development is based on the traditional therapies and medical specialty. Nevertheless, modern medical specialty based on ancient wisdom and will stay as an of import beginning of future therapeutics, medical specialties but the hereafter of natural merchandises drug find will be more holistic and individualized including broad usage of modern and traditional curative accomplishments in a parallel mode in order to supply maximal benefits to the community and patients [ 16 ] .

The foundations of the modern pharmaceutical industry were laid when techniques to bring forth man-made replacings for many of the medical specialties were developed that had been derived from the woods. Natural merchandises chemistry really began with the work of Serturner, who isolated first morphia from opium. This, in bend, was derived from opium poppy by assorted procedures that have been used for over 5000 old ages [ 17 ] .

Table 1.1: Plant-derived Medicines


Medicinal Use





Treatment of Burnss

and lesions

Aloe species

[ 18 ]


Pain alleviation, publicity

of heart-health, blood


Salix species

[ 19 ]


Arthritic hurting alleviation

Cinnamomum camphora

[ 19 ]


Pain alleviation, cough


Papaver somniferum

[ 20 ]


Bronchodilation, nasal

decongestion, allergic reactions

Ephedra sinica

[ 19 ]


Malaria and bosom disease


Cinchona species

[ 19,20 ]


Treatment of chest

and other malignant neoplastic diseases

Taxus species

[ 21 ]


Ovarian and lung

malignant neoplastic disease intervention



[ 22 ]

1.4 Antioxidant Activity

Free groups are reactive, unstable species and have potential to damage chemical species ( transient ) possessing one or more odd negatrons and extract negatrons, therefore damaging other molecules in order to achieve stableness. These free groups are formed continuously inside the human organic structure or any other system because they are indispensable for energy supply, detoxification, chemical signaling and immune system. These free groups are regulated by endogenous antioxidant enzyme system but due to over production of these groups as by exposure to UV radiations, coffin nail smoke, etc or a failure in antioxidant defence mechanism or harm to cell construction, the hazard for many chronic diseases additions such as coronary artery disease, malignant neoplastic disease, arthritis, inflammatory diseases, pneumonic disfunction, nephritic disease, diabetes, daze, ischaemia, injury, multiple induration, haemodialysis etc.

Interestingly, human organic structure possesses defence system against oxidative emphasis induced by free groups which involve fix and preventative mechanism [ 23 ] . Antioxidants may heighten the human immune defence system hence, low the hazard of infection and malignant neoplastic disease and protect organic structure against the development of chronic upsets.

A figure of checks of the works infusion and their purified components for the measuring of entire antioxidant activity have been introduced [ 24 ] . There are two types of checks taken:

The suppression check in which the extent of scavenging by electron contribution of pre-formed free groups or H is the marker of antioxidant activity.

Assaies during the coevals of free extremist affecting the presence of antioxidant activity.

1.4.1 Reactive Oxygen Species ( ROS )

ROS cause harm to bio-molecules including lipoids and nucleic acids by responding and consuming the organic structure of natural and man-made antioxidants which act as scavengers of free groups therefore take portion in the procedure of oxidization including preventing and mending the demages caused by free groups and taking damaged bio-molecules by oxidization etc. [ 25, 26 ]

Table 1.2: Assorted ROS and Corresponding Neutralizing Antioxidants


Neutralizing Antioxidants


Hydroxyl extremist

Vitamin C, glutathione, flavonoids, lipoic acid.

[ 27 ]

Superoxide extremist

Vitamin C, glutathione, flavonoids.

[ 27 ]

Hydrogen peroxide

Vitamin C, glutathione, beta provitamin A, vitamin E.

[ 27 ]

Lipid peroxides

Beta provitamin A, vitamin E, coenzyme Q, flavonoids.

[ 27 ]

hus ng sease, sease

1.4.2 Action of Antioxidants

Antioxidants by forestalling the extension reaction restrict procedure of oxidization given below: Propagation Chemical reaction:

The remotion of H by peroxyl extremist from any primary antioxidants, which are designed in order to do free groups comparatively uneffective and inert towards oxidization procedure is rapid than remotion of it from any other substrate. Inhibition Chemical reaction:

Primary antioxidants such as hindered phenol and alkylated diphenylamine are frequently used with secondary antioxidants as a peroxide scavenger therefore avoiding the concatenation ramification reactions and opposition to oxidation procedure [ 28 ]

DPPH is a stable free group on reaction with antioxidants, is reduced to DPPH-H from DPPH. , optical density decreased and the grade of colour discharge indicates the suppression potency of the infusion or compound in footings of H transportation from substrate to the free group. The suppression reaction between an antioxidant ( RH ) and DPPH. is written as:

Fig 1.1 DPPH Mechanism

1.4.3 Types of Antioxidants

Antioxidants are divided into two wide classs ;

Man-made antioxidants

Natural antioxidants Man-made Antioxidants

Butylated hydroxytoluene, third butylated hydroquinone and propyl gallate are some of the man-made antioxidants, used normally for saving in assorted companies e.g. nutrient, decorative and pharmaceutical etc but are besides investigated to be responsible for assorted upsets so there is increasing involvement to replace it with safer compounds that can protect life system and can protect it from assorted chronic upsets due to free radicals.A big figure of medicative workss incorporating chemical compounds show antioxidant belongingss. [ 29 ] .

Fig 1.2 Structures of Synthetic Antioxidants Natural antioxidants

Plants are a large beginning of antioxidants including beta provitamin A, lycopene, Se, ascorbic acid, I±-tocopherol, xanthophyll and polyphenols which are of import in assorted reactions such as they neutralize and adsorb free groups, decompose peroxide or quench O ( vest and three ) but on the other manus works ‘s secondary metabolites include triterpenoids, and flavonoids are of import in defense mechanism system against free groups. Therefore, consumers should increase their consumption of rich nutrients in antioxidant compounds in order to cut down the hazard of chronic wellness jobs associated with assorted diseases. It has been estimated from the surveies that medicative workss are a large beginning of natural antioxidants such as tannic acids and phenolic compounds that contains marked antioxidant activity than other workss and such compounds can be separated and used for the intervention of assorted diseases caused by unstable groups.

Beta Carotene

Fig 1.3 Structures of Natural Antioxidants

1.4.4 Beginnings and Origin of Antioxidants

Antioxidants occur in veggies, fruits and nutrients such as nuts, grains, meats and fish.

Table 1.3: Beginnings and Origin of Antioxidants





Present in assorted nutrients that may be green and orange in colour i.e. , carrots, squash, Cucurbita pepo, murphies, apricots, veggies ( leafy ) and cantaloup vine, Spinacia oleracea etc.

[ 30 ]


Found in vegatables ( leafy and green ) e.g. boodle and Spinacia oleracea and is good for healthy eyes.

[ 31 ]


Abundant in Citrullus vulgaris, apricots, oranges, tomaroes, papaia, Citrus paradisi ( pink ) etc.According to the estimations, tomato merchandises are a large beginning ( about 85 % ) of diet in America.

[ 32 ]

Vitamin A

Abundant in nutrients like carrots, murphies, milk, and cheese ets.

[ 33 ]

Vitamin C

Known in assorted veggies, fruits and domestic fowl, cereals and fish etc.

[ 34 ]

Vitamin E

Abundant in nuts, Prunus dulciss, Mangifera indicas, and in oils ( false saffron. wheat source and maize oils ) .

[ 35 ]

1.5 Ficus variegata

Ficus variegata belongs to Moraceae, is the Mulberry household, consist of over 53 genera and 1400 works species, most of which are located in the tropical country about, includes largely wild trees and has a thorn [ 36 ] . There are about 132 Ficus species occur in cardinal and South America, 112 occur in Africa South of Sahara and Mudagascar and 511 Ficus trees existed in Asia, Malaysia, Pacific Island and Australia. The being of Ficus is affected by the factors, humidness and temperature [ 37 ] .There are a great assortment of wild Ficus trees in Malaysia, some of which are shrubs and mounting workss and besides bear figs ( besides called as Ficus ) of changing sizes.

Table 1.4: Economic Importance of Moraceae

Plant Name

Part of Plant

Economic Importance


B. gulanensis


Valuable Timber Source

[ 38 ]

B. rebescens


Valuable Timber Source

[ 38 ]

C. elastica


Rubber Source

[ 38 ]

M. tinctoria


Yellow Dye Source

[ 38 ]

B. alicastrum


Starch Food Source

[ 38 ]

F. inspida


Against Intestinal Worm Infections

[ 38 ]

M. tinctoria


Extract Inflicted Teeth

[ 38 ]

P. armata


Fixing Bark Cloth

[ 38 ]

Table 1.5: Medicative Importance of Ficus Species

Plant Name

Part of Plant

Medicinal Use


F. arnottiana and F. hispida


Shows hypoglycemic activity.

[ 39,40 ]

F. bengalensis


Shows anthelminthic activity.

[ 41 ]


Inhibit insulinase activity from liver and kidney.

Fruit infusion

Exhibits anti-tumour activity.

F. exasperata

Leaf infusion

Shows anti-bacterial activity.

[ 42 ]


Exhibit hypotensive activity.

[ 43 ]

F. glomerata

Wood infusion

Shows Anti-HIV- 1 integrase activity.

[ 44 ]

F. religiosa

Leaf juice

Used in intervention of diarrhoea, rea-ache, oculus problems, tooth-ache, and stomachic jobs.

[ 45 ]

Leaf decoction

Used for odontalgia.

[ 45 ]


Used in respiratory upsets, asthma and shows anti bacterial and anti tumerous activity.

[ 45,46 ]

Stem bark

Treatment of palsy, break of bone, diabetes, antiseptic, diarrhea and acerb etc.

[ 45 ]

F. Carica

Fresh and dried fruit

Treatment of Cancer, carcinoma, ulcers, megalohepatia, spleenomegaly.

Shows spasmolytic activity, mediated through the activation of K+-ATP channels along with anti thrombocyte activity. Hence, it can be used in gut motility and inflammatory upsets.

[ 47 ]


Used in Ulcers and urarthritis.

[ 47 ]


Used in Cancer, tumours, dermatitis.

[ 47 ]

F. racemosa


Used as Aphrodisiac

[ 47 ]


Treat GI jobs

[ 48 ]

Bark pulverization

Used in Diabetes, ulcers, hiccoughs, gonorrhoea

[ 47 ]


Used as laxative and digestive.

[ 47 ]

Fig 1.4 Chemical Components Isolated from Ficus Speciess

1.6 Conocarpus erectus

Conocarpus erectus belongs to Combretaceae is one of the outstanding household in Southern Africa, consists of some 19 genera and 600 species.It is household of Torrid Zones and semitropicss and found in southern and south western countries, its members are widespread in South Africa. Members of this include creepers and attractive creepers [ 49 ] . The Combretum is the largest genus in the Combretaceae, comprises of some 180 species of bushs, trees and climbers and out of which 33 species occur in South Africa, used for many medicative intents such as intervention of abdominal strivings, colds, flesh outing babes, febrility, pinkeye, concern, sterility in adult females, snake bite, odontalgia, Scorpio bite, pneumonia, general failing, thorax coughs, abdominal upsets and swelling caused by epidemic parotitiss [ 50-53 ] .

Conocarpus erectus L. is one of two species in the genus Conocarpus turning in tropical and semitropical parts on shorelines around the universe. It is normally called as button Rhizophora mangle or American sycamore ; is an evergreen tree [ 54 ] . It is used in some states as common people redress for pinkeye, diabetes, anaemia, catarrh, febrility, diarrhoea [ 55 ] .

Table 1.6: Traditional Medicinal Uses of Combretaceae

Combretum species

Traditional utilizations


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