The Hogan Personality Inventory is a personality trial which ‘is a step of normal personality and is used to foretell occupation public presentation ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hoganassessments.com/hogan-personality-inventory ) . This tool has many utilizations and is used by both administrations and persons. The HPI was specifically designed to assistance concern and commercial usage and can be used throughout the enlisting procedure and to place countries of a individual which could be developed.
The HPI was the first personality stock list to be based on the Five-Factor Models ; openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, amenity and neurosis. These factors are ‘generally accepted by psychologists as the distinguishable personality factors ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.advancedpeoplestrategies.co.uk/Hogan-Personality-Inventory-HPI.asp ) , although other theoretical accounts have been identified. These five personality traits were defined by Costa and McCrae in 1992 and they are used for understanding the relationship between personality and the behavior of people.
The HPI uses the seven primary graduated tables to assist measure personality. The HPI analyses these graduated tables which are believed to act upon managerial public presentation. The seven primary graduated tables are:
Adjustment. This is necessary for directors to be able to respond good under force per unit area, remain unagitated in tense state of affairss and non take jobs or unfavorable judgment to bosom.
Ambition. Directors besides need to expose this as this shows how decisive a individual is and how they would get by with taking the lead. Directors with high aspiration tonss know how to pass on efficaciously every bit good as promoting squad work and taking squads good.
Sociability. This reflects a director ‘s ability to pass on with their staff, how warm, surpassing and chatty they are.
Likeability. Angstrom directors ability to appeal and utilize their communicating and interpersonal accomplishments to speak to clients and their staff. This will better a directors accomplishment at edifice squads and keeping trust between co-workers.
Prudence. Directors need to expose this property to be reliable, painstaking and difficult working. This means the leader will be loyal to their company and will handle their squad members reasonably.
Inquisitive. This is necessary for directors to be practical and inventive while believing strategically about the concerns programs and ends in the long term.
Learning Approach. This includes a directors desire to larn and their aptitude in their preparation and their school work. It can be shown that ‘School Success is steadily and reasonably correlated with steps of cognitive ability ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.drbobhurley.com/pdf/HPIManual.pdf ) .
The HPI originates from a adult male called Robert Hogan and is sold by his company Hogan Assessments. Robert Hogan is a good known expert and international authorization in psychological science. Harmonizing to his ain web site ‘he is widely credited with showing how personality factors influence organizational effectivity in a assortment of countries ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hoganassessments.com/executive-team ) . He has a Ph.D from the University of California and is a chap of many different universities. Robert Hogan has quoted that between ’50-75 % of directors are bad directors and this is due to the fact that they can interview good based on proficient cognition but they have bad leading accomplishments ‘ . Therefore he believes his personality trial can assist to distinguish the good leaders from the good interviewees.
Figure 1 shows an illustration end product study generated by the HPI. Harmonizing to the Hogan Personality Inventory Brochure the studies give the undermentioned information ; how a campaigner may respond in assorted fortunes, the features of participants and summarises the ‘recommendation for occupation tantrum and possible hiring ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hoganassessments.com/sites/default/files/assessments/pdf/HPI_Brochure.pdf ) . The graph in figure 1 shows how the individual taking the trial tonss on each of the seven graduated tables and shows whether the mark is in the high, low or mean percentile.
Figure 1: An illustration HPI end product study
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.linkageinc.com/pdfs/Assessments/LFR_Potential.pdf % 20HPI.pdf
The study goes on to explicate each of the graduated tables in more item, giving illustrations of features of leaders with similar tonss. For illustration in this sample study the individual has a mark of 72 for accommodation which is in the high percentile intending this individual can manage force per unit area good, non take unfavorable judgment personally, expect to succed, be difficult to train and may overlook their errors.
The study gives some of the deductions of this type of leading and for this illustration it is: ‘compared to other leaders, your tonss suggest that you normally maintain a positive attitude, stay in a good temper, remain patient with staff mistakes and errors, and persist in the face of challenges, defeat, and reversals. On the other manus, you may non recognize when others are stressed, and may be loath to listen to negative feedback. ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.linkageinc.com/pdfs/Assessments/LFR_Potential.pdf % 20HPI.pdf ) . There are 4 study formats which can be generated from the HPI. These are: a informations study does non construe the informations in any manner, calling builder which gives the appliers strengths and failings every bit good as betterment tips, direction builder which gives suggestions on how the person may be managed and the leading prognosis challenge study which analyses how an person ‘s tonss are likely to impact their work and their leading manner ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pantesting.com/products/Hogan/HPI.asp # ) .
The HPI trial consists of 206 true and false inquiries and one of the chief characteristics which the HPI boasts is that its inquiries are non-intrusive or invasive ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hoganassessments.com/sites/default/files/assessments/pdf/HPI_Brochure.pdf ) . The HPI was created along the lines of the socio-analytic theory. The trial therefore assumes that ‘getting along with and acquiring in front of others become the dominant subjects in societal life ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psychpress.com.au/psychometric/talent-psychometric-testing.asp? hogan-HPI )
Uses of the Hogan Personality Inventory
Forces Selection – Finding the right individual for the occupation
Administrations are get downing to recognize the importance of happening a individual who ‘fits ‘ with their values, ideals and ways of working. Administrations are able to place what skills a individual has by looking at their makings and past experience but personality trials such as the HPI are able to assist place whether an applier has the right personality to accommodate their administration.
Persons may utilize the HPI to assist ‘decide whether they are suited to a specific business or to make up one’s mind whether they should see farther instruction ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.workreview.co.uk/whatis/whatisthehpi.asp ) . It can besides be used to measure personal strengths and failings determine the best method to develop callings by concentrating on which accomplishments need to be developed.
Management could utilize the HPI to measure where their staff ‘s accomplishments could be developed to make a better and more productive work force. It can besides be used to put people in squads, possibly with one individual more suitable to leading and the others with complimentary accomplishment sets.
Strengths of Using Personality Trials
Personality trials are going more popular for choosing good employees. Rodney Warrenfeltz of Hogan Assessment Centres said ‘hiring patterns are normally neglected as a cardinal facet of professional installation care ‘ . Many now believe that the choice of the right employees is of cardinal importance and the personality trial industry is now deserving ‘ $ 400 million-a-year… as employers have begun to gain the value of good employees and costs of bad employees ‘ , one company estimated the cost of one bad employee as being ‘an amazing $ 2.5M ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.csi-executivesearch.com/executive-search/cost-of-a-bad-hire.html ) . Personality trials can besides defy legal challenges intending administrations can utilize this method to reject people without the hazard of being sued for favoritism.
Failings of Using Personality Trials
The cogency and dependability of personality trials is frequently called into discredit and some occupation searchers complain that holding their whole personality judged on a twosome of inquiries, does non demo possible employers the range of their whole personality. Personality trials are really dearly-won to run and if the cogency is doubtful so administrations need to see whether the consequences are worth the disbursal.
A defect impacting the cogency of personality trial consequences is that respondents may change their replies to reflect what they believe the company is looking for. For illustration if a company an employee is using for a occupation at has a repute for holding an bossy leading manner so the applier may change their replies to a personality trial to state they ‘follow instructions well ‘ even if they do n’t. This would do the consequences of the trial inaccurate and may stop in the incorrect employee being accepted. Detection of such inaccuracies is hard as there is no manner for an applier to explicate the concluding behind their replies intending that the administration will non acquire the full image of an employee.
Strengths of the HPI
The Hogan Personality Inventory is a popular trial used by recruiters and ‘in 1980, the HPI was the first instrument designed to mensurate personality and predict ensuing behaviors in the workplace ‘ . A strength of the HPI is that it predicts the ‘reputation ‘ and the sentiments others have of a individual ‘s leading manner, non what the applicant thinks of their ain direction manner.
The HPI is really practical and harmonizing to the Hogan Assessment website the trials have a comparatively short ’15-20 infinitesimal completion clip ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hoganassessments.com/sites/default/files/assessments/pdf/HPI_Brochure.pdf ) . Other practical advantages include its on-line platform doing it cost and clip effectual. The multiple pick format enables automated marker, doing human interaction minimal. The trial is available in a figure of linguistic communications so the same trial can be completed global. This helps multi-national companies as appliers can be tested utilizing the same platform increasing the cogency of consequences as appliers can finish the trial in their native lingua.
The HPI is based on the Five-Factor Model. Harmonizing to Costa and McCraes Theory ‘when an person is scored on these factors they will bring forth a complete image of that individual ‘s personality ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthguidance.org/entry/13139/1/What-Is-the-Five-Factor-Model-of-Personality.html ) . Extensive research has been carried out on these factors and ‘statistical grounds demonstrates that the Five Factor Model is high in cogency and utile as a prognostic tool ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthguidance.org/entry/13139/1/What-Is-the-Five-Factor-Model-of-Personality.html ) . The HPI has been based on over 500000 working grownups, this is a reasonably big base for the stock list to be normed on doing the consequences more valid as these people have been tested from over 200 of the chief industries. The cogency of the trials is farther proved with ‘retest dependabilities runing from.74 to.86 ‘ . HPI archives have been kept since 1970 and ‘it continues to be 1s of the most widely accepted and used stock lists for research on personality ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psychpress.com.au/psychometric/talent-psychometric-testing.asp? hogan-HPI ) .
Failings of the HPI
The Hogan Personality Inventory is based on a series of true and false inquiries which does n’t let people any allowance for showing other sentiments. In other words the replies that the people give when they are taking the trial are really constricted. This means that the possible employees are unable to show their true feelings or explicate their replies.
As the Hogan Personality Inventory is validated on over 200 industries it could be argued that this is a cardinal failing of these personality trials. ‘These appraisals were designed to be general, use to a broad scope of state of affairss ( most were non specifically created for workplace application ) , and are non conformable to customisation ‘ . This attack means that the trials are to general to make a valid overview of a individual ‘s leading capableness for a specific function. ‘Such steps employ a “ one size fits all ” attack, which ( similar to vesture ) does non supply a really good tantrum in most instances ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.evancarmichael.com/Sales/3147/Trouble-with-Personality-Tests.html )
Another failing of the Hogan Personality Inventory is that it is based on the Five Factor Model which has been reviewed as non explicating the whole of the human personality. Some argue that theoretical accounts such as the Cattell ‘s 16 Personality Factors ( 1946 ) A are more brooding of the homo ‘s personality as they take into history more facets of a individual ‘s personality. These excess traits could affect faith, political positions and other environmental factors. It could be argued that the Five Factor Model merely provides a ‘snapshot ‘ of a individual ‘s personality non a full image ( http: //www.healthguidance.org/entry/13139/1/What-Is-the-Five-Factor-Model-of-Personality.html ) .
Findingss and Decisions
When researching the Hogan Personality Inventory it is really of import to retrieve that it is a commercial entity and a batch of articles which I have read have been really colored and aimed at doing the reader purchase the merchandise. Following on from this, there is really small literature sketching the failings of the HPI, although there is a just sum about the disadvantages of personality trials based on the Five Factor Model.
Table 1 shows the British Psychological Society ‘s reappraisal into the major psychometric trials, comparing them on their chief evaluations and their cost information. From this tabular array the HPI scores highest against the other trials with a mark of 19 while the merely other trial to come near to this is the Personality Inventory which scored 17 stars.
Tech – Overall quality of proficient information, Valid – Cogency, Rely – Dependability, Norms – Normative Information,
Cover – Overall lucidity and coverage of content.
Table 1: The British Psychological Society ( BPS ) Review of Personality Instruments 2nd Edition
Personality trials can hold immense benefits for both administrations and the persons. It can assist direction with employee choice and employee development and they can assist persons to place countries of themselves which need bettering. The practical nature of these trials can assist to weed out unsuitable campaigners rapidly and easy and it is besides a signifier of choice which can stand up in tribunal. The HPI itself is a good known and trusted trade name of trial, due to the theoretical account which it is based on and the sum of working grownups it is normed on.
On the other manus, many persons disagree with the usage of personality trials in the choice procedure. The deficiency of ability to show concluding behind replies agencies that many appliers feel constrained when replying the trials and many people are prone to ‘faking ‘ their replies although Robert Hogan believes he has solved this job with the HPI as he states that ‘the informations are rather clear-even when motivated to forge, people ‘s tonss on the HPI do n’t alter ‘ . ( http: //www.hoganassessments.com/blog/robert-hogan-phd/how-faking-impacts-personality-assessment-results ) . Alternatively he claims that alternatively of forging, people are prosecuting in a signifier of ‘impression direction ‘ and these consequences are more valid given the fact that they are estimating a individual ‘s repute as a director non their sentiments of their ain leading manners.
After measuring the strengths and failings of people utilizing personality trials I can see administrations ‘ go oning to utilize them for the foreseeable hereafter, particularly as unemployment continues to lift and the ratio of people using to the figure of functions additions. It is a speedy manner to reject potentially unsuitable people and cut down an applications list easy. I would besides reason that the Hogan Personality Inventory is a valid trial to utilize particularly when used in concurrence with the other Hogan Assessments.