The Human Body- Unit 7

Term Definition
What are the 4 functions of bones? 1. protection
2. storage
3. movement
4. blood cell formation
Name the 6 parts of a bone. 1. periosteum
2. compact bone
3. spongy bone
4. bone marrow
5. cartilage
6. blood vessels
What helps bone movement? 1. joints
2. ligaments
Describe how protection is a function of a bone. Bones protect major organs such as heart, lungs, spinal cord, and brain
Describe how storage is a function of a bone. Bones store minerals for nerves and muscles; Bones store fat for energy use
Describe how movement is a function of a bone. Skeletal muscles move bones to allow you to sit, stand, talk, walk, etc.
Describe how blood cell formation is a function of a bone. Bone marrow creates red blood cells
Periosteum The outside "skin" of the bone.
Compact Bone The outside shell; no open spaces
Spongy Bone The inside layer; many open spaces; provides support and strength
Bone Marrow The soft tissue inside of the bone
Red Marrow Creates red blood cells
Yellow Marrow Stores fat
Cartilage The connective tissue; soft and flexible; cushions joints
Name some examples of cartilage. ear, nose, sternum
Blood Vessels It is inside and outside bone to transport newly formed red blood cells.
Joints The place where two or more bones come together.
Sliding Joints Bones glide over one another.
Give examples of sliding joints. vertebrae, hand
Ball and Socket Joints Bones move freely in all directions. (Think of a joystick)
Give examples of Ball and Socket joints. shoulder, hip
Hinge Joints Bones move in two directions (like a door)
Give examples of hinge joints. elbow, knee
Ligaments Connective tissue that holds two or more bones together at a joint.
Strain A ligament is stretched too far.
Torn ligament Must be replaced with surgery.

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