The employment opportunity created through the cultivation of khat is very high in that large numbers of people are involved in growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, transporting, loading and unloading the commodity (Dechasa, 2001) Many literatures explain that growing and chewing khat have both economic advantages and disadvantages. Similarly many researchers conclude that chewing khat has impact on health and on others social issues.
Consuming khat juice from young leaves stimulates brain and spinal cord (through synapses) resulting in the desirable effects (as cited by Dechassa from Kalix, 1984), which are perceived by addicted individuals. The pleasurable effects are relief from fatigue, euphoria, increased alertness and energy level, feelings of excitement, improved ability to communicate, enhanced imaginative ability and capacity to associate ideas and heightened self-confidence ( Abebe, 2004) The objective of this study is to analyze on the impact of chewing khat and the prevalence on in and out of school youth.
In this study we will try to identify which age groups are highly participated in khat consumption, why an individual’s chew khat and the resource wasted and time elapsed in chewing khat. The out comes of the study will have the significance for the developing understanding about the subject, paving the way for future research and development by development agencies, researchers, extension agents, policy makers and other interested stakeholders. 1. 2. Statement of the Problem Many literatures indicate that khat consumption is addictive and has a negative physical, economic and social connotation.
Although non-users both in rural and urban areas condemn the practice of chewing, the number of people chewing is increasing particularly among the youth. In urban areas, chewing khat is a common leisure activity which, combined with the consumption of it, followed by alcohol is having an adverse effect on family life (Dechassa, 2001). The prevalence of khat chewing is increasing and along with it other substances such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are being used. Moreover, illicit substances including shisha and hashish are also being taken.
The problem is especially worrisome among youth who have no job or who are daily laborers (Teleke, 2007). Though officially discouraged, khat stands among the most important cash crops in Ethiopia, with strong markets domestically as well as in neighboring Somalia, Djibouti, Yemen and the Gulf State (Dechasa 2001). Khat is clearly an important cash crop in Ethiopia well-known for its foreign currency earnings. Nonetheless, it is little understood and given no development and research attention as yet. Millions of people both in Ethiopia and other countries are making a living from the crop.
Nevertheless, it is mostly viewed as a socially undesirable “drug plant”. As a cash crop commonly grown in otherwise food insecure parts of the country, the need to understand better economics of the plant is very crucial. Different countries have attempted to impose restrictions (by substitution or compensation) against the crop at different times considering it socially undesirable apparently because the economic and sociological aspects of the crop are not well understood. Similarly some literature explains chewing khat has positive impact on the productivity of the individuals.
On the other hand chewing khat due to its negative economic and social impact take it as negative correlation with the–The chewing of khat has been practiced for years and is, to a large extent, socially accepted in Ethiopia, Apart from the habitual use of khat, it is reported that it is used by students to improve their academic performance, by truck drivers to keep themselves awake and by laborers to supply the extra vigor and energy they need for their work. The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
So there is a research gap on the impact of khat with respect the youth and possible risk factors. 1. 2 General Objective The general or over all objective of conducting this research is to assess the impact of khat consumption on socio-economic attributes of societies. 1. 3 Specific Objective The functional objectives of this research consists of the following targets To assess the member individuals engaged on chewing khat in unit of proportion To assess the amount of money encored for khat To identify the most societies class engaged on consuming khat To assess the time utilized in consumption
To detect the distribution of the khat consumption degree (extent through the society. Methodology and Study Design 1. 4 The Study area and Population To undertake the representative and precise type of research, the area for the investigation was confined to Adama city with same kebeles 12 and 7 that are center and hold a number of khat vendor’s house or supple ring house. 1. 5 Study Design The research to be conducted will be designed in systematic and logically organized mechanism to strengthen its out pout and effectiveness. So the design will be organized in four series of chapter.
Chapter one will deal with introduction that comprises the background. Objectives, significance. Scope and methodology of the study. In chapter two the data analysis and recommendation depending on the result was organized. For the successful achievement, each chapter contents was analyzed detail and in depth. 1. 6 Data Collection Method In or. der to acquire reliable accurate data different data collection method that includes both primary and secondary was followed. In the primary data collection method. A structured questionnaire was prepared and interviews the respondents.
On the Other hand secondary type of data can be used to organize related literature and to analyze the existing data with respect to this study, if present. 1. 7 Sampling (Sample procedure) The sampling procedure to be used in determining the sample size was the non-probability sampling technique that comprises the purposive, quota, personal judgment and dealing easily accessible respondents mechanism. This as the researcher, the quota type of non-probability sampling was used to determine the number of respondents in each kebele. 1. 8 Sample Size
The total number of sample size was 40respondent, which its size is determined using the non-probability sampling. 1. 9-Techinques of Data Analysis and Interpretation In processing the collected data, the data was depicted using the tabulation narration, and graphic as required. Ratios can be used to reveal the percentage that helps to inter the total population effect. In line with these each data entry, Encoding, clearing, presentation and interpretation was done duly. 1. 3 Significance of the Study This study is expected to provide highlight about the major problems and constraint faced by khat consumption on society in “Adama” city.
The results of the study will have the following significance. It will give awareness for the society about the impact of chewing (Consumption of khat) It will be used as foot stages for other researcher for further investigation in the area. The outcomes of the study will be used for policy makers to formulate policy towards khat Production and consumption and take policy measur To conducted meaningful and systematic type of research, it is must to pursue a well defined and organized research methodology and peocedures.
As the methodology determines the destiny of the research to be complex and realistic (It not well designed) and smart and acceptable (If it is systematical type of reaserch methodology. Therefore, the following procedures will be followed in conducting this investigation. CHAPTER TWO 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. 1. Concepts and Descriptions of Khat Ethiopia is thought to be the country of origin of khat use. Since the Khat leaf rapidly loses its effect upon wilting, the Khat habit has remained, until recently, endemic to the areas where the plant was grown.
During the last decades, however, due to the development of road networks and the availability of air transport, the habit has spread considerably in those regions and to countries where the plant does not grow ( Mokonin, 2006). This is so increasing ingreatly might be becouse of peoples consumes that Chewing khat is both a social and a culture-based activity. It is said to enhance social interaction and for structuring social life. So, it is usually chewed in company (Kennedy, 1987), but may be used by individuals to enhance their working capacity (Mokonin ,2006). . 2. History Some oral traditions claim that khat originated from Yemen, however the literature indicates that khat originated from Ethiopia, specifically in Hararghe with a gradual expansion to different parts of Ethiopia, Yemen and other parts of the world (Huffnagel, 1961). Legend has it that the use of khat was first discovered by a herder who noticed the effect of the plant on his goats and who tried it and experienced wakefulness and added strength. The distribution of khat in tropical Africa extends from north Arabia to South Africa.
In Africa it is well established in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, despite efforts of the respective governments to discourage its cultivation. In East Africa it grows in the range of 1500-2500 metres above sea level (masl). Outside Africa it is planted in the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen, Afghanistan, India and Sri Lanka for consumption and in the USA, UK and France for experimental purposes. (Dechassa -2001) . 2. 3 Khat Distributions in Ethiopia
The total area of land under khat cultivation in Ethiopia in the year 1997/98 was estimated at 78,570 hectare (Central Statistics Authority, 1997/98). Oromia, mainly East and West Hararghe zones, is the most important centre of khat production (East Hararghe zone alone contributes 53. 4% of the total production area) in Ethiopia. Hararghe is considered to be the most important producer of quality khat in the world (as cited by Dechasa 2001 from, Peter ,1952). Despite silent support and objection against the crop by development institutions, khat is cultivated and expanding in different parts of Ethiopia (Map 1).
It can be grown rain fed and/or irrigated, though the later covers less than 20% of the total khat area. The crop could be planted both in home garden or in the field( Dechassa-2001). 2. 4. Forms of Consumption Khat is grown for its tender leaves and twigs/stems, which are chewed for their mild stimulating effect. They taste sweet to bitter when fresh, based on the type of khat consumed. Although the most common way of obtaining the stimulating effect of khat is by chewing fresh leaves and soft twigs, consuming dried and pounded materials, in the form of tea, infusion and smoking is also seen. Dechasa, 2001). As with most other addictions, when a regular khat chewer is not getting khat he/she feels uncomfortable, becomes restless and aggressive. In Hararghe a person in such a state is locally known as jazba (literally meaning inactive or dull) and the condition of an extraordinary desire for khat is called harara. During this period one cannot be expected to behave well or to respond positively to any query. However, when a regular chewer gets khat, after about one and half to two hours she/he will become calm as the narcotic effect begins to work.
This state of quenching the chewing desire is locally known as mirqaana. According to key informants, the time taken to get the stimulating effect varies based on the body weight of the person, room temperature and type and quality of the material. It is said that a heavy person will sense the feeling late as compared to a person with less body weight while warm room temperature will hasten foreigners. (Dechasa 2001) The increasing use and consumption of khat has become a major concern to many countries especially to Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia who have found it necessary to prohibit its cultivation at different times.
Nevertheless, past efforts to ban the crop in these countries and to replace it with coffee in Ethiopia and uprooting the crop after paying compensation in Somalia did not last long. The failure was largely due to the exclusion of the farmers from the decision-making process and more importantly, due to an absence of any viable substitute that could fully compensate the merits (traditional, economic, social, environmental benefits) obtained from the cultivation of khat.
Khat sparked a commission of inquiry, under the auspices of the League of Nations while in more recent years the UN Commission on Narcotics and Drugs (UNCND) found the issue of khat consumption and its effects quite controversial often postponing several meetings as the plant’s narcotic effect was insufficiently understood due to lack of viable clinical research information. 2. 5 Impact of Khat Consumption on Health Consuming khat juice from young leaves stimulates brain and spinal cord (through synapses) resulting in the desirable effects (Klux, 1984), which are perceived by addicted individuals.
The pleasurable effects are relief from fatigue, euphoria, increased alertness and energy level, feelings of excitement, provedability to communicate, enhanced imaginative ability and capacity to associate ideas and heightened self-confidence. Chewing of khat can also causes unpleasant effects including serious impairment of sexual function, rapid heartbeat and rise in blood pressure through noradrenalin (nor epinephrine) release from peripheral neurons similar to amphetamine (as cited by Abe be, 2004 Wilder et al. , 1994; Klux, 1992).
Undesirably, khat might also lead to malnutrition and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis because of its contribution to prolonged anorexia (as cited by Abe be 2oo4 Wilder et al. , 1994. Klux, 1992). The prevalence of khat chewing is increasing and along with it other substances such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are being used. More – over, illicit substances including shisha and hashish are also being taken. The problem is especially worrisome among out of school youth who have no job or who are daily laborers (Teleke, 2007). . 6. Social Impact of Khat The pleasure stimulation (euphoria) obtained when chewing khat induces many users to abuse the drug. This may have damaging effects from social and economic point of view. Some people may arrive at spending a great part of their earnings on khat, thus failing to ensure for themselves and their families important and vital needs. Excess of khat chewing may lead to family disintegration. The chewer very often shows irritability, becomes quarrelsome, and spends much of the time away from home.
These facts and the failure of sexual intercourse (in male users) after chewing may endanger family life. In the communities where khat is consumed, there is a general agreement among observers that there is high incidence of absenteeism and decreased productivity, which lead to unemployment and poverty (Teleke, 2007). Khat has considerable social value. It is served to welcome and entertain guests, in mourning, weddings and circumcision ceremonies and collective labour works.
Khat chewing has its own associated ceremonies like smoking of incense, cigarettes and use of drinks (soft drinks, tea and milk). Khat chewing is addictive and has negative physical, economical and social connotations. Although non-users both in rural and urban areas condemn the practice of chewing, the number of people chewing is increasing particularly among the youth. In urban areas, chewing khat is a common leisure activity which, combined with the consumption of it, followed by alcohol is having an adverse effect on family life.
Students and a number of staff in higher education institutions and high schools are using khat to “increase” their concentration levels and attention span. (as stats by Dechassa, 2001). 2. 7. Economic Impact In Ethiopia khat is an important and potentially lucrative cash crop. The employment opportunity created through the cultivation of khat is very high in that large number of people are involved in growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, transporting, loading and unloading the commodity ( Dechassa , 2001).
The wood of the plant is commonly used for fuel and due to its resistance to termite is used in the construction of houses and fencing. It is also used for making rafters, handles of farm tools (hammers and chisels) and handles of household articles such as pots and pans, rolling pins, and to make forks, combs, spoons and for rulers (Dechassa,2oo1). Processed leaves and roots are used to treat influenza, cough, gonorrhea, asthma and other chest problems. The root is also used for stomach ache and an infusion is taken orally to treat boils( Dechasa,2001). According to Dechassa, 2001) study, some of the farmers consulted said that khat gives them energy and strength to accomplish a great deal of agricultural and other hard work, which they say, would otherwise be impossible. According to farmers in Hararghe where hand cultivation is extensively used in seedbed preparation and cultivation, khat chewing enables them to accomplish the work without fatigue. They also cited the additional “advantage” of a reduced appetite in food shortage periods. The crop also has prestige value for people who grow large quantities (Dechassa,2001).
Farmers in eastern Ethiopia often start chewing khat right after breakfast and work for about 3 hours without any feeling of fatigue. After lunch, they resume chewing and work through the remaining afternoon with intermittent chewing. It is evident that khat chewing competes for active working time in that the actual working hours do not exceed 6-8 hours a day. Furthermore, in areas where khat chewing is common, such as in Afar, Somali regions and Hararghe zones of Oromia Region, punctuality of business appointments is a frequent problem, as the time after lunch is usually spent in chewing Khat (Dechassa,2001).
Khat is clearly an important cash crop in Ethiopia well-known for its foreign currency earnings. Nonetheless, it is little understood and given no development and research attention as yet. Millions of people both in Ethiopia and other countries are making a living from the crop. Nevertheless, it is mostly viewed as a socially undesirable “drug plant”(Dechasa, 2001). Different countries have attempted to impose restrictions (by substitution or compensation) against the crop at different times considering it socially undesirable apparently because the economic and sociological aspects of the crop are not well understood (Dechassa,2001).
Chapter 3 Data Analysis and Presentations This is the critical part of the study which comprises the data and data processes, organization, presentations and interpretation that help to provide adequate responses for the questions and consequently to realize the desired objectives of the investigation. To promote understandability and organization of the study, the data are systematically organized and displayed using tabulation, pertinent graphs and the descriptive analysis.
Besides, following the decisive analysis, the interpretations are given for each essential issue. Background of the respondents vis-a-vis age level, marital status, education, employment status and religion are used in detail since these factors are very crucial in determining the individuals urges in chewing chat or not. Consequently, to meet the desired objective of the study confidentially, the SPSS (Statistical presentations Software System) is used in the analysis and hence all the organization and presentations of the data are systematic and well managed.
Table 3. 1: age of respondents in cross with sex | Item Description |What is age level? | | sex of respondent |15-25 | | Sex of respondent |Illiterate | | What is your marital status? 15-25 | | Do you chew chat? |unemployed | | Do you chew chat? |illiterate |read and | | | |write | | Where do you chew? 1-3 days |4-6 days |7 days | | | |at my home |5 |6 |3 |14 | | |at my friends home |4 |2 |2 |8 | | |at chat supplying house |0 |4 |2 |6 | | |at working place |0 |1 |0 |1 | |Total 9 |13 |7 |29 | Source: primary data Table 3. 6 above shows the place utilized and the number of days the respondents used in chewing chat per week. As revealed out of the 29 respondents those chew chat, most of them that is 14 individuals used their home in chewing chat which is followed by 8 those use their friends home. On the other hand, one (1) respondent only stated that working place while chewing. Regarding the number of days, 13 respondents chew chat per week from 4-6 days frequently.
Seven (7) respondents (3 at their home, 2 at friends and another 2) used all the days of the week in chewing. And only 9 individuals chew from 1-3 days per week. In general, the data indicated that of the total 29 individuals who chew chat most of them used their home and of which most chewers uses 3-4 days per week. This indicates individuals used more days of the week are used in chat consumption. Table:-3. 7 chewing partners and place | Item Description | Where do you chew? | | With whom do you chew most of the time? at my home |at my friends home | | Do you use any correspondence things |sugar | |while you chew? | | | Is there anything that you use after chewing? |Alcohol | | For how long did you chew chat? 2-4 hours |5-7 hours |above 7 hours |Total |% | | |less than one |3 |2 |0 |5 | | |year | | | | | Source: survey data Table 3. 10 above shows the length of duration they commenced for those who chew chat and the time they spend in chewing. Accordingly, the data manifests that 5 (17. %) respondents has a duration of less than one year in starting chat that is they are fresh. Eight (8) respondents that account 27. 6% replied that they passed 1-5 years in chewing chat. The larger number of the respondents 10 (43. 5%) stated that they are within 6-10 years in chewing chat whereas the rest 6 (20. 7%) respondents revealed that they are more than 10 years. In addition to the length of the duration for the commencement of chat chewing, the data described the time one spent in chewing chat.
Thus, the data shows that 18 respondents said that they used chewing chat from 2-4 hours, 10 replied from 5-7 hours and one (1) respondent said above 7 hours per day. In general, these data indicated most of the chewers were lasted for about 6-10 years and in line with these out of total 29 respondents who chew chat 18 of them spend about 2-4 hours per day. Table:-3. 11-Number of days for chewing and costs incurred for chat per week | Item Description |How much birr do you expend per day for chat? | How many days do you chew per |less than 20 birr | |week? | | | Do you chew chat? |I don’t like it | | Does the expansion of chewing chat |easily accessible chat supply | |increased in your surrounding? | | Because of chewing chat, is |family pressure | |there any problem the society | | |imposed on you? | | | Because of chewing chat, is there|Decrease in food appetite | |any personal problem? | | | Does your chewing chat have impacts on society? – |Damage |Erode social and | | | |human and |economic | | | |environment|relationships | | | |al health | | | |What the society should do, in preventing chat expansion? |4 |10. |10. 0 | | |creating job opportunities | | | | | |promoting community participation |5 |12. 5 |22. 5 | | |promoting social responsibilities |5 |12. 5 |35. 0 | | |strengthening community conversations |22 |55. |90. 0 | | |strengthening social advocacy |4 |10. 0 |100. 0 | | |Total |40 |100. 0 | | Source: Survey Data As indicated in the table 3. 17-above, the organized data shows the roles the society should play in controlling the expansion of chat trends within the society.
The frequency table thus, summarizes out of 40 total sampled respondents 22 (55%) of them stated in order to reduce chat expansion, strengthening community conversation is one of the most indicated measures. Next to this, 5 (12. 5%) respondents replied promoting community participation on the controlling of chat expansion is another pertinent decisions whereas another respondents of the same number the is 5 (12. %) respondents also dictated, promoting social responsibilities, in which each and every one within the society play its own part, help to effectively handle the expansions.
In addition, the rest 8 respondents together replied two different categorical responses of which; 4 respondents said if the societies themselves create job opportunities in a larger extent and a number of unemployed individuals are recruited, the number of individuals who chew chat due to lack of work would decrease. Social dependency in economy, criminals, violence, and insecurity then diminish. In line with these, another 4 (10%) respondents also revealed society can reduce chat expansions through endeavoring strong social advocacy.
Through social advocacy, society can enforce the government to strongly take measures on illegal and uncontrolled chat trades, shisha and related activities. In addition, they can urge the government to develop well-planned and structured chat trade the commensurate social benefits with minimum costs (or impacts). Table-3. 18-What measures the government should take to prevent chewing chat? | |Frequency |Percent |Valid Percent |Cumulative Percent | |Valid |Avoiding Chat |2 |5. |5. 0 |5. 0 | | |awareness creation |13 |32. 5 |32. 5 |37. 5 | | |creating job opportunities |11 |27. 5 |27. 5 |65. 0 | | |establishing adequate recreation centers |4 |10. 0 |10. 0 |75. 0 | | |limiting chat trade |10 |25. 0 |25. 0 |100. | | |Total |40 |100. 0 |100. 0 | | Source: Survey Data Table-3. 18-above indicated the responses of the respondents regarding the role of the government in preventing the expansion of the chat trades and consumption. According to the data, from the total 40 respondents, 2 (5%) of them said the government should avoid the chat itself, whereas 13 (32. 5%) stated the government should create comprehensive awareness about the impacts of chat chewing on social, economic, and environmental.
Another 11(27. 5%) respondents described the government should create adequate job opportunities to reduce the citizens those pass their time in futility. If there are job opportunities, no one would prefer to chew chat, they said. In addition, other 4 (10%) of individuals denoted government should establish adequate recreation centers to manage youths and others from going to chat houses or chat consumption. The rest 10 (25%) respondents from the total sample, revealed government should limit chat trade if intended to reduce its impacts.
Without the government interventions, it would be difficult to reduce its negativity. They added, one of the rationales for chat expansions is the illegal forms of trade that made chat available under each corridor and site. So the government should make it formal, controlled, and limited within the sphere of benefits exceeds than costs. In general, from the data it is clear to jot proposed solutions that the government should take to minimize or control chat impacts. Thus, most respondents witnessed awareness creation are the pertinent measure for the government that help to compromise chat consumption and its impacts.
If societies critically understand the impacts and well as the advantages of chat consumption, it would be easier to manage its negativity. Next, creating job opportunities help to control chat impacts which is suggested as the second solution. ———————– 1 1 1 1 2 5 5 1 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Single Married Widowed Divorced Respondents’ marital status 1 college or university secondary primary read and write illitrate Education background Number of respondents yes no Do you chew chat? 72. 50% 73% 27. 50% 28% Pie Chart: chat and respondents interest