The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

This survey explores the range of engineering which has important betterment on the ability to supply and present health care services. Enterprises are started to exchange to electronic manner for presenting health care efficaciously by doing bringing better, faster, cheaper and more accessible to client.

Electronic manner of transportation shows the possible in different sectors where it reaches beyond the capablenesss and boundaries compared to traditional manner. Hence this survey will catch the issues related to range of electronic informations transportation and electronic fund transportation in the bringing of drugs to client in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

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Chapter 01



To happen the range for implementing Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) and Electronic Fund Transfer ( EFT ) across pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Restriction of the survey

This survey is limited merely to particular zone. The consequence will jump to alter for other zones across state.

1.3 Industry Overview:

Pharmaceutical industry is to a great extent regulated and fragmented globally. It has many markets, merchandises, procedures and mediators. If a drug is acquiring delayed to make the market, it costs the company around US $ 1 million a twenty-four hours. The challenge lies in streamlining the bringing of the merchandise to the client from the maker. The logistics plays really of import function in pharmaceutical value concatenation as they account for 45 % to 55 % of the entire costs.

The pharmaceutical supply concatenation is complex in nature, and calls for a batch of answerability in order to guarantee the bringing of right drug, at the right clip and topographic point, in the right status – to the people in demand of such drugs for contending against the diseases. Another discerning characteristic of the pharmaceutical supply concatenation is merchandise nature.

Pharmaceutical merchandises normally need specialised clime control intervention throughout the period of theodolite particularly in a state, such as India with diverse climatic conditions, and meagre cold storage installations. Some drugs can non be transported and stored together due to their sensitiveness and possible taint.

Indian Pharmaceutical industry

The Indian pharmaceutical industry is 3rd largest in the universe in footings of volume accounting for 10 per centum of universe ‘s production and stands 14th in footings of value. Harmonizing to informations published by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, the entire turnover of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is US $ 21 billion. Out of this entire, domestic preparations market was deserving US $ 8.34 billion and entire APIs market was deserving US $ 3.92 billion. Entire Export market was deserving US $ 8.47 billion. Indian exports go to more than 200 states around the Earth including the extremely regulated markets of US, Europe, Japan and Australia.

Indian Pharma industry with more than 20,000 registered units is extremely fragmented with terrible monetary value competition and authorities monetary value control. There are about 250 big units and more than 8,000 little scale units, which form the nucleus of the Pharmaceutical industry in India. Indian Pharma industry has shown singular advancement in footings of substructure development, engineering base creative activity and its scope of merchandises. The industry now produces majority drugs belonging to all major curative groups runing from complex molecules to simpler fabrication engineerings.

Finished Formulations of assorted types checks, caps, injectable, etc. of assorted dose signifiers are being produced in GMP compliant installations and transported globally. Indian pharmaceutical companies today are known for their planetary range with high quality generic preparations and universe category APIs.

Indian pharmaceutical industry is on a strong growing way with the entire value of Indian Pharmaceutical industry expected to make about $ 50 Billion by 2015-2016.

A cardinal issue faced by the industry is direction of the supply concatenation. Supply concatenation in India is extremely disconnected with more than 550,000 retail pharmaceuticss in the state. Harmonizing to a study by bio program Associates, though the figure of distributers have increased by 4 crease in the last three decennaries, from 125,000 in 1978, the volume of prescriptions distributed have non increased proportionately. Hence it is apparent that though there is a growing in the figure of distributers and retail pharmaceuticss, distribution is non really efficient. Besides the rural markets remain extremely untapped.

Indian Pharmaceutical Supply concatenation:

Tier-I: Manufacturers

Drug distribution in India has witnessed a paradigm displacement. Before 1990, pharmaceutical companies established their ain terminals and warehouses. Now they have been replaced by uncluttering and send oning agents ( CFAs ).

Tier-II: Clearance & A ; Forward Agents

These organisations are chiefly responsible for keeping storage of the company ‘s merchandises and send oning SKUs to the stockist on petition. Most companies keep 1-3 CFAs in each Indian province. On an norm, a company may work with a sum of 25-35 CFAs. The CFAs are paid by the company annually, one time or twice, on a footing of the per centum of entire turnover of merchandises.

Tier-III: Stockist

Stockist is the distributer, who can at the same time manage more than one company ( normally, 5-15 depending on the metropolis country ), and may travel up to even 30-50 different makers. They pay for the merchandises straight in the name of the pharmaceutical company after 30 to 45 yearss.

Tier IV: Hospitals, Pharmaceutical mercantile establishments, retail stores

They obtains merchandises from the stockist or sub stockist through whom it eventually reaches the consumers ( patients )

Tier V: Consumers

Supply concatenation does n’t stop until clients get the value of the merchandise.

CFA Operationss

Large drug makers will hold CFAs in about every province in India. CFAs majorly aid makers in supplying range for its merchandises. They majorly facilitate in by go throughing the province gross revenues revenue enhancement ( CST- 4 % ). CFA ‘s are merely created to avoid local province revenue enhancements ( they barely take 1 or 2 % border ). Largely CFAs serve a individual company. CFAs follow a stock transportation theoretical account from the maker and all bills sent to the stockists are on the name of the maker itself.

Stockist or Distributor

All India Organization of Chemists & A ; Druggists ( AIOCD ) has over 5.5 Lac members from retail chemists and pharma distributors/stockists. Stockist plays a really powerful function in the pharma distribution in India. Companies can non short-circuit stockists and sell straight to establishments or retail ironss. They may confront a prohibition from the stockists and sing the replacements available for each molecule, companies can non take the hazard of fring the gross revenues.

Retail Ironss

Organized pharmaceutics retail gross revenues in India are merely 3 % of the entire gross revenues. They can secure the stock from the stockists registered in the association ( AIOCD ) merely ( Manufacturers would non sell their merchandises straight to retails ironss ). The staying 97 % market is wholly controlled by the stockists ( There are many beds of stockists or distributers based on the volume and part they operate in ). Gross saless representatives do seldom come and speak with the concerned distribution directors in the retail ironss to sell their merchandises.

Institutional providers

Institutional supplies are 7 % of the entire drug gross revenues in India. Distribution for establishments happen either through stockist or straight from the company CFA. Companies bid for the stamps passed by these establishments like major PSUs ( Public Sector Units ) including NTPC, BHEL etc.

Importance of Pharmaceutical SCM compared to other SCM:

End-user ( i.e. patient ) safety

Anti-counterfeiting demands

Merchandise unity

Quality confidence

Fraud bar and sensing

Electronic signature demands

Records entree and keeping demands

Merchandise tracking

Drugs must transport alone identifiers at the point degree

Tracking from maker to distributers and point-of-use

Uncertainty in Indian pharmaceutical supply concatenation:

Inventory and back-order degrees fluctuate well across the supply concatenation even when client demand does n’t change.

The variableness worsens as we travel “ up ” the supply concatenation.

Prediction does n’t assist maker much to foretell demand with less forecast mistake.

Factors lending to uncertainness:

Demand prediction patterns

Min-max stock list direction

Lead clip

Longer lead times lead to greater variableness in estimations of mean demand, therefore increasing variableness and safety stock costs

Batch telling

Extremums and vales in orders

Fixed ordination costs

Impact of transit costs ( e.g., fuel costs )

Gross saless quotas

Monetary value fluctuations

Promotion and price reduction policies

Lack of centralised information

Supply Chain Model

For be aftering the distribution of drugs, Indian companies follow two theoretical accounts,

1 ) Refilling theoretical account

2 ) Forecast based theoretical account

Replenishment theoretical account

Merchandise gross revenues are monitored daily from the supply nodes and based on the demand and handiness ; merchandises are replenished it at the front terminal by the old supply concatenation node. It is an end-to-end solution affecting the front terminal distribution system, operations and procurance every bit good. It enables the company to be more nimble in run intoing market demands.

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Manage stock list without surplus or deficit of stock list decently.

Stocking infinite will be less across supply concatenation.


Keeping the path of the gross revenues and inventory day-to-day and frequent supplies will be tough.

This theoretical account is followed by Dr.Reddys Laboratories. It is portion of Pull scheme.

Forecast based theoretical account

Gross saless are forecasted based on the old gross revenues and the program for the present twelvemonth and so merchandises are supplied sporadically. It will work out best for the company as directing the stock one time a month or two weeks based on the stockist stock list will be much easier for the company.

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Lead clip to present drugs will be less.

Reduce stock list transporting cost will be less for maker.


Stockist requires more inventory managing infinite to hive away stocks.

Forecast mistakes may take to immense loss across supply concatenation.

This theoretical account is used by Ranbaxy. It is a portion of Push scheme.

Chapter 02

Literature Review


Title: Efficient Supply Chain Management is Essential for Pharmaceutical Industry in India


A brief overview about Indian pharmaceutical supply concatenation. 95 % of domestic demand is met by Indian companies merely. Indian Pharmaceutical companies are turning in a really rapid gait but the distribution system is non unbroken gait with growing. Such inefficiency is really high in the extremely disconnected industry. This article besides accent on the pharmaceutical companies must concentrate on bettering supply concatenation thereby bettering value to the client.

Pharmaceutical companies have to get the better of several challenges which they face today universe like be aftering for stuff and capacity, procurance, fabricating measure and clip, till the concluding bringing. To convey efficiency in supply concatenation they must follow some techniques like prediction and planning, procurance and client relationship direction.

Most of import intent in supply concatenation is to guarantee right merchandise at right clip and right topographic point, in the right status to people who are enduring from the disease. Entire industry needs to better substructure to better the effectivity. Different types of systems like warehouse direction systems, transport direction systems etc. can better effectivity. ( Singh & A ; Arcot, 2012 )


Title: Probe of Supply Chain Risk in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry


Pharmaceutical Supply concatenation is confronting several challenges to last and win in a competitory environment which is more complicated and unsure. Cuting border is R & A ; D for pharmaceutical industry which suffers from terrible hazards like natural stuff deficits, quality of merchandise demand fluctuations etc.

In this article, hazard in supply concatenation is categorized into supply related, production related, demand related and other hazards. Using 5-point graduated table, they evaluated the hazard by

Frequency of happening

Impact of hazard

Based on the consequences, they developed hypothesis for the hazards with high frequence of happening & A ; really high impact on supply concatenation. From the survey, the grounds for hazard which make it hazardous are ‘Non- Availability of natural stuff ”. This is due to fluctuation of demand. This article helps to concentrate on hazard factors. ( Mahendran, Narasimhan, Nagarajan, & A ; S, 2011 )


Title: Supply Chain Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Key to Further Enhancing Shareholder Value


There are several issues sing pharmaceutical industry lies in supply concatenation are transport substructure, logistics and others. Inefficiencies anyplace in the supply concatenation will cut down the opportunities of the maker success.

Four Fundamentalss of SCM in Pharmaceutical industry:

Customer satisfaction and Optimize supply concatenation costs

Undertaking barriers between internal maps

Efficient and effectual direction of stuff, money and information flows throughout supply concatenation.

Both internal and external customer/supplier relationship.

Addition to all the issues, turning tendency in e-commerce engineerings will besides better the satisfaction & A ; efficiency of supply concatenation. These engineerings will assist in cut downing supply concatenation costs. ( Sweeney, 2006 )


Title: Effectiveness of Automatic Inventory Replenishment in supply concatenation operations


Most of import facet of pharmaceutical SCM is replenish of stocks at right clip at right measure. This will assist to keep the minimum stock degree i.e. safety stock.

Aspects of refilling to be considered to be

Decrease in clip to refill.

Forecasting will assist makers to be after


Better communicating links between the beds of supply concatenation


Guaranting the handiness of drugs & A ; Service sweetenings.

Holocene technique called Automatic Inventory Replenishment ( ARP ) is adopted by many taking companies like P & A ; G. Automatic Inventory Replenishment ( ARP ) technique which came to visualize when planetary competition pushed the companies to travel towards effectual stock list direction. It is apparent through the consequence of P & A ; G ‘s consequence in USA after following Automatic Inventory Replenishment to keep retail stock lists. Three major factors required for ARP techniques are dealing cost analysis, strategic consideration of house and organisational factors. ARP to go effectual IT plays major function in associating several parts of supply concatenation. ( Myers, Daughtery, & A ; Autry, 2000 )


Title: The Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Diagnosis of the State-of-the-Art


The pharmaceutical supply concatenation is a complex hence the best patterns in this industry is more of import. Proper probe is done to happen the relationship between cardinal concern drivers, supply concatenation substructure, and concern patterns to measure the effectivity of the supply ironss. In add-on to the differences in the demand features, there is a really alone job of incentive alliance between the maker and the distributer.

( Singh M., 2005 )


Title: Supply Chain in the Pharmaceutical Industry


Pull offing supply concatenation of pharmaceutical industry is done through engineering. Technology will ever has a important influence on the ability to supply and present wellness attention services. Monitoring the marks and comparison with the marks. It can better the health care environment and alter the manner health care is delivered, doing bringing better, faster, cheaper and more accessible to an ever-greater population.

Technology roadmap for visualising the engineering capableness and its result both depends on success of the platform. IT platform would assist to make vision of bettering the bringing of service and cut down load besides. Possibilities are eternal but triggers and mark are of import to convey alteration in supply concatenation. The roadmap for the merchandises which is making the client by publicities and consciousness. ( Whewell, 2009 )

Chapter 03

Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design

The design of the research conducted takes the signifier of by which basic cognition is generated, elucidations will be brought into relevant issues, the information needed and options need for the research uncovered. Research designs are concerned with turning the research inquiry into a testing undertaking. The best design depends on your research inquiry.

3.2 Aims of the survey

Primary aims:

To happen the range of EDI and EFT in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Secondary Aims:

Percept about EDI and EFT in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

3.3 Significance of survey

The rubric of the undertaking is aˆ• ” A survey on range of EDI and EFT in Pharmaceutical supply concatenation ”.

The rubric is really much important sing the present scenario. For this it is really of import to analyze the knowledge degree of EDI and EFT from participants in supply concatenation and besides to understand the factors considered by them. So the study helped understand the supply concatenation and based on that I was able to do illations and give suggestions on what stairss could be taken to digitize pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

3.4 Methodology

The purpose is to estimate response towards EDI & A ; EFT in Pharmaceutical supply concatenation. The general degree of cognition and demands of pharmaceutical supply concatenation participants towards EDI & A ; EFT. This information will be done by online and printed questionnaire. The indispensable properties that thrust and impact the supply concatenation endeavors.

3.5 Data Collection tools

Primary Research:

The primary information was collected by questioning the respondents and so giving them a printed questionnaire. A study was conducted among the pharmaceutics mercantile establishments in Bangalore by the assistance of well-structured questionnaire. The elaborate description of the questionnaires is given below. The inquiries contained in the questionnaire are of two types:

1. Close-Ended Questions:

These are the types of inquiries where the respondent is supposed to choose a response from the given set of options below the inquiries. The questionnaire had 28 near complete inquiries.

2. Open- Ended Questions:

Where the respondent was given a opportunity to answer or give suggestions to the company. The questionnaire had 1 unfastened ended inquiries as the measuring of the responses would be hard in unfastened ended inquiries.

The different types of scaling techniques used to mensurate the response of the respondents were:

1. Likert Scale: Here the respondents are asked to bespeak a grade of importance with each of a series of statement. Each graduated table point has five responses runing from most of import to least of import.

2. Interval Scale: This graduated table is used to mensurate common statistical steps such as scope, standard divergence and correlativity. A research worker gauges penchant, wishing or importance of a peculiar facet of trade name on a uninterrupted footing and distance between one points of graduated table to another is same.

Secondary Research:

a ) Internal Secondary Data: Data from the company itself which the company already has.

B ) External Secondary Data: Datas from Company websites, booklets and newspapers.

3.6 Sampling Techniques

The sampling technique used for the research was random sampling. Different pharmacy mercantile establishments were picked across Chennai indiscriminately.

Sample Size

The first measure in carry oning a research is to place the people who are concerned with the several country of research. Based on this information, the sample can be determined through which the research can be conducted.

3.7 Methodology

Hypothesis 1:

Null Hypothesis: There is no range for EFT in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Alternate Hypothesis: There is a important range for EFT in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Hypothesis 2:

Null Hypothesis: There is no range for EDI in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Alternate Hypothesis: There is a important range for EDI in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Hypothesis 3:

Null Hypothesis: All these factors has important part for preferring EFT by companies in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Alternate Hypothesis: All these factors do n’t hold important part for preferring EFT by companies in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Hypothesis 4:

Null Hypothesis: All these factors has important part for preferring EDI by companies in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.

Alternate Hypothesis: All these factors do n’t hold important part for preferring EDI by companies in pharmaceutical supply concatenation.


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