The Issues Facing Management and Leadership Essay

In this essay, I will discourse issues sing direction, leading and the theories they are related to. I will besides show how cognition of the theories of direction and employment jurisprudence and relevant statute law can make a harmonious working environment.

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I will try to exemplify how I manage people within my domain of duty for effectual public presentation.

I manage the Nurse Bank at the East London and City Mental Health Trust. I manage two staff in the office and have over 1500 bank nurses who work both in permanent and impermanent capacity.

My chief function is to guarantee that wards are adequately staffed and that I minimise the Trust disbursement on Agency staff. My strategic function is to look at the long-run job of enlisting and keeping in Mental Health. I have to guarantee that new statute law such as the Working Time Directives are implemented and adhered to. I besides have to integrate the NHS program and model in my aims and ends.

I will try to reply the pull offing people faculty by giving a definition of Management and associating it to its theories.

Is there a standard definition of Management?

Management is a complex and ever-changing art and hence any definition is likely to be combative.

Henri Fayol defined direction as “ prognosis and program, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to command. ”

Chartered direction Institute defined direction as ; the usage of professional accomplishments for placing energy in an organizational aim through the deployment of appropriate resources.

There are several theories of direction ; Frederick Taylor who pioneered scientific direction, advocated for the participative civilization linked to impressions of satisfaction. He represented a more democratic, humanistic attack to the usage of chief in administration.

The scientific attack called for elaborate observation and measurings of even the most everyday work, to happen the optimal manner of public presentation. Charles Handy ( 1999 ) , classical direction theory proposed that effectual public presentation of a squad was dependent on the environment, which includes the place of a leader, relationship with the group, organizational norms, construction and engineering.

Could it be that of the above definition of Charles Handy was depicting the transformational leader?

One of the schemes for larning and transmutation is to tap in the shared values of the administration. The construct of transforming the leading refers to the procedure of act uponing followings or staff by animating them or drawing them towards the vision of the hereafter province. The latter exhibits magnetic inspiration, rational stimulation any single consideration.

What is leading?

There is some confusion between the footings leading manner and direction manner with a position taken here is that leading refers to some facets of direction such as way and counsel of squads and persons.

Kotter 1990 has successfully drawn the differentiation between direction and leading. Management is about get bying with complexness ; direction brings a grade of order and consistence to maintain dimensions like the quality and profitableness of merchandises. Leadership by contrast is about get bying with alteration.

Leadership is about tomorrow, emotional skyline and alteration direction. The perceptual experiences of leading ‘s are to prosecute as spouses in developing and accomplishing a shared vision and ended in enabling us to take.

Pull offing and taking are two different ways of organizing people. The director uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and splashs in gesture.

Jumaa and Alleyene ‘s action and procedure ( 1998 ) is based on the hierarchy of clinical squad issues and the construct of strategic acquisition. It concludes that effectual clinical squad leading will take topographic point when clinical class is expressed and clinical procedures are clear and relationships are unfastened. For illustration satisfactions between stakeholders, clinicians and directors.

Will the NHS needs a more transformational manner of leading?

The NHS needs a more ‘transformational ‘ manner of leading, a manner which emphasises puting a way, actuating people and pull offing important alteration.

The quality of the leaders needed by the NHS do non merely emerge ; it is frequently misguided that those who are skilled in one facet of health care or who have risen to senior degree will in fact automatically do good leaders. To a big grade the accomplishments of leading can be taught acquired and flopped although of class persons will change in the disbursal to which they are able to deploy these accomplishments.

Leadership is about puting in developing the accomplishments and endowments of professionals who can exert those accomplishments at whatever degree they work.

Equiping nurses with leading accomplishments is non about taking them off from patient but enabling front-line staff to take forward the modernization docket. Nestling tissue plan has a major impact in many countries if nurses feel sceptered and can implement patient attention in the ways they wish, they are less likely to go forth the profession.

Administration can be defined as systems of behavior to enable worlds and there machine to carry through a joint map of human features in the nature of the undertaking in administrations like the NHS which put patient foremost and seek to incorporate all facets of attention. Separate leading programmes for nurses physicians and manages looks progressively anachronic.

Theories of motive such as that pioneered by Abraham Maslow ( 1943 ) presented the human being as a sort of psychological being fighting to fulfill its demand for a pursuit for employment. This theory, which suggested that worlds are motivated by hierarchy of demand come oning through the physiological, the societal, and the psychological, had really powerful deduction, for it suggested that bureaucratic administration which sought to actuate employees through money, or by simply supplying unafraid occupation, can happen the human development to the lower degrees of the demand of hierarchy.

Whilst classical theoreticians were concerned with construction and mechanics of administration, the theoreticians of human dealingss were concerned with the human factor. The focal point of human dealingss theory is on motive, group motive and leading. At the Centre of this is the focal point on premises about relationship between employers and employee.

Argyris studied the demands of people and demands of administration. He felt that classical theoretical accounts of administration promoted ‘immaturity ‘ . He felt that it was of import to understand the demands of people and incorporate them with demands of administration. Merely in this manner can employees go co-operative instead than defensive or aggressive.

Within my domain of work I endeavour to guarantee that there are clear messages and bipartisan communications between Directors, staff and myself. Changes such as the new wage docket have created a feeling of disenchantment within staff and I have to maintain them informed of the state of affairs to cut down uncertainness and advance trust. The above was achieved through a newssheet that was sent out to all staff.

The authoritative work of motive by Frederick Taylor in the 1950s when he formulated the motive hygiene tool, he identified several factors, such as salary degrees working conditions and company policy, which demotivated instead than motivated staff.

For illustration, one time a just degree of wage is established, money ceases to be a important incentive for long-run public presentation. He applied the analogy that if the washroom is clean, no one cares if the floor is scrubbed even harder. The point is that you can non and heighten squad public presentation through these hygiene factors. What are important is the local environment and peculiarly the manner in which you interact with your squad.

For e.g. when I freshly qualified and was working as a staff nurse, one the patients who had a Pneumothrax had stepped on his tubing, I acted rapidly and followed the necessary processs. I was subsequently congratulated by the ward Sister who told me that she felt I dealt with the state of affairs really good, she made a written note on my file and asked me to organize a instruction session for the other staff. I felt appreciated and looking back I realise that she encouraged me to portion good pattern every bit good as acknowledged my part on the ward.

The positive motive factor that the Ward Sister gave me was congratulations, acknowledgment, the work itself, duty and promotion. These are what a squad needs, tonss of money is nice but non about as being valued and trusted. Leadership should be about facilitation, deputation and grasp. It should supply way, inspiration and motive. A simple gratitude for a occupation or work done was a long manner to promote staff and hike morale to make more.

Health has ever been, and is ever likely to be, high on the docket of the authorities of the twenty-four hours. The NHS reform programme, and the importance attached to present service betterments, has merely function to increase this profile.

The NHS program has set disputing marks that we must run into and transcend if possible to do the service additions for patients demands. The authorities has made many pledges with respects to recruitment and keeping ; developing more nurses each twelvemonth, aiming cardinal fortes, more advisers and most significantly improved wage for staff.

There is a monolithic demand for alteration in the NHS. “ The vision is to offer people fast and convenient attention delivered to systematically high criterion. Services will be available when people required them, tailored to their single demands. “ Ours is a vision of the renewed public services ethos, a system that values the dedication of staff and believes that the trust is still the gum that binds the NHS together. “ ( NHS Plan July 2000 )

Is it reasonable and executable to pull off the NHS by marks, stars and traffic visible radiations?

How is the NHS actuating its staff, is it just to pour money in administrations that are already making good and punish the 1s that are fighting, this construct has puzzled me.

The resources and capablenesss need to be examined.

SWOT analysis ; look at the competences and resources available.

SWOT is an acronym for analyzing an administration ‘s strengths, failings, chances and menaces, and utilizing the consequence to place precedences for action ( Ansoff, 1965 ) . The chief principle-underlying SWOT is that internal and external factors must be considered at the same time, when placing facets of an administration that need to be changed.

When they have done so they can find the preparedness and capableness of these persons and groups to interact the functions required of them in the alteration procedure. Understanding the preparedness involves analyzing attitudes: willingness, more motivations and purposes.

In wellness attention administrations power is derived from a figure of different beginnings this is non easy to place as in other industries. In any alteration direction procedure the location of power and the usage to which it will be put demands to be known by those trying to take the procedure.

One of the most common ways to get the better of opposition to alterations to educate people about it beforehand. Communication of thoughts held people to see the demand for in the logic of the alteration. Employees are more likely to be committed to their work if they have a say in it. They are more inclined to believe and back up determination which they have had some input. Employees will be motivated by successfully accomplishing a specific occupation in such as finishing a occupation, work outing a job.

The Working clip directives ( WTD ) 1998, was a statute law that came in to consequence by the European Court of jurisprudence with respects to impermanent staff being entitled to one-year leave. Bank staff were used to work all through the twelvemonth and the alteration in statute law meant that they needed to hold a interruption for their ain benefit and for Health and Safety grounds. There was a batch of opposition sing this issue as staff felt that they would lose out financially. A user group meeting was set up by myself where each section allocated a representative to go to and to voice their concerns, one time they realised that the directive was for their ain benefit, they no longer resisted to any alteration proposal. By informing the staff of the issues environing the WTD and that they were traveling to acquire paid for the clip off that we were expecting for them to take, staff were more co-operative and less aggressive

The feeling of accomplishment is similar to when you finish a race ; unluckily a sense of accomplishment in finishing a specific undertaking does non last really long. In this regard we as directors have to guarantee that we provide the chances to employees to see achievement on a regular basis. Recognition is a strong incentive in most people ; it is merely an recognition and grasp of a individual part to the administration.

How frequently do NHS workers feel that they are being appreciated?

Is it being reflected in their wage or in their working hours?

A major job within the NHS is the enlisting and keeping of staff. Politicians make all these promises and alterations without explicating them to the workers therefore non holding a shared vision.

The Chief Executive of Sainsbury ‘s motivates his staff by being on the store floor one time a hebdomad and arrive at the mercantile establishment unannounced to see it as a client. Why does the NHS non portion the same passion as this company, is it because the NHS is a non-profit administration?

As Sir Peter Davis ( Chartered Management Institute Gold Medal Winner May 2003 ) ; “ Companies that do good hold a clear scheme which focuses on the consumer or stop client and responds rapidly to what the client wants. ”

A catalogue of hapless attention and support from stakeholders such as employer ‘s clinical director ‘s squad leaders and patients hinders nurse ‘s attitudes. For illustration if a nurse has finished her displacement 15 proceedingss earlier is non allowed to travel place, nevertheless this nurse has antecedently spent an hr over her normal on the job hours because the wards was excessively busy. Inappropriate attitude like this and deficiency of acknowledgment of the staffing could do nurses experience thankless and therefore leave the profession that they love.

The NHS wants to enroll high quality of nurses with the right accomplishments and right attitude. This may somehow deliver the nursing crisis. Poor communicating of administration purposes and alone aims bounds effectiveness and misinterpretations.

If administrations do n’t believe strategically about their enlisting demands, they will happen themselves enrolling people who can make the occupation now instead than those who have the possible to take into the hereafter. I have an active function in the enlisting of staff for the Nurse Bank at the ELCMHT. It is important to enroll the right quality of qualified every bit good as unqualified staff. I have enquires from people from different walks of life and I have to choose the people with the right experience and attitude to working with vulnerable people.

Recruitment and Retention ( R & A ; R ) of staff is one of the cardinal constituents of modernization and betterment set out within the NHS program. The Government has set the mark to enroll over 30,000 forces over the following four old ages. Recruitment has been damaged by a turning public perceptual experience that it an atrocious topographic point to work.

To pull back the work force, the NHS has to do itself an attractive topographic point to work. The human resource public presentation model has three clear aims: bettering working lives, flexible-working forms, flexible retirement and proviso of kid attention installations.

To avoid a staffing crisis in the coming decennary ; one of the public presentation steps linked to the fiscal resources that trust have would be based on the manner NHS employers handle its staff.

Enrolling the incorrect quality of staff may impede enthusiasm, gifted staff can acquire fed up and travel on, and both the administration and its people stagnate.

By go toing the Pull offing people faculty, I have developed new thoughts to cover with the current enlisting and keeping job. I am trusting to study the staff to place what they want from the Trust. I am trusting to organize an action group to turn to the issues and to further understand what motivates staff when they wake up, what gets them out of bed?

I have besides learnt that if directors lack interview accomplishments, they are in danger of engaging unqualified people, who they will so be forced to mico-manage.

My vision is that by bettering R & A ; R, it will better the current working environment for staff and besides the bringing of services and criterions of patient attention.

Patients want to be treated by well-motivated, reasonably rewarded staff. By bettering R & A ; R rates will take to more effectual modernization of the service.

Senior nurses and Directors are loath to portion their cognition as they feel they may lose their power. Some of the implicit in grounds for this sort of attitudes are that there are competitions and competition.

Effective leading makes for a happier, productive work force and better quality staff keeping. ( Crouch 2002 ) .

Group motive arises non merely from single motive, but besides the ability of leading to develop squad spirit and obtain a high degree of committedness from squad members. This high degree of interaction encourages the openness of the squad to discourse and to go more compatible with the chase of undertaking. For illustration in a multidisciplinary squad, people come from different range of work to add value to patient ‘s attention by holding the appropriate accomplishment m

Capability is the capacity for a squad of resources to execute some undertaking or activity. While resources are the beginnings of a house ‘s capablenesss, capablenesss are the chief beginnings of its competitory advantage typical competency. ( Grant 1991 )

Within the NHS Framework, the 7 s attack is considered of import because of its double accent on “ soft ” organizational constituents ( manner, staff, accomplishments and shared values ) every bit good as the “ difficult ” ( scheme, construction and system ) .

The NHS will non be seen as a lovingness administration unless it invests in its work force preparation. If the NHS invests in its staff preparation so that they can achieve self-actualisation and experience a sense of belonging, organizational pride and motive, it will portray the NHS as a good lovingness employer that attract high quality staff and reduces inordinate work load.

Most nurses who are aspired to make farther developing to achieve higher making have to fund for their ain surveies and leave their occupation for better wage.

The working life criterion has enabled staff in the NHS to work for in an administration which can show its committedness to more flexible on the job conditions disputing traditional working forms and giving staff more control over their ain clip ; one which would supply the employee with one-year hours agreements, childcare support, cut down the hours options, flexible times, calling support, calling interruptions and through flexible retirement.

The kernel of attention arose from a committedness in doing a difference- the English nursing, obstetrics and health-visiting strategy- to research the benefits of work forces benchmarking to assist better attention. It is basically a toolkit designed to back up steps to better quality and contribute to the debut of clinical administration.

Kernel of attention helps practicians take a structured attack to sharing and comparing pattern, enabling them to place the best pattern and the occupation action programs to rectify hapless pattern. The benchmarking procedure has played an built-in portion in raising staff consciousness around indispensable facets of attention. It has motivated staff to go together to portion and expression at patterns and has empowered them to better local bringing through action planning. This has been achieved into the background of a clinical administration docket. National League, clinical authorities and has been the chief policy driver for the kernel of attention.

Clinical administration provides a platform for which indispensable facets of attention, for illustration nutrient and nutrition, personal and unwritten hygiene, privateness and self-respect are all accredited to good pattern. The importance given to them are by patients that staff has continued to have valued feedback for both positive and negative hiting stage of the benchmarking of the attention bringing system.

The construct of uninterrupted betterment is based on the premise that continually endeavoring to make high criterions in every portion of the administration would supply a series of incremental additions that will construct superior public presentation. In an environment dedicated to uninterrupted betterment, directors and squad leaders have a premier aim, the conveying out of new thoughts and construct from their staff.

My purpose is to organize for maneuvering groups to make an environment in which new thought is to be encouraged and welcome. My function and map would be to unlock an environment dedicated to uninterrupted betterment. For e.g. betterment groups, squad meetings, a suggestion strategies.

This faculty has exposed me to the success of administration, high criterions of quality is achieved trough people.

Quality is a race without a coating in which everyone in the administration takes parts it is a race against staff viing to accomplish and prolong first criterion of public presentation. Continuous quality public presentation is to enable powerless patients to specify the service they want, mensurate the first service they get and provides public presentation feedback to providers. Quality is achieved through civilization alteration, behaviour alteration and accomplishments proviso.

Entire quality public presentation is an intensive, long term attempt directed at the creative activity and care of the high criterion of merchandise quality and service expected by clients.

The term CLINLAP-Clinical Leadership Learning and Action Process is used when the focal point of the theoretical account is on nursing leading. LEADLAP-Leadership acquisition and action procedure is used within healthcare instruction, to ease a collaborative apprehension of the NHS ‘S cultural web, and how this consciousness and action enhances strategic alteration execution.

CLINLAP procedures are based on the premises that there is a spread between the clinical action and the administration needs.

LEADLAP is used in conditions of complexness, uncertainness, instability, and an environment where value conflicts abound. ( Jumaa and Alleyne )

CLINLAP challenges stiff, unproductive beliefs and premises. CLINLAP challenges the system ; oppugning premises ; understanding the grounds for making what you do. ( Jumaa & A ; Alleyne1998 )

Appraisals are the development demands of employees. The end of assessment is to run into the LOOP factor, which is legal, Occupational, Organisational and Personal.

Organizational public presentation is likely to be improved through the development of its members. The intent of assessment is enable employees to raise their degree of public presentation, to supply feedback and to alter things to back up the employee ‘s work and betterment, to develop and keep a clime of trust in which blunt treatment can take topographic point.

As a director I feel that the ability to make a clime of openness where subsidiaries feel free to ‘appraise ‘ is important, if a trough ‘s pattern is a hinderance to the employees making his/her occupation efficaciously and is non able to state you due to fear of the effects ; the occupation will non be performed optimally.

Staff development includes me as a director and this may besides include the betterment of my direction accomplishments and abilities, therefore this class. In the terminal it takes feeling of assurance and security to inquire members whether you ( as a Manager ) have any patterns, which make your occupation hard. For e.g. During my elected nurse preparation, I worked with a ward sister who had to hold all the beds done first thing in the forenoon instead than prioritizing and giving out her medicine or preparing patients for theater, my feelings are if I were to be appraised by this Ward Sister I may hold had to believe long earlier oppugning her pattern at the clip, nevertheless now I would decidedly oppugn her pattern.

Whose effectual public presentation are we mensurating?

Peoples normally need to be clear about how the hereafter province will look like. Project direction attack will let a ‘fit ‘ between the actions and those of you ‘re the organizational demands.

Project direction is a set of rules, methods, tools and techniques for the effectual direction of objective-oriented work in the context of a particular and alone organizational environment. For e.g. there is an effort from the Government to implement NHS professionals, a nurse bank to take over the supply of impermanent staffing throughout London.

Project direction is about seting people in the right way. When a spread has been identified for e.g. ( SWOT Analysis ) , a undertaking direction attack trades with the job.

Undertakings are organizational activities that are different from the organisational/unit or section.

Undertaking have specific purpose and aims, it has limited timescales and THEIMM.

THEIMM is an acronym for clip, human, equipment, information, stuff and money.

Project direction focal point on accomplishing ends, it develops new work patterns accomplishments across squads.

LEADLAP five strategic inquiries can help and guarantee reaching of in agreement ends. These inquiries are:

Where do we desire to travel?

Where are we now?

How can we acquire to our pattern end

Which path must we take to acquire to our end and

What must we make on our journey, and look into advancement to guarantee that we get to our pattern end?

The end is to help to happen practical and agreed SMART ( specific, mensurable, accomplishable, realistic and relevant clip edge ) solutions for the undertaking.

The ability to set undertakings together requires analytical and planning expertness and undertaking direction. These are needed to construct capacity rapidly.

The NHS has strived to run in a ‘no blasted civilization ‘ ; it has policies and processs in topographic point to cover with issues such as grudge, wellness & A ; safety, reding, confer withing, networking and relationships.

The above policies are in topographic point top promote equity and order in the intervention of persons and in the behavior of industrial dealingss. The regulations that are set criterions of behavior at work guarantee that criterions are adhered to supply a just method of covering with alleged failures to detect them.

In decision the NHS is an employer that needs to recognize the alone nature of the work force and form employment pattern to supply the best chance to enroll and retain high quality staff. A Leadership and communicating accomplishments need to interpret good in the new administration civilization. A simple expression for success: “ Dainty people good, in bend, they treat their patients good. Happy employees equal client satisfaction. ”

There is a recognized demand to construct capacity and capableness in the direction of people and organizational alteration.


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