The methodological considerations for this survey have foundations in the qualitative research. This chapter summarizes and explains the research methodological analysis utilized in this survey and the research inquiries the informations aggregation pursued. The research was conducted in the signifier of a instance survey and employed three chief methods to garner grounds: in deepness interview, observation and papers reappraisal.
3.1 Research Design and Method
Research design and method is in a consecutive line for linking the job of statement and aim of the research. The methodological analysis research is larning about the research ordinances. ( Usman dan Akbar, 2003:42 )
There are two major research approaches good known which are: Qualitative research and Quantitative research. Qualitative research is one of the methods that used for make a research in societal scientific disciplines. The qualitative research is linking human behavior to hold an in deepness apprehension and the grounds that regulations the human behavior. Different from the quantitative research, qualitative research are depends on the grounds behind a assortment facets of behavior. The simple manner in explicating the qualitative research was the qualitative research used to happen out the ground why and how to do a determination, will be compared to what, where and when of the qualitative research. Therefore, the used of qualitative research normally is on the smaller but focused samples instead than big random samples. That is why qualitative research categorizes its informations into a few parts such as the chief base for forming and describing consequences. ( Moleong, 2002:3 )
The research worker in this research will utilize the Qualitative method for this research which is harmonizing to Denzin and Licoln ( 1994: 104 ) stated as “ Qualitative research is multi method in focal point, affecting and interpretative, realistic attack to its capable affair. This means that qualitative research is study things in the natural scene, trying to do sense of or construe phenomena in footings of the usage and aggregation of a assortment of empirical stuffs – instance survey, personal experience, introspective, life narrative, interview, experimental, historical, interactive and ocular texts – that describe everyday and debatable minutes and significances in persons ‘ lives. Consequently, qualitative research workers deploy a broad scope of interrelated methods, trusting ever to acquire a better hole on the capable affair. ” ( Denzin and Licoln, 1994: 104 “ Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition ” )
The ground for the research worker to utilize the qualitative research is because of its capableness would be able to allow the research worker closely involved with the research participants. Harmonizing to Daymon and Holloway ( 2002:23 ) it will be able to assist the research worker to hold a better understood about the motives of human existences, the societal procedures and the portion in which people are situated at.
Harmonizing to Cresswell ( 1994:145 ) , a qualitative research is descriptive in that the research worker is interested in procedure, significance and apprehension gained through the words or images. He divides the qualitative research into five major of Qualitative Research Types and identifies the type challenges of each manner of probe which are the Biography, Phenomenology, Grounded Theory, Ethnography and Case Study.
A instance survey is an intensive scrutiny, utilizing multiple beginnings of grounds of a individual entity which is bounded by clip and topographic point. Usually it is associated with a location. The “ instance ” may be an organisation, a set of people such as a societal or work group, a community, an event, a procedure, and issue or run.
The research worker used Case Study Research as the type and identifies cardinal challenges. The intent of instance survey research is to increase cognition about existent, modern-day communicating events in their context. In consequence, the research worker is taking to convey to life the niceties of managed communicating by depicting a ball of “ world ” .
At a simplistic degree, qualitative method is more towards on associating to the words as the portion of analysis, whereas quantitative method tends to be linked with Numberss. Unlike quantitative research where a research program and nonsubjective are purely defined from beginning, qualitative research normally evolves during the research procedure ( Daymon and Holloway, 2002:5-6 ) :
Qualitative research focuses on words instead than Numberss, although on occasion Numberss are used to bespeak the frequence that a subject is found in transcripts or the extent to which is a signifier of action occurs.
The chief research “ instrument ” in qualitative research is the research worker her or himself who closely engages with the people being studied.
Participant point of views
The demand to look into and demo the different subjective positions of participants is associated with qualitative research. Its privileging of subjectiveness is besides seen in the manner that the reading of the information is influenced by the research worker ‘s ain life together with their engagement with people in survey.
Small graduated table surveies
Qualitative research workers are interested in deep geographic expedition in order to supply rich, elaborate, holistic description every bit good as account. Therefore, a promenade samples are norm.
Holistic focal point
Rather than directing their attending to one or two stray variables, qualitative research workers tend to be oriented to a broad scope of interrelated activities, experiences, beliefs and value of people in footings of the context in which they are situated.
Although research workers have a subject and an docket which fuel their research advancement, they are normally excessively committed to researching new and frequently surprising avenues that emerge as sources reveal their apprehensions and involvements. Research procedures may be unstructured, adaptable and sometimes self-generated.
Qualitative research seldom provides statistic portrayals of phenomena. Alternatively it aims to capture processes that take topographic point over clip. The frequently drawn-out battle of research workers with their research scenes means that qualitative research is able to be attuned to alter, sequences of events and behaviors and the transmutation of civilizations.
On the hole qualitative probes are carried out in people ‘s natural environment such as their offices or where they shop. This enables research workers to detect how they go about their everyday activities and interactions. However, this is non ever the instance as many focal point groups involve groups of aliens run intoing together in an unfamiliar scene such as conference room. Even here, nevertheless the research workers attempt to prosecute with participants about their natural scene.
Inductive and deductive
Qualitative research tends to get down out with inductive logical thinking and so trough a consecutive procedure, employs deductive logical thinking. This means that you foremost acquire thoughts out by associating them to the literature and to your farther informations aggregation and analysis ( tax write-off ) . Theory, hence, emerges chiefly out of informations aggregation instead than being generated from the literature and tested through fieldwork. The literature reappraisal at the start of survey Acts of the Apostless to steer the survey merely.
The research worker would wish to utilize qualitative research method. The ground is because the qualitative research method ability would assist the research worker to be closely involved with the research participants. Harmonizing to Daymon and Holloway ( 2002:606 ) , this will assist the research worker to hold the better understood about the societal procedures, the motives of human existences and contexts in which they are situated.
Table 3.1 the advantage and disadvantage of utilizing Qualitative Research Method.
complex world need more perfect look
Probe that can include all the things that it is so hard to concentrate
Continually hypothesis alterations to concentrate the probe
Recognition of multiple worlds
A more balanced representation in a assorted of stakeholders
It may hold a hard to reunite the differences and mensurating in how representative they are
Cautious in aiming
Heuristic, interpretive and inductive
To be more understanding about the procedure
Reinvestigate once more to all the things that it is hard to concentrate with
By utilizing a systematic of computing machine analysis can make the continual polish of hypotheses skilled and focused searching
Requires in-depth-face-to-face field work
A healthier relationships with the respondents to hold a better communicating in each other to acquire a more accurate information
A skilled probe is a needed
A close supervising and preparation of field helpers
Cardinal importance of outside research worker
By holding an external apprehension, it can hold a more balanced apprehension than the insiders
Probes that possibly excessively influenced by the research worker subjectively positions
reflecting on ain prejudices and biass detailed recording by invariably
Focus on information from persons every bit good as groups
Better apprehension of differences and the ability to obtain the peculiar information
It may be hard to decide the differences and mensurate how representative they are close relationships that can give a greater graduated table for use and false applications by source to raise an ethical issues of confidential
developing a good degrees of relationship trueness to an ethical policy by triangulation the detailed of entering
Record what is go oning instead than act uponing events
Information of the probe may be more dependable if it is non influenced by outlooks or fright of effects
The extractive of assessment procedure may non do any part to plan or policy development
Concentration to the airing methods
( Beginning: Daymon and Halloway, 2002 )
Unit of measurement of Analysis
In the qualitative research approaches that analysis of the information does non take any topographic point in a individual phase after the research worker have collected all the information. It has to be a uninterrupted, systematic procedure which was at the same clip runs with the informations aggregation. When the research worker has finished roll uping all the informations, the research worker may experience overwhelmed by the immense sum of grounds that the research worker has accumulated from even a little graduated table survey. Through a short period of clip, it looks like the research worker will hold acquired a aggregation of field notes, company studies and records, e-mails, research journals or transcripts of interviews. The procedure of conveying order, construction and significance to this mass of unstructured informations are data analysis. ( Daymon and Holloway, 2002:231 )
Qualitative research can assist the research worker to reply the research inquiries because the research is would wish to research present the assorted subjective positions of participants which may take to findings for the research worker answer the inquiries. The information variables are generated from interview with the sources.
Questions which the research worker should inquire themselves at the beginning and which will inform the design of the sampling scheme are the similar for both quantitative and qualitative research. The samples of inquiries are:
What is the cardinal merchandise of PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk?
What is the historical demand for PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk merchandises on the bing and future demand vs. supply for chocolate merchandises globally and in the part?
What is the affect for PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk when the Crisis is happened?
What PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk estimated market portion in its principal markets?
How is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk pricing power against the other rivals?
What are the cardinal commercial footings for each of PT.Davomas Abadi, Tbk clients and providers?
Does PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk have any web site which can be browse from the Internet as we know that this Company is a go public company?
How about the regulative, how was it affected to the Company concern operations?
How is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk stock list direction policies?
How is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk quality control system?
What are PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk gross revenues and selling scheme for its major merchandises, markets and clients?
What is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbkb latest production capacity enlargement program?
What is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk concern growing scheme, including new merchandises, clients and markets?
Why does PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk prefer to sell their merchandise to trader/ distributers other than terminal clients?
What is the scheme for PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk to accomplish its projected gross and net income for the following five old ages?
What is PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk most important challenges over the following three old ages? What is being done to get the better of them?
All of the above are interdependent ; nevertheless some of the inquiries require a more elaborate treatment with respect to their application in a qualitative research environment.
Time, budgetary and other resource restraints may impact on the qualitative sample design but should non be allowed to sabotage it. The nature of the informations aggregation method ( e.g. cognitive, in-depth or group interview ) , the human resources available to the undertaking and their accomplishments base are besides of import considerations.
Based on my theses research, the standards of PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk internal sources are the right individual in the top direction division who can explicate about the Company operations, distribution and selling procedure which are suited for the theses research subject.
The internal sources or respondents in PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk as interviewee are:
Head of selling division
Is the individual who responsible in marketing the merchandise.
Head of merchandising and distribution division
Is the individual who focuses on sale activities and administering the merchandise
Data Generation Procedure
The research worker has gathered two sorts of informations which are the primary informations through in-depth interview and observation. For the secondary information was through books, web sites, mass media and internal docudrama beginnings from PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk.
The process to acquire those informations was the research worker got the permission from PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk to entree informations that needed for the research. The research worker was allowed by PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk to take the representative sources to be interviewed and supported documental beginnings to back up the research.
Data Generation Instrument
In this research, a combination of more than one position is frequently used to confirm the information because, traditionally, it is claimed that this scheme provides a more complete image.
Harmonizing to Bingham and Moore ( 1959:59 ) in Daymon and Holloway ( 2002: 166 ) in the term of utilizing “ conversation with a intent ” for the qualitative research interview is to allow the research worker and informant become “ colloquial spouses. ”
Harmonizing to Lindlof ( 1995 ) in Daymon and Holloway ( 2002 ) , questioning is more than merely conversation. There is ever a intent and normally some signifier of construction. The intent and the grade of construction are conceived by one individual, the research worker, who organizes the interview negotiations in such a manner as to cover the subjects of involvement to him or her and who moves the treatment in a coveted way by inquiring most of the inquiries.
The value of interviews is that they are really flexible because the replies given by interviewers inform the germinating conversation. Another benefit of interviewers is that the informations collected by the research worker are situated within their ain societal context ( Daymon and Holloway, 2002:166 ) . Qualitative research workers by and large employ the unstructured or semi-structured interview because structured interviews tend to smother the flexibleness that is so valued in qualitative research. ( Daymon and Holloway, 2002:169 )
In unstructured, non standardized interviews there are no preset inquiries except at the really get downing when the research workers starts with a general inquiries in the wide country of survey. An docket or a list of subjects helps the research worker focal point through the class of the interview. The result of unstructured interviews differs for each source. Informants are free to reply at length, so that great deepness and item can be obtained.
Semi structured or focussed interviews are frequently used in qualitative research. The inquiries are contained in an interview usher with a focal point on the issues or subjects countries to be covered and the lines of enquiry to be followed. The interview usher allows researcher to develop inquiries prior to questioning and so make up one’s mind which issues to prosecute. ( Daymon and Holloway, 2002:170 )
West and Turner ( 2007:81 ) had named interview method with depth interview. Depth interviews are a method that allows interviewers to inquiries respondents in the hopes of obtaining information about a phenomenon of involvement. West and Turner mentioned that deepness interview are, at most semi structured by the interviewer. There are seen by research workers as coaction between interviewer and participant wants to discourse is at least every bit of import as what the interviewer had expected to discourse. Researchers using deepness interviews are interested in the waies in which respondents wish to take the interview. They are non as concerned with proving hypotheses as they are in happening out about the experiences of the respondents.
In interviewing, a figure of techniques and practical points must be considered so that the informations are recorded and stored suitably. These include:
Tape-recording the interview
Transcribing the interview
Note taking during the interview
Note pickings after the interview
Observation is a familiar procedure to most of us, and as Adler and Adler ( 1994: 118 ) in Daymon and Holloway ( 2002: 203 ) suggest, it is the cardinal base of all research methods, or as the primary research techniques in a survey, it provides an of import agencies of accessing and understanding the ways in which people act and communicatively interact.
Observation requires a systematic noting and recording of events, artifacts and behaviors of sources as they occur in specific state of affairss instead than as they are subsequently remembered, recounted and generalized by participants themselves.
Gold ( 1958: 67 ) proposed four “ maestro functions ” for the research worker, which is:
The research worker will be take parting in pervert or illegal activities and the research worker is seeking to act upon and alter the group way.
Participant as perceiver
The research worker is take parting in pervert or illegal activities but the research worker will non seeking to act upon the group way.
Observer as participant
The research worker is take parting merely in a erstwhile pervert or illegal activity but so the research worker takes in a back place for the other farther activities.
The research worker go one of the group parts but the research worker would non take part in any aberrant or illegal activities.
Secondary informations analysis refers to the procedure of seeking for and construing bing information relevant to the research objectives. Secondary informations are those that have been collected for some other purpose which include information found in books, diaries, magazines, studies, bulletins, newssheets, Internet, and so on. An analysis of secondary informations is frequently the nucleus of explorative research ( Stewart, 1984 ) . This is because there are many benefits to analyzing secondary informations as highlighted in the undermentioned list:
Secondary informations can be obtained rapidly, in contrast to roll uping primary informations, which may take several months from get downing to stop. Research workers can easy travel to the Internet and rapidly happen a great trade of secondary informations at no disbursal.
Secondary informations are cheap in comparing to primary informations. Though there may be some cost for roll uping secondary informations, the cost is frequently merely a fraction of the cost for roll uping primary informations.
Secondary informations are normally available. No affair what the job country may be, person, someplace has likely dealt with it, and some information is available that will assist the research worker in his or her undertaking. Availability is one ground that many predict secondary informations will turn in importance in marketing research applications. Not merely is the sum of informations turning but the ability to seek one million millions of records to happen the right information is bettering with computing machine engineering.
Secondary informations enhance primary informations. A secondary informations hunt can familiarise the research worker with the industry, including its gross revenues and net income tendencies, major rivals, and the important issues confronting the industry.
Although the advantages of secondary informations about ever warrant a hunt of information, there are of class restrictions with secondary informations. Most of the jobs exist merely because secondary informations have non been collected specifically to turn to the job at manus or that the informations may be out of day of the month. Thus it is important for research workers to measure the secondary informations to find the dependability of secondary information gathered. ( Miller, 1991: 204 )
Analysis Data Method
The sort of analysis informations method which will be used in this research is descriptive 1. It describes and explains the state of affairss or the happening as it is. Data Analysis which is done in the field by carry oning interview with the cardinal source and the information obtained is analyzed qualitatively. The stairss of informations analysis are:
Read the transcribe
Making the Summary
Write the Decision
Give the Recommendation
3.7 Time and Location of Research
The research worker took research in PT. Davomas Abadi, Tbk Head Office at Jln. Pangeran Jayakarta 117, Jakarta Pusat and it will be start on May 2010 until August 2010.