For my personal point of position, “ yes ” a individual can be motivated by others. Simply by looking back to our day-to-day feverish life manners, same modus operandi of work life everyday without fail, from forenoon to dark, from heading to office to place, same modus operandi, same set of people, same working environment or civilization and limited range and authorization, this lead to demoted and experience dissatisfaction toward to our life ‘s and work, and might do depress emotions in personal, and in concern organisation.
We frequently heard staff complain and voice out dissatisfaction on their current occupation or company, about the rewards, benefit, deficiency of leading or communicating with superior or foremans, obstructions face in work with no solution or way headed to.
This is the most dissatisfaction which happen in concern organisation now yearss, yet it created uncomfortable feelings which cause an person depressed, demoted and it will decidedly decreased in occupation productivenesss, public presentation, and do convey negative impacts to the working environment.
This is where the motive comes in to put, motive play an of import portion in the organisation now yearss. Motivation can be include personal and concern organisation to minimise the dissatisfaction and able to transform an person to be more positive oriented.
Definition of motive
Motivation can be defined as – The willingness to exercise high degrees of attempt to make organisational ends as conditioned by that attempt ‘s ability to fulfill some single demands ( Robbins & A ; Coulter 1999:484 ) . It describes the willingness, enterprise, drives bends into action and gesture and act towards an aims or finish.
Concepts of Motivations Theory:
Motivation besides categorize into two types which is intrinsic motive and extrinsic motive.
Intrinsic motives are originated from internal, inside of single itself. It can be driven by kind of desire, eager to accomplish or obtain something which can be touchable or intangible. It does n’t consequence by external environment or do my external encompassing issue. For illustration: Student is largely driven strongly to turn out that consequence is non determined by fortune.
Beginning: David Beswick. Between Intrinsic motive and extrinsic wagess. [ Online ] Available at: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.beswick.info/psychres/management.htm & gt ; [ Accessed 15 September 2010 ]
Extrinsic motive is wholly opposite from intrinsic motive, come from external, outside of the person, it can be causes by environment, company and etc. Example: money and wages largely is the extrinsic factor which motivate staff to accomplish higher degree of consequence and crush each others to derive the wagess. Most of the sale section will form such event which is straight show reward to the staff and indirectly profit the company.
Beginning: David Beswick. Between insttinsic motive and extrinsic wagess. [ Online ] Available at: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.beswick.info/psychres/management.htm & gt ; [ Accessed 15 September 2010 ]
Regardless of intrinsic or extrinsic, both of these constructs come to a common component which is demands. Therefore demands are the chief causes of the motive.This can be explain by the diagram below – The motive procedure.
Decrease of Tension
Figure 1: The Motivation Process
Beginning: ( Robbins & A ; Coulter 1999: 484 )
Needs may be desire and drivers. When an single demand ‘s are dissatisfied it will take to tenseness which is concerns, insecure and when an person has indentify the desire/need ‘s or drives it will automatically make single behaviour which is funny to cognize, funny to happen a manner to accomplish it and therefore this needs activated the behaviour, taking action and good program scheme in order to accomplish certain ends or carry through the undertaking which given as this may come to 5th phase which is – satisfied demands, hence an single demands will cut down tenseness as satisfaction are fulfill.
As mentions to calculate 1, illustration: A sale staff may experience his/her public presentation are mean even put in more excess attempt to accomplish the monthly mark ( refer 1st phase – dissatisfaction demands ) .
when it comes to mid of the month she become tenseness as portion of the mark non been achieve ( 2nd phase – Tension ) , hence she start believing of solution which can help her for this affair, she seek communicating with her superior for solution and way and motive is been given ( mention to 3rd phase – Drivers ) .
Therefore she merely needs to take action act on it one time she had her ain planning ( refer to 4th phase – Search behaviour ) meanwhile she achieved the mark it besides fulfill her demands to go top performing artist ( mention to 5th phase – Satisfied Need ) and yet her tenseness or fright guarantee is unfound ( this refer to the last phase – Decrease of Tension ) .
( 1 ) Maslow Hierarchy Needs ( 1943 )
The most basic theory which uses to back up single basic demands is Abraham Maslow – Maslow Hierarchy Needs ( 1943 ) . It consist of 5 degrees of basic human demands, this can be shown as below:
Figure 2: Maslow ‘s Hierarchy ( 1943 )
Beginning and adapted from: Samson & A ; Daft 2009:593
The sum-up of Maslow theory is:
It read from bottom to exceed, as bottom serves the most basic demand to exceed which is complex demands for person. It mentions demands do consequence on how single behaviour unless those demands are fulfill and satisfy.
The individual will merely continue with following degree of demands until the lowest demands are satisfy. This theory is more to single demands.
Base on the theoretical account above it consist of 5 degree of demand which is:
1 ] Physiology- refers to human basic demands which are nutrient, H2O, money and etc.
-2 ] Safety – sense of security in physical, mental and wellness which consequence by
External or internal environment.
-3 ] Belongingness – demand to feel the importance, acknowledgment among relationship,
Colleague, friend and household. It defines as societal demand.
4 ] Self esteem – The individual wish to accomplish, be competent with his ain regard. Wish to accomplish certain accomplishment.
5 ] Self-actualization – position in the society. Exceed degree of ego regard.
As mention to calculate 2: Example: A individual been reassign to new working location, he needs to able rent adjustment which is guarded, arrange for transit ( Physiology and safety demands ) , When he get down in new working environment he need to blend with company civilization and acquire to cognize staff from all degree of company ( belongingness ) , he aim to go top direction degree as he present his quality of attempt towards company ends ( Self esteem ) , after period, he become the most capable top direction leader in the part ( self realization )
Restriction of Maslow Theory:
Not all employees governed by same sets of demand. Different employees may necessitate different demand at the same point of clip. The most dissatisfaction demands which motivate employees.
This theory largely non supported by today working civilization as this theory indentify the 1st demands need to be fulfill so proceed with following degree.
Example: An creative person might non seek for basic demands but purpose for ego regard and realization which strive for acknowledgment.
( 2 ) Herzberg – Two Factor Theory:
Meanwhile, theory usage to prolong organisation behaviour at work topographic point which is Frederick Herzberg ‘s ( Herzberg 1968 ) -Two-Factor Theory. It distinguished between Motivator and Hygiene.
Motivator – Refer to a ambitious occupation range, duty and growing upon accomplishing.
Hygiene Factor – this refer to working environment civilization, safety and unafraid work topographic point.
Beginning: Samson & A ; Daft 2009: 595
This theory is critical as it do conveying impact to employees and organisation. Incentive can play apart on employee ‘s side as their basic demands must carry through in order for them to work, such as rewards, benefit, occupation range, calling promotion for growing, self satisfaction this can find the degree of quality attempt to be delivered on their occupation public presentation.
This can take to strike their best on the occupation as motivated employees ever look for a better manner to make a occupation ; they are more choice oriented and productive. Without motive worker are like impersonal.
Hygiene factor describes working places/ environment, organisation demand to guarantee employees are working under good form company, it need to guarantee everything is feasible such as computing machine constellation, personal security, work topographic point safety, these factor are of import as if hygiene factor is dissatisfy it will non actuate employees to higher public presentation degree.
Example to back up the theory is: When new offer assign to new hire, employees must understand the occupation inside informations and duty in that country, he needs to guarantee the benefit and rewards offer by company are value and worth to its new occupation range and seek for future growing -Motivator Factor.
After accept the offer, the company need guarantee the work topographic point is given to employees by holding the most basic equipment such as desk with configure computing machine and printing installations, telephone and safety of the office construction – Hygiene Factor.
Restrictions of Two Factor Theory:
It might fulfill demands but ignore the productiveness. As this theory merely use to employees demands without consider organisation productiveness demand.
This theory merely base on employee ‘s natural reaction when they voice out dissatisfaction. Employees will presume the dissatisfactions come from salary construction, hapless direction and policies and hapless leading.
Despite these restrictions this theory can be applied to avoid employees ‘ dissatisfaction and better work-quality.
( 3 ) Douglas McGregor – Theory Ten and Theory Y:
There is another theory which is usage to applied to human behaviour at work which is Douglas McGregor ( 1960 ) , it divided into two facets – Theory Ten and Theory Y. It assumes employees have two different points of position: one is negative, called Theory X and the other is positive, so called Theory Y. Those differences can be shown at below tabular array:
Lazy, deficiency of duty, seek to run off from work load. No committedness. Seek for simple life style and demoted.
Hardworking, liberty, positive thought, take up occupation duties, seek for challenges and good motivated.
Lack of ambitious once the basic demands are fulfill. Job security is their chief concern.
Aggressive, non easy fulfill with current accomplishment, eager compete with others.
Behavior negatively as no thrust in plants as they felt nil to lose.
Positive thought, consciousness on their occupation, driven by acknowledgment or wagess.
Ignore direction ends and vision.
Committed towards ends and vision and drive the best towards to accomplish.
Need to be guide, and to be directed in their ain occupation range.
Self directed and analysing job and seek for solution.
Chiefly of the employee are in comfy zone and garbage to alter.
Employee seeks for accomplishment sweetening, to adequate with high capablenesss with advanced result which utilize in organisation.
Low degree staff, clerical staff, retails.
Operation, fabricating field etc
Middle or top direction, professional which require more direction accomplishments.
Hard direction, need to direct and supervise the employees.
Soft direction, minimal supervising as they can carried ain duties.
Figure 3: Theory X and Theory Y- Douglas McGregor
Beginning and Adapted from: Theory X and Theory Y Models
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_mcgregor_theory_X_Y.html
This theory does related with Maslow ‘s Theory, as we can specify theory X accent on employee ‘s physiological demands and safety demands, while Theory Y is premise for societal demands, esteem demands, and the self-actualization demands on the employees.
This theory does promote employees to hold squad dealingss, responsible and stimulating occupations, and participants in decision-making procedure.
As mention to calculate 3: Example: In the bank, operation and sale section keeping different working behaviour, operation staff ever see workload as load, as ever have to run into deadline, follow bank process and demand to interact with all degree client in the bank and their productiveness are low and deficiency of efficiency, this is describe as Theory X. As for sale section, they are driven by monthly sale mark, seeking concern and work smart is their chief standards which shall hold. Aggressiveness and positive thought create believes to them that they are the best! This refers to Theory Y.
Restrictions of theory x and Theory Y:
Theory X no longer be in now yearss organisation as it require on monitoring, usage of tight control and supervising for employees which ca n’t accept for new alterations in the organisation therefore non suit for invention purposed.
Theory Y encourages taking inaugural and autonomy. Career promotion and growing shall be aim by employees. Beside squad work and engagement in decision-making is critical to lend to organisation. It creates balance and lucifers between employees ‘ demands and organisation demands.
Motivations are most ambitious undertaking for twenty-first century leader ‘s and directors, despite motive dramas of import portion in organisation by guaranting the goals/objective ‘s are been achieved through motive ‘s procedures.
Manager can actuate employees to promote high work public presentation. Due to manpower are extremely demand in the market, happening and retain high skill/talented workers it ‘s a challenge, Manager ‘s are shall necessitate to take the right combination of motive techniques and cognition to honor by satisfy employees and use it by contribute to the organisation.
Motivations are of import due to:
1 ] Motivated employees ever seek for better manner to make a occupation.
2 ] Motivated employees aggressive and quality oriented.
3 ] Motivated employees largely can increase organisation productiveness.
Manager shall measure each employee ‘s strength, failing and public presentation, communicating dramas critical portion as engagement procedure, through communicating, directors are able to indentify employees ‘ demands and obstructions faces in work. Largely director they are unable to indentify demands hence unable to actuate employees. Example: In the sale section, most of the leader assumes that money are the chief driver to travel the sale staff, frequently given brainstorming to them as the tools as they treat this as motive. However, non all staff is motivated by money. Particularly senior staff, they seek for self satisfaction and calling growing alternatively of fiscal support.