The scheduling of production resources ( MRP II ) is a completed information system that is upgraded from MRP and can synchronise all the activities ( non merely production activities ) of the company. The MRP II system arranges gross revenues, purchases, production, accounting and proficient consideration. The program of production focal points on a united database for the planning and updating the systems.
The MRP II system gives the opportunity in a company to prove supposed scenario by utilizing the simulation. The direction of the company can foretell the value of the goods, the distribution of the costs, the stock and the net incomes. The study of the system can better and assist the section of production, selling, gross revenues, economical and proficient consideration.
Apart from the end products, the MRP II system arranges the cost of the parts, the cost of human resource. The appropriate information refers to the purchasing of the stuffs and to the clip of the bringing of them in order to fix the fiscal flows. Besides in a MRP II system can link and other operations of a company. For illustration the section of Human Resource can demo off the demands for employments and the section of Marketing can specify the clip for the supply and bringing of stuffs. MRP II follows the simple logic of backward scheduling with enlargement in amplification of Bill of Materials ( BOM ) .
The MRP systems are related with the logic of Just in Time ( JIT ) which is the attempt in order to diminish any sort of waste, to better continuously the systems and to maintain the regard for all the employees.
The significance of JIT developed in 1950 in Japan from TOYOTA and started to implemented all over the universe in 1980. Nowadays JIT and many other synonymous such us ”Zero Inventory ” has developed as one of the most of import term in fabricating companies. The low stock is one of the features of the most successful companies and it is one of the chief grounds that the companies from Japan are more competitory.
Even if the significance of JIT is really common, it is non easy to be determined. This term describes the attempt in order to bring forth or ordered merchandises merely when they are necessary at the lowest batches and by the lowest operating of human resources and physical resources.
The doctrine of JIT is a direction system, which is composed from a completed sum of procedures in order to bring forth goods in low batches harmonizing to the demands of the clients and to maintain the low stock. JIT focuses on the addition of productiveness and the lessening of any sort of waste ( clip, high stock, faulty merchandises ) . The companies that implement JIT have many advantages by the updating of procedures such us:
- Better quality merchandises
- Biggest motion of stock
- Higher productiveness
- Lower cost of production
It is really of import to observe that the doctrine of JIT is flexible. This means that JIT can be implemented in subdivisions or bit by bit with perfect consequences. The chief countries of execution are the production procedure ( JIT production ) and the material purchase ( JIT buying ) .
This fabrication company that makes little electric refrigerators for domestic market for the execution of JIT should merchandise high quality merchandises. The low quality merchandises will do dissimilar flow of merchandises and will impact negative the procedure. For the care and uninterrupted betterment of the quality, the company should implements a entire quality direction in order to take part all the employees in production of high quality merchandises.
The Production Manager should do the employees to understand that they have an of import function at the execution of JIT.
The consequence of the operation JIT system is the creative activity of stock in little batches. This means that:
- The round preservation of stock in little size
- Decrease of lead clip
- The flexibleness in human resource direction
From the other side, the production of little batches has the disadvantage that the production section should set up the equipment often for the production of these merchandises.
The standardisation of parts and of operation methods is one of the appropriate feature for the execution of JIT. So in the company, the Design Department has to plan once more a merchandise in order to minimise the constituents that a electric refrigerator is composed and to standardise them. By standardisation, every employee will make merely one standardized and continuously operation, as a consequence to increase the productiveness.
The execution of JIT presupposes the lasting cooperation with few providers. The providers should vouch for the bringing clip, bringing batches and high quality merchandises for a long clip. The providers should be near to the company and the relationship with them should be confidential and dependable.
At the execution of Just In Time buying operate that:
- The stuffs are received merely before the demand or the usage.
- The providers should be few.
- The company should subscribe agreements with the providers for a long clip.
- The entrance stuffs are non inspected.
- The payment will non transport out for every reception but harmonizing to the agreement.
At the same clip, between the company and providers should be common support in Resource and Development, Production Planning, Quality Assurance e.t.c.
The employees should be developing in order to make many different things. So the employees can be moved from one subdivision to other as a consequence to maintain the normal flow of merchandises and the production procedure. The alterations between the employees can diminish the productiveness, besides has good consequence at the psychological science of them.
The JIT production presupposes the good operation of the equipment. Every dislocation in the equipment will do bad consequences in production procedure. The employees should hold the duty for the care of equipment that they use. The execution of preventative care is really of import for the good operation.
For illustration the company ”Xerox ” decreases the providers from 5000 to 300 and made them to offer good quality merchandises if they want to be the providers of Xerox. Xerox exchange this by the sign language with them contracts for a long clip. This is really of import because the providers can increase their gross revenues and Xerox can cognize about the capablenesss of providers when a merchandise is be aftering.
AUTOMATIC TRACKING SYSTEMS
Report for the justification of a formal automatic trailing system
Nowadays all the large production ironss use ”automatic tracking systems ” . By these systems the history of merchandises is written down by information. For the merchandises tracking connects stuffs, beginning, operations, distribution and gross revenues. It will be easier to cognize about the flow of a merchandise and to better the production.
Basic features of Barcode Systems
The Barcode systems are systems with optical designation of information. They are based on a simple system of coding which are composed from lines with different breadth. This are symbols from dark or bright lines that differ on breadth. Besides there are particular machines ( scanners ) with equipment of optical designation that read these lines. In this lines are represented some informations like size, monetary value, trade name etc.
The scanners identify the spaces between the lines which have different breadth and these compose the codification of a merchandise.
The Barcodes is a engineering that uses computing machine and package for the information direction. The barcode do non hold any informations or information. The lone thing that does is to feed the computing machine with a codification figure and with higher velocity than the keyboards. By utilizing this codification tries to happen in the information all the information about the merchandise.
The Barcode engineering is used in many subdivisions such us production, quality control, stock, distribution, wage and besides in ace market.
Basic features of RFID Systems
RFID ( Radio Frequency Identification ) system is a engineering that identifies the merchandises by wireless frequence. These systems are composed from a particular a ticket which is placed on the merchandises, a specific device that identifies and an aerial. This system is supported by package which is responsible for the direction informations between ticket – designation device – computing machines. The antenna transmits wireless frequence in order to trip the label to read and to compose informations inside them. The connexion between the ticket and the reader can be without optical connexion.
By utilizing these systems it is easier to automatize production, stock and distribution. The directors can see the merchandises and to diminish the faulty merchandises.
Nowadays the engineering that is more usual is the barcodes. The RFID had n’t improved as the barcodes. The barcodes is a completed engineering and can fulfill the demands of companies. But RFID offers new advantages that barcodes can non offer.
The barcodes operates with optical designation from a little distance ( a few centimetres ) in order to be read. In contrast to RFID that can read from merely a few metres without optical touch. If merely the ticket is in the designation field. By this manner many tickets could be identified automatically and rapidly.
The barcodes engineering use a Universal Product Code ( UPC ) and the information differ merely at the sort of merchandise.
RFID systems use an Electronic Merchandise Code ( EPC ) and every merchandise contains a alone codification. In this engineering included more informations that can be changed.
The RFID system has a legion benefits, but the engineering is still rather expensive. The costs have so reduced since the origin of the engineering. However, RFID engineering is still non really inexpensive and is non low-cost for little concerns. This is the primary ground for RFID engineering non being incorporated in every possible field. Besides another disadvantage of RFID systems is sensitiveness of the tickets. A little film editing at the ticket is adequate to deactivate the ticket.
- Completed and common engineering
- Low cost of execution
- Can be read by the employees
- Can be read from little distance
- Sensitivity at the lines
- There is no opportunity to incorporate this engineering
- It demands human operation
- Statically entering informations
- Designation for each merchandise
- Tracking in batches
- Able to read from large distance
- Able to read many tickets at the same clip
- No human operation
- Able to run in unfavourable conditions
- Tracking in existent clip
- Under development engineering
- High cost of execution
- No standardisation
There are many illustrations of commercially available stuffs direction systems such us:
- RFID ( Radio Frequency Identification )
- RFDC ( Datacom Radio Communications
- Card Technologies ( smart card, optical card )
- Biometric Identification ( voice forms, manus geometry, retinal scan )
- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
- Optical Mark Recognition
- Optical Character Recognitions
- Machine Vision