The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Essay

Chapter -VI NREGA Implementation: A Macro Overview The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005) was enacted by the Indian Parliament in 2005 to provide a minimum guaranteed wage employment of one hundred days in every fiscal year to rural households with unemployed adult members prepared to do unskilled manual work. Since its enactment in 200 districts, it was extended to overall country of India.

The basis for the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in India emerged from the thinking that a society which has failed to reduce the unemployment problem in six decades of development cannot ask its unemployed to wait indefinitely for the utterly uncertain prospect of employment growth catching up with population growth or income growth. India’s rural workforce had clearly not benefited from the marked acceleration of the GDP since the eighties and agriculture as a livelihood was facing a series of crises with the prospect of an imminent structural collapse.

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The consequent rise in distress migration, hunger, starvation deaths, farmer suicides, and violence in the countryside were understandable and improving measures necessitated an employment guarantee backed by the State. In this chapter we discuss about the trends in implementations of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 at all-India level, at the Andhra Pradesh State level and the Vishakhapatnam district where the field village exists, in the past three years (2006 to 2009). The Act is applicable to areas notified by the Central Government and will cover the whole community within five years.

In its first phase, it was notified in 200 districts across the country. In the second phase the act has been notified in the financial year 2007-08 in an additional 130 districts, bringing the total of number of districts covered by NREGA to 330. In these districts, pre-existing wage employment programmes the National Food for Work Programme (NFFPW), and the Sampoorna Grameena Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) were merged with NREGA. The remaining districts have notified under NREGA with effect from April 1, 2008.

The extension of the NREGA to the whole country is an unprecedented opportunity to build the foundations of a social security system in rural India, revive village economies, promote social equity, and empower rural labour. [1] 4. 1 NREGA at all India level 4. 1. 1 First year of NREGA (2006-07): First Phase of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act introduced in April 2006. It came into effect first time in 200 districts whose mostly backward districts in India. Apart from that, around 20 districts have chosen for implementation, from states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh.

For the period of 2006 – 07, 2. 12 crores of households have demanded, but the NREGS coverage is nearer to they have demanded, that is 2. 10 crores of households. In this period, the average no. of day’s employment provided per state is 105080 days. Under the NREGA, in the provision of employment, West Bengal contributes highest score is 14. 67 %, Madhya Pradesh is 13. 64 %, Uttar Pradesh is 12. 24 %, and Andhra Pradesh is 10. 28 % . Table: 4. 1 No of households covered under NREGA (2006 – 07): |S. No. |States |No. f districts |No. of households provided |% of Participation | | | |covered |employment | | | | | |(in lakhs) | | |1 |Andhra Pradesh |13 |2161395 |10. 28 | |2 |Arunachal Pradesh |1 |16926 |0. 8 | |3 |Assam |7 |792270 |3. 77 | |4 |Bihar |23 |1688899 |8. 04 | |5 |Chhattisgarh |11 |1256737 |5. 98 | |6 |Gujarat |6 |226269 |1. 08 | |7 |Haryana |2 |50765 |0. 4 | |8 |Himachal Pradesh |2 |63514 |0. 3 | |9 |Jammu & Kashmir |3 |121328 |0. 58 | |10 |Jharkhand |20 |1394108 |6. 63 | |11 |Karnataka |5 |545185 |2. 59 | |12 |Kerala |2 |99107 |0. 7 | |13 |Madhya Pradesh |18 |2866349 |13. 64 | |14 |Maharashtra |12 |384944 |1. 83 | |15 |Manipur |1 |18568 |0. 09 | |16 |Meghalaya |2 |96627 |0. 46 | |17 |Mizoram |2 |50998 |0. 4 | |18 |Nagaland |1 |27884 |0. 13 | |19 |Orissa |19 |1394169 |6. 63 | |20 |Punjab |1 |31648 |0. 15 | |21 |Rajasthan |6 |1175172 |5. 59 | |22 |Sikkim |1 |4107 |0. 2 | |23 |Tamil Nadu |6 |683481 |3. 25 | |24 |Tripura |1 |74335 |0. 35 | |25 |Uttar Pradesh |22 |2573245 |12. 24 | |26 |Uttarakhand |3 |134312 |0. 64 | |27 |West Bengal |10 |3083757 |14. 7 | |  |Total |200 |21016099 |  | |1 |Andhra Pradesh |6 |4803892 |14. 17 | |2 |Arunachal Pradesh |2 |4490 |0. 01 | |3 |Assam |6 |1402888 |4. 14 | |4 |Bihar |15 |3859630 |11. 8 | |5 |Chhattisgarh |4 |2284963 |6. 74 | |6 |Gujarat |3 |290691 |0. 86 | |7 |Haryana |2 |70869 |0. 21 | |8 |Himachal Pradesh |2 |271099 |0. 8 | |9 |Jammu & Kashmir |2 |138303 |0. 1 | |10 |Jharkhand |2 |1679868 |4. 95 | |11 |Karnataka |6 |549994 |1. 62 | |12 |Kerala |2 |185392 |0. 55 | |13 |Madhya Pradesh |13 |4346916 |12. 82 | |14 |Maharashtra |6 |474695 |1. | |15 |Manipur |2 |112549 |0. 33 | |16 |Meghalaya |3 |106042 |0. 31 | |17 |Mizoram |2 |88940 |0. 26 | |18 |Nagaland |4 |110052 |0. 32 | |19 |Orissa |5 |1100497 |3. 5 | |20 |Punjab |3 |49690 |0. 15 | |21 |Rajasthan |6 |2170460 |6. 4 | |22 |Sikkim |2 |19664 |0. 06 | |23 |Tamil Nadu |2 |1234818 |3. 64 | |24 |Tripura |4 |423724 |1. 5 | |25 |Uttar Pradesh |2 |4096408 |12. 08 | |26 |Uttarakhand |7 |189263 |0. 56 | |27 |West Bengal |17 |3843335 |11. 33 | |Total |130 |33909132 |100 | Source: www. nrega. nic. in

Person – days: In the period of 2007 – 08, the total number of person days of employment is 14368 lakhs were provided under the programme. An average of 43. 54 Lakhs person days of employment per districts generated. Out of total person days, the share of Scheduled Castes was 3942. 34 lakhs of person days (27. 44%) and Scheduled Tribes was 4205. 6 lakhs person days (29. 27%) constituting a total of 8147. 94 lakhs person days for SCs / STs which comes to about 57%. As per the NREGA, the share of women person days should be 1/3rd and the same was 6109. lakhs person days that is about 42. 52%, and others share was 6219. 98 lakhs person days (43. 29 %). The total person days generated by state is again Madhya Pradesh is occupied first place with 2752. 62 lakhs of person days, later Andhra Pradesh is 2010. 28 lakhs, Rajasthan is 1678. 38 lakhs, Uttar Pradesh is 1363. 06, and Chhattisgarh is1316. 1 lakhs person days. As well as the least contribution in this period is, Arunachal Pradesh is 2. 79 lakhs, Sikkim is 8. 6 lakhs, Punjab is 19. 15 and Nagaland is 24. 23 lakhs of person days.

Table: 4. 4 Person Days: 2007 – 08 |States |SCs |% of SCs |STs |% of STs | |1 |Andhra Pradesh |3 |5699557 |12. 63 | |2 |Arunachal Pradesh |13 |80714 |0. 18 | |3 |Assam |14 |1877393 |4. 16 | |4 |Bihar |0 |3822484 |8. 7 | |5 |Gujarat |17 |850691 |1. 89 | |6 |Haryana |16 |162932 |0. 36 | |7 |Himachal Pradesh |8 |445713 |0. 99 | |8 |Jammu & Kashmir |17 |199166 |0. 44 | |9 |Karnataka |18 |896212 |1. 9 | |10 |Kerala |10 |692015 |1. 53 | |11 |Madhya Pradesh |17 |5207665 |11. 54 | |12 |Maharashtra |15 |906297 |2. 01 | |13 |Punjab |16 |149902 |0. 33 | |14 |Rajasthan |21 |6373093 |14. 3 | |15 |Sikkim |1 |52006 |0. 12 | |16 |Tamil Nadu |20 |3345648 |7. 42 | |17 |Tripura |1 |549022 |1. 22 | |18 |Uttar Pradesh |31 |4336466 |9. 61 | |19 |West Bengal |1 |3025854 |6. 1 | |20 |Chhattisgarh |1 |2270415 |5. 03 | |21 |Jharkhand |2 |1576348 |3. 49 | |22 |Uttarakhand |8 |298741 |0. 66 | |23 |Manipur |6 |381109 |0. 84 | |24 |Meghalaya |2 |224263 |0. 5 | |25 |Mizoram 4 |172775 |0. 38 | |26 |Nagaland |6 |296689 |0. 66 | |27 |Orissa |6 |1199006 |2. 66 | |28 |Puducherry |1 |12264 |0. 03 | |29 |Andaman & Nokobar |3 |5975 |0. 01 | |30 |Lakshadweep |1 |3024 |0. 1 | |31 |Chandigarh |1 |0 |0 | |32 |Dadra & Nagar Haveli |1 |1919 |0 | |33 |Daman & Diu |2 |0 |0 | |34 |Goa |2 |0 |0 | |Total |285 |45115358 |100 | Source: www. nrega. nic. in Person – days: 2008 – 09 Totally 21632. 6 lakhs person days of employment has generated under the NREGA. In this period, Rajasthan occupied the first place in the provision of more person days generated under the scheme that is 4289. 55 lakhs of person days, after that ranked by Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Out of this, the share of Scheduled Castes is 6336. 18 lakhs person days (29. 29%) and Scheduled Tribes is 5501. 64 lakhs person days (25. 43%) constituting 11837. 82 lakhs person days of employment has created under NREGS. Out of this, the share of women is 10357. 32 lakhs person days, which is 47. 88 % and others share is 9795. 6 lakhs person days, which is having 45. 28%. For the third year of NREGA, in the generation of person days, Rajasthan occupied first place, with 4829. 55 lakhs of person days, the following placed by the Madhya Pradesh is 2946. 97, Andhra Pradesh is 2735. 45 lakhs, and Uttar Pradesh is 2272. 21 lakhs of person days. The lower contributed states are, Sikkim is 26. 34 lakhs, Arunachal Pradesh is 34. 98 lakhs, Punjab is 40. 27 lakhs, Haryana is 69. 11 lakhs, and Jammu & Kashmir is 78. 8 lakhs of person days. During this period, Union Territories are also covered by NREGA, their contribution in the total person days is, Pondicherry is 1. 4 lakhs, Andaman & Nichobar is 1 lakh, Lakhsadweep is 1. 82 lakhs, and Dadra Nagar & Haveli is 0. 48 lakhs of person days. Table: 4. 6 Person days: 2008 – 09 |State |SCs | |Puducherry |0. 81 |49. 39 | |States |% of Emp. Generation to|States |% of Emp. |States |% of Emp. | |HHs | |Generation to HHs | |Generation to HHs| |Top Five States | |West Bengal |14. 67 |Andhra Pradesh |14. 17 |Rajasthan |14. 13 | |Madhya Pradesh |13. 64 |Madhya Pradesh |12. 82 |Andhra Pradesh |12. 63 | |Uttar Pradesh |12. 24 |Uttar Pradesh |12. 08 |Madhya Pradesh |11. 4 | |Andhra Pradesh |10. 28 |Bihar |11. 38 |Uttar Pradesh |9. 61 | |Bihar |8. 04 |West Bengal |11. 33 |Bihar |8. 47 | |Bottom Five States | |Sikkim |0. 02 |Arunachal Pradesh |0. 01 |Sikkim |0. 12 | |Arunachal Pradesh |0. 08 |Sikkim |0. 6 |Arunachal Pradesh |0. 18 | |Manipur |0. 09 |Punjab |0. 15 |Punjab |0. 33 | |Nagaland |0. 13 |Haryana |0. 21 |Haryana |0. 36 | |Punjab |0. 15 |Meghalaya |0. 31 |Mizoram |0. 38 | Source: calculated from data available from www. nrega. nic. in The performance of NREGA is implementing in various states as per the geographical conditions.

By the phase wise implementation, there are startling differences in the level of employment creation through NREGA in different states. [2] As mentioned in the below tables are explained by the percentage of the households were employment generated, the rank wise analysis made by the researcher, the top and bottom five states by their performance of NREGA. In the first phase of NREGA, the major contribution was made by the states that are West Bengal (14. 67 %), Madhya Pradesh (13. 64 %), Uttar Pradesh (12. 24) %, Andhra Pradesh (10. 28 %) and Bihar (8. 04 %). And, the bottom states are given poor performance shown by Sikkim (0. 2 %), Arunachal Pradesh (0. 08 %), Manipur (0. 09 %), Nagaland (0. 13%) and Punjab (0. 15 %). In the second phase, Andhra Pradesh (14. 17 %) has gone up to first place, but West Bengal (11. 33 %) was dropped to 5th place, and Madhya Pradesh (12. 82 %) and Uttar Pradesh (12. 08%) are continued in their previous positions. For this period, some new states have joined in the bottom list. They are Arunachal Pradesh (0. 01 %), Sikkim (0. 06 %), Punjab (0. 15 %), Haryana (0. 21 %), and Meghalaya (0. 31 %). During the period of 2008 – 09, in the third year of NREGA, the Andhra Pradesh (12. 3 %) dropped to second place and Rajasthan (14. 13 %) occupied the first place. Interesting thing is that the Madhya Pradesh (11. 54 %) and Uttar Pradesh (9. 61 %) are again continuing in same rankings. Again Bihar (8. 47 %) occupies the 5th place. In the bottom of states, Sikkim (0. 12 %) has occupied in earlier position, remaining states are Arunachal Pradesh (0. 18 %), Punjab (0. 33%), Haryana (0. 36 %), and Meghalaya (0. 38 %). 4. 1. 5 Comparison between India and Andhra Pradesh: Table: 4. 8 Employment Generation under NREGA in India & Andhra Pradesh: (%of Person days) | | | | | |First Phase |Second Phase |Third Phase | |Category |(2006 – 07) |(2007 – 08) |(2008 – 09) | | | | | | | |Andhra Pradesh |India |Andhra Pradesh |India |Andhra Pradesh |India | |SCs |29. 82 |25. 36 |27. 72 |27. 44 |26. 14 |29. 29 | |STs |13. 01 |36. 45 |12. 79 |29. 27 |12. 95 |25. 43 | |Others |57. 17 |38. 9 |59. 49 |43. 29 |60. 91 |45. 28 | |Women |54. 79 |40. 65 |57. 75 |42. 52 |58. 15 |47. 88 | Source: calculated from data available from www. nrega. nic. in In India, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005) was come into effect from April 2006. In the first phase of NREGA (2006 – 07), overall India, it was introduced initially 200 backward districts. At that time in Andhra Pradesh, NREGA covered 13 districts out of 22 districts. In this period, employment provided under the scheme, 25. 6 per cent of SCs in India, but in Andhra Pradesh 29. 82 per cent, which more than overall. For STs, overall India generated employment significantly high that is 36. 45 percent, compare to Andhra Pradesh, which is only 13. 01 per cent. Moreover, others employment coverage is 38. 19 per cent in India, and relatively high in Andhra Pradesh is 57. 17 per cent. In case of women, employment provided 40. 65 per cent in India, and 54. 79 per cent in Andhra Pradesh. For the second phase of NREGA covers another 130 districts, where as in Andhra Pradesh, only six districts in 2007 – 08. During this period, 27. 44 per cent of SCs in India, around same in Andhra Pradesh also, is 27. 72 per cent.

As in the previous year, employment provided for STs is high in India that is 29. 27 per cent, when compare to Andhra Pradesh is 12. 79 per cent. Employment for others is 43. 29 in India and 59. 49 in Andhra Pradesh. In addition, employment provided for women is 42. 52 per cent in India and 57. 75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh. For the third year of NREGA (2008 – 09), it extended to overall India, in this period, only three districts covered in Andhra Pradesh. Under NREGA, employment created, 29. 29 per cent of SCs in India and 26. 14 per cent in Andhra Pradesh. Employment provided to 25. 43 per cent in India and 12. 95 in Andhra Pradesh for STs.

And others concerns, 45. 28 percent in India and 60. 91 per cent in Andhra Pradesh. Moreover, in this period, employment generated to women under the scheme is, 47. 88 per cent in India, and 58. 15 per cent in Andhra Pradesh. Above figures, state that about the employment generation under NREGA, in the first phase (2006 – 07), Andhra Pradesh is relatively better than overall India’s performance, except in STs matters. Next year also, that is 2007 – 08, same pattern continued. Third year (2008 – 09) of NREGA, the employment situation, tremendously changed, the Indian performance is improved higher than the Andhra Pradesh performance in case of SCs and STs.

Nevertheless, the earlier situation continues about the others and women. 4. 2 NREGA in Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh state is the fifth largest economy in the country. The state of Andhra Pradesh has a population of 7. 6 crores of which 73 % live in rural areas. The scheduled castes constitute 16. 19 % and scheduled tribes 6. 59 % of the total population. 76 % of the workforce consists of cultivators and agricultural labourers in the state. Andhra Pradesh Government has been implementing development projects under various schemes to address food security, rural poverty, underemployment, health and education with support from the Government of India, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies.

In its endeavor to provide employment opportunities to rural poor, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has embarked on new approach to development with the advent of National rural Employment Guarantee Act that provides 100 days of employment to poor, a state obligation. At state level NREGA gets rechristened as Andhra Pradesh Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (APREGS). The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act envisages every state in the country formulates a state specific rural employment guarantee scheme (REGs) in conformity with the minimum feature specified in the Act. Andhra Pradesh Employment Guarantee Scheme (APREGS) is implemented in initially in 13 backward districts viz, Adilabad, Anantapur, Chittor, Kadapa, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, Vizianagaram, and Warangal in the state.

Later the scheme was extended to six more districts (East Godavari, Guntur, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, and Srikakulam) totaling to 19 districts for the period of 2007 – 08. From April 2008, the NREGA covers the entire State except Hyderabad. Then onwards, remaining three districts, Krishna, Visakhapatnam and West Godavari are covered under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. 4. 2. 1 NREGA in 2006 – 07: Under NREGA, in Andhra Pradesh, at first time it was introduced in 13 districts in 2006 – 07. This programme came into effect from April, 2006. They are Adilabad, Anantapur, Chittor, Kadapa, Karimnagar, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, and Vizianagaram.

For the period of 2006 – 07, the employment generated under the National Rural employment Guarantee Scheme, 29. 32 % for SCs, 12. 67 % for STs, and 58. 01 % for others. Among them, 54. 78 % of people are women (See table: 4. 9). In this period, employment generated for SCs in the districts are Karimnagar (40. 92%), Medak (38. 20 %), Rangareddy (35. 30 %), Chittor (33. 86 %), Warangal (32. 69 %), and Kadapa (30. 41 %). In case of STs, the employment generated under Scheme is, only two districts have major share of employment, that are Adilabad and Khammam, that are 46. 45 % and 42. 23 %, respectively. Remaining 11 districts coverage of STs are less than 20%.

As well as the Others share of employment, almost all the districts have 50 % share of total employment, except three districts, that are Adilabad (26. 66 %), Khammam (34. 13 %), and Warangal (49. 37 %). Among of them, tow districts have high share, Anantapur (72. 18 %) and Vizianagaram (71. 13 %). During this period, the employment coverage for women relatively better in all the districts, some districts like Rangareddy (38. 64 %), Adilabad (40. 14 %), Vizianagaram (40. 72 %), and Nalgonda (46. 24 %), are less than 50 per cent of their respective districts. Remaining all districts has more than 50 percent of women participants. Table: 4. 9 NREGA in Andhra Pradesh (2006 – 07): District |Employment Generated (In Person Days) | | |SC |% of SCs | | |SC | | | | | | |S. I. No. | S. No |Gram Panchayat |SC |ST |Other |Total(5+6+7) |% of person days |Women |% of Women | |1 |Amalapuram |3 |0 |362 |365 |0. 90 |106 |29. 04 | |2 |Bangarammapeta |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0. 00 | |3 |Bodugallam |114 |0 |208 |322 |0. 9 |147 |45. 65 | |4 |Buchirajupeta |60 |0 |271 |331 |0. 81 |60 |18. 13 | |5 |Chandanada |0 |0 |189 |189 |0. 46 |9 |4. 76 | |6 |Chinadoddigallu |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0. 00 | |7 |Chinateenarla |180 |0 |448 |628 |1. 54 |347 |55. 25 | |8 |Chittibatla Agraharam |0 |0 |287 |287 |0. 70 |97 |33. 80 | |9 |Chukalavarilakshmipuram |316 |0 |218 |534 |1. 31 |42 |7. 87 | |10 |Devavaram |6 |0 |841 |847 |2. 08 |528 |62. 34 | |11 |Donivanilakshmipuram |323 |0 |1,121 |1,444 |3. 54 |318 |22. 02 | |12 |Donkada |1,044 |19 |1,673 |2,736 |6. 72 |857 |31. 32 | |13 |Dosulapadu |54 |0 |5,018 |5,072 |12. 45 |2,070 |40. 81 | |14 |G. Jagannadhapuram |854 |0 |2,387 |3,241 |7. 5 |1,513 |46. 68 | |15 |Godicherla |0 |0 |618 |618 |1. 52 |160 |25. 89 | |16 |Gullipadu |346 |0 |1,056 |1,402 |3. 44 |370 |26. 39 | |17 |Gunipudi |1,059 |0 |639 |1,698 |4. 17 |707 |41. 64 | |18 |Janakayyapeta |0 |0 |4,546 |4,546 |11. 16 |2,176 |47. 87 | |19 |Kagita |1,410 |0 |789 |2,199 |5. 40 |814 |37. 02 | |20 |Mukundarajupeta |119 |0 |2,193 |2,312 |5. 67 |959 |41. 48 | |21 |N. Narasapauram |0 |0 |3,173 |3,173 |7. 79 |1,762 |55. 53 | |22 |Nakkapalle |1,084 |0 |634 |1,718 |4. 22 |996 |57. 97 | |23 |Nayampudi |2 |0 |1,276 |1,278 |3. 14 |572 |44. 6 | |24 |Nellipudi |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0. 00 | |25 |Pedadoddigallu |193 |0 |1,742 |1,935 |4. 75 |1,095 |56. 9 | |26 |Pedateenarla |0 |0 |891 |891 |2. 19 |516 |57. 91 | |27 |Rajayyapeta |0 |0 |388 |388 |0. 95 |113 |29. 12 | |28 |Ramanayyapeta |30 |0 |68 |98 |0. 24 |29 |29. 59 | |29 |Rebaka |111 |0 |1,396 |1,507 |3. 70 |784 |52. 02 | |30 |Uddandapuram |189 |0 |506 |695 |1. 71 |387 |55. 68 | |31 |Upmaka |9 |0 |272 |281 |0. 69 |143 |50. 89 | |32 |Vempadu |3 |0 |4 |7 |0. 02 |0 |0. 00 | |Total |7,509 |19 |33,214 |40,742 |100 |17,677 |43. 4 | |Source: www. nrega. ap. gov. in For the period of 2008-09, the total person days of employment provided is 40742, in the Nakkapalli mandal under NREGA. The average person-days per village are 1273. 19 in this mandal.

In this mandal the coverage of others (including BCs) are highest than others, that is 81. 52 percent (33,214) of total person days. And remaining SCs are 18. 43 percent (7, 509), STs are very less 0. 05 % (19) only, these people from Donkada village only. The person-days of women in this mandal is 43. 4 percent, that is 17, 677 person-days. Some villages are uncovered at initial stages, that are Bangarammapeta, Chinadoddigallu, and Nellipudi; but later these are covered under NREGA. Out of this total person days, the chosen village that is Pedadoddigallu village, covers 1,935 person days under the programme that is 4. 5 percent. In this village, the person-days of employment provided to women are 56. 59 percent.

In this village there are no ST population, the person-days of employment provided to SCs are only 10 percent, and remaining others (includes BCs and Muslims) covered 90 percent. Conclusion: The most important change NREGA represents is that it gives rise to a willful benevolence, as a legally binding response by the state by grating a right to work. Launched on February 2006, NREGA covers the entire rural districts across the country. Since inception, the NREGA has been widening to all over the country for providing employment to rural poor. Nonetheless its coverage broadened, the employment generation doesn’t depreciate, and also its employment coverage is tremendously grown up.

This programme creates employment to the people with respective their demand with tremendously increasing person days. This is providing employment to poor and at the same time is generating public assets in the rural areas. In this programme, there is huge participation of SCs, STs and other marginalized sections of the society, and also it contributes notable women participation under the scheme. Unlike the earlier programmes, it provides employment in massive scale to the rural poor. ———————– [1] Dreze, Jean (2008), “Employment Guarantee: Beyond Propaganda”, The Hindu. Friday, Jan 11, 2008. [2] Dreze, J and Christian Oldings (2007), “Commendable Act”, Volume 24 Frontline, July 2007.

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