Most ofA ourA twenty-four hours includes activities like ( transit, going, agribusiness, electronics ) needs some energy beginning to be spent. With increasing population, electronic equipment and transit installations there is increasing demand for fossil fuels. Some of the other grounds for increasing demand for alternate energy resourcesA are mentionedA below:
1. Fossil fuels are fuels formed in the Earth ‘s crust byA aneorobicA decompositionA of natural resources, dead beings and other organic affair. These fossil fuelsA are formedA from the organic affair whichA was buriedA some 100s of million old ages ago.A These dodos fuel resources are wash uping at a faster and rapidA rateA and the conservationists are afraid that we mightA faceA an energy crisis in the hereafter where the costs of fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, gasoline willA goA to peaks.A In order to avoid this scenario we need to happen an alternate beginning ofA energyA which is imperishable and can be used at full paceA unlike the dodo fuels.
2. The earth’sA environmentA is being unbalancedA due to the combustion of fossil fuels whichA releaseA harmfulA gases like Methane ( CH4 ) , Nitrogen ( N2 ) , Carbon monoxide ( CO ) , Carbon-dioxide ( CO2 ) and Sulphur-dioxide ( SO2 ) .DueA to which planetary heating additions which in bend increases the Earth ‘s surface temperature andA formationA of holes inA ozoneA layer.A Global heating consequences in runing of ice sheets, rise in sea degrees, addition in hurricanes and affects the bio-diversity on Earth ‘s surface. Hence an alternate beginning of energy is to be found which is environmentally green and renewable.
3. Another job is with the little and under-developed states where they depend on the merchandises of petroleum oil for conveyance andA electricity. TheA high oilA pricesA sumA up andA increaseA the commonA manA foodA and electricity-bills which straight tramp down theA developmentA of the country.A So a cheaper alternate beginning ofA energyA should be found and used.
The solution for the above jobs can be found in theA formA of renewable energy resources like air current energy, solar energy, hydropower andA geo-thermalA energyA which areA freeA andA abundantA depending on the location. We mustA designA an efficientA systemA and should be taken attention non toA hurtA the nature.
II. Alternative Energy Beginnings:
a ) Identify and depict the current energy beginnings in Singapore
Singapore plays anA outstandingA function in regional and energy markets.
Approximately 80 % ofA the electricity in SingaporeA is generatedA by utilizing gas.EIA and IEA are the two beginnings of energy statistics in the world.A Harmonizing to EIA data the energy strength for Singapore isA more when compared to that of US and other developed and developing states. TheA worldA averageA shows that Singapore needs toA considerA alternate beginnings ofA energyA to be self sufficient and to do the state less vulnerable to monetary value fluctuations and supply breaks of other states.
B ) Identify and depict the alternate energy beginnings that could beA useA in Singapore
Alternate beginnings of energy in Singapore include solar energy, windA energyA and nuclearA energy.A Solar andA windA energyA have been busying more land. This may non be aA goodA solution for Singapore where land is scarce.A But the addition in efficiency of the solar power can do it feasible despite land intensity. FreeA resourceA ( air current ) makes air current energy besides a feasible option. Singapore authorities should pass onA the researchA and development of this energy beginnings.
degree Celsius ) Identify the environmental consequence of each energy Beginning
Solar power isA the transduction of sunshine into electricity, by directlyA usingA photo-voltaic ( PV ) , or indirectly utilizing concentrated solarA powerA which used lenses and mirrors.
Environmental effects of solar energy:
1. Renewable and abundant.
2. Solar workss areA landA expensive whenA needA on a big commercial graduated table. Solar installations may interfere with bing land utilizations, such as graze.
3. It produces no C emanations or green house gases whichA harmA the environment of theA earthA as itA doesn’tA burn oil or coal.
4. CadmiumA is usedA asA transducerA in Cd telluride solar cells as a semi music director to change over solar energy into electrical energy.A Though itA is usedA in smaller amountsA it isA extremelyA harmfulA and canA destroyA an ecosystem easy if non taken attention of.
5. Some chemicals like Arsenic, Cadmium, Cadmium SulphideA are usedA in solar panels. These are extremelyA harmfulA even in little sums.
6. When people are bring forthing solar panels they have leftoverA stuffA like Silicon Tetrachloride, and they have to dispose of it, which canA pollute.
7. When making solar panelsA we have toA useA energy for fabricating the natural inputs and to piece them which pollutes theA air with the gases released, A creates heavy metal emanations, and nursery gases.
8. Heat gets reflected from the solar panels and ensuing in warming of gases in the ambiance andA henceA alteration in theA climateA and ensuing in planetary heating.
9. SolarA powerA systems areA inefficientA in footings of H2O requirements.A Cooling systems of the solar power Stationss areA highlyA expensive demand more H2O.
10. If the chilling waterA is contaminatedA due to spills or leaksA pollutionA of H2O resources can happen which amendss the human wellness.
11. The misdirected high strength light beams cause intervention with aircraft operations.
12. As operationA processA of solarA powerA includes high temperatures it canA causeA changeA inA climateA by impacting the rainfall.
13. They alsoA produceA electricA and magnetic Fieldss which interfere with the transmittal lines.
14. Transmission of solarA powerA via transmittal lines isA highlyA expensive.
Wind Power: Wind power is utilizing the windA energyA toA rotateA the turbines connected to dynamos and change over air current energy into electricity.A In ancient timesA air current powerA was usedA for pulling H2O fromA groundA and canvass to impel ships. AA minimal windA velocity of 25km/hrA is requiredA toA turnA the turbines.
Environmental effects of Wind power:
1. Wind power consumes no fuel andA henceA no air pollution, unlike the dodo fuels.
2. Wind speeds areA unpredictableA andA low windA velocities may ensue in less energyA yieldA which pressurizes for the increase of energyA yieldA by other beginnings.
3. The beginning of energy isA freeA and the entire cost of the windA millA or farm can be gainedA backA in footings of power within a few months proposing that it is cost executable.
4. During the industry of air current turbines steel, aluminium, concrete and other beginnings have to be transported which is anA energy intensiveA procedure depending on fossil fuels.
5. Danger to birds ( particularly for chiropterans ) has been aA majorA issue in some areas.A AmericanA Bird Conservancy cites surveies that indicate that about 10,000 – 40,000A birds die each twelvemonth from hits with windA turbines in the U.S. andA expectedA thatA figure mayA riseA substantiallyA as air current capacity increasesA in the absence of compulsory guidelines.
6. It merely takes little spots in the agricultural land and henceA landA compatibleA along with agribusiness except for those few spots.
7. Noise is aA majorA issue if the air current farms or air current Millss are near human habitation.A The noise is raging forA humanA hearA causingA concern, sleep want, giddiness etc Vibrations are besides noticed in some countries near air current farms ensuing inA destructionA of belongings.
8. Small alterations thoughA negligibleA occur in the clime ofA earthA due to alterations in turbulency of the air current.
9. If the interruption of the turbine breaks it rotates till there isA machineryA failureA or Burnss in air due to friction let go ofing toxic gases intoA air. The fragments from this firing mayA flyA onto worlds and Fieldss doing decease and combustion of the flora.
10. Aircraft declining visible radiations should be installed as signals toA aircraftsA demoing the presence of windmills. These visible radiations mayA createA light pollution due to their high radiation andA strength.
11. These turbines besides cause intervention to the EM moving ridges used for televising or wireless.
Nuclear Power: Nuclear powerA is generatedA by atomic reactions of radio-active stuffs. The atomic reactionsA especiallyA involveA Fission and merger reactions whichA generateA enormousA sums of heat. This heatA is usedA to change over H2O into steam, which is so used toA rotateA turbines and so bring forth electricity. Radio-active elements like Ra, uranium-235A are usedA for controlled fission reactions utilizing mass-energy equality relation.
Environmental effects of Nuclear power:
1. The natural inputs Uranium-235 and Radium areA veryA rareA elements in theA earthA andA henceA cost much. New methodsA have been developedA toA createA them unnaturally by pelting which besides costs a batch.
2. The fission reaction produceA highA sums heat which should be controlled byA coolingA systemA by usingA highA sums of water.A If the H2O exposedA is usedA or assorted with the groundA waterA healthA issuesA occurA which are non curable.
3. The radio-active wastesA containA fresh U with little proportions of Pu, Cm etc which if non disposed properlyA causeA wellness issues.
4. NoA properA methodA disposing of the radio-active wasteA is proposedA except for belowground storage.
5. Conveyance and storage of radio-active materialsA haveA been aA majorA job due to their high radiation degrees which need to be contained while transporting.
6. High Hazard factorA is involvedA with these reactions of atomic radioactive materials.A Uncontrolled concatenation reactions may happen which can ensue in malfunctioning of theA totalA works andA henceA shutdown ensuing inA hugeA capital loss.
7. The gases removed from the systems might hold radio-active gases and fluids which ifA mixA withA atmosphereA canA damageA the ozone bed.
8. If the radio-active gases releasedA mixA with the atmosphere inauspicious alterations in clime occur in the environing countries.
9. If an detonation occurs in the reactors it costs about multiples ofA ten thousandsA of people ( as per old detonations ) .
10. It might be used by states as a portion ofA militaryA orA warA or for terrorist act activity. In 1968, a British atomic plantA putA 180 kgs of Pu into the Irish Sea ( “ Sellafield. ” World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com: A hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Sellafield.html ) .
11. Fuel reprocessing and repairing of the damaged workss costs about one million millions of dollars which isA costA in-effective.
vitamin D ) Identify twoA energyA beginnings thatA isA best for Singapore
TheA bestA two energy resources are wind power and solar power.A These two surrogate beginnings have lessA investmentA capitalA and the sums of carbon-dioxide emitted are less andA henceA aA decreaseA in planetary heating when compared to that of firing fossil fuels and utilizing atomic power.A Though Singapore canA affordA the budget for atomic power it takes more complex technologyA and alsoA affects human wellness with the radiations and emissions.A Hence these two surrogate beginnings of energyA are regardedA as the best.
a ) What are the other factors that should be considered if such systems are to beA putA up in Singapore ( A i.e. physical substructures, handiness, A qualityA andA volumeA ofA energyA beginning, etc. )
The substructure costs aA majorA portion of the entire undertaking. Physical Infra constructions for Wind power:
The air current farm substructure consists of:
1. Roads andA drainagesA forA transportA of equipment and for disposing wastes during theA preparationA from natural stuffs.
2. Weave turbine foundations: Foundation should be Strong andA deepA so as to defy torsion of the towerA dueA toA forceA by the air current.
3. Stronger Masts to maintain the dynamos and turbines at the top.
4. Housing electrical switchgear to alter the velocity of the cogwheel so as to increase or diminish the no of rotary motions harmonizing theA requiredA end product
5. Spare parts and care installations in instance there areA minorA amendss.
aˆ? Electrical plants:
1. Equipment at the point ofA connectionA at the windmills andA electricityA lines.
2. Underground overseas telegram webs and/or overhead lines, toA carryA the generated electricity.
3. Transformers and switchgear associated withA individualA turbines to alter the cogwheels of the turbine depending on air current velocity.
4. Earth ( anchoring ) electrodes and systems as required by any other electrical equipment.
aˆ? Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) system:
1. Central computing machine connected to all theA equipmentA utilizing designed package.
2. Signal overseas telegrams to each turbine andA mastA toA changeA the orientations automatically utilizing the air current velocity steps.
3. Anemometers to mensurate wind velocity so as to alter theA orientationA of turbines and masts ;
4. Electrical transducers for transition of energy intoA requiredA formA orA withA requiredA electromotive force and current at/or stopping point to the POC.
Handiness of resources andA quantityA of energy beginning for air current power:
OurA majorA resourceA here isA windA which is free andA abundantA but need a fast moving or merely above the threshold velocity to turn the turbine. Hence we need toA locateA ourselves at a higher height like on mountains where everA flowingA air ( air current ) exists.
Efficiency in wind power:
1. Before constructing the systemA properA theoretical account have to be designed so that the efficiency is higher than the bing system or theoretical account.
2. Decrease of noiseA factorA should be considered as it causes wellness issues like concern, dizzinessA etc.
3. Vibrations due to weave velocity and turbineA speedA should besides be considered so as to forestall clefts in the walls environing theA topographic point.
4. Proper engineering to command the velocity in instance of turbine brake failure.
5. Fire asphyxiators that canA reachA the highs of turbines should be kept ready in instance of a fire.
Infrastructure for Solar power:
1. Land site where Sun light exists forA majorA partA of the twenty-four hours with high strength
2. Photo Voltaic cells ( PV cells )
3. Highly polished mirrors in line drive parabolic reflectors.
4. Solar panels with solar cells when the solar energyA is convertedA straight into electrical energy.
5. Water which is to be heated by the solar radiation.
6. Turbines toA convertA thisA steamA into electricity utilizing dynamos.
7. Energy storage equipment like batteries toA storeA the energy generated andA transmissionA wires and substations toA transmitA the power.
8. High Temperature feeling devices to maintain the equipment inA controlA formA overheating by solar radiation.
9. Water recycling systems to sublimate the H2O fromA harmfulA radiations.
10. Proper waste disposal schemas toA disposeA the chemicals used.
Availability and Quantity of energy beginning for solar power:
OurA energy beginning here isA sunA in the signifier of radiation orA sunA light.A Sun still exists for 4.5 billion of old ages harmonizing the theory of black holes andA henceA ourA resourceA is plenty.A ProperA placeA should be chosen so as toA meetA ourA waterA demand.
Efficiency in utilizing solarA power:
1. Conversion rates of chemicals should be known and usedA consequently.
2. ProperA pipeliningA should be used to avoid thaw and escapes due toA steam.
3. EfficientA processA to change over theA steamA toA high speedA flow should be used
4. TurbinesA shouldA withA standA the power andA energyA ofA steamA without any thermic enlargements and distortion
5. NoiseA factorA should be considered due to rotation ofA steamA andA henceA should be located at outskirts.
6. Efficient recyclingA systemA should be used to change over theA steamA back toA waterA and for recycling it.
B. Describe how these factors will impact seting up the alternate energy beginning in Singapore
aˆ? Singapore has a extremely sophisticated market-based economic system, A based historically on extendedA entrepotA trade. Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, SingaporeA are the Four Asian Tigers.A The state is the universe ‘s 4th taking fiscal Centre. Singapore has one of the busiest ports in the universe and is the universe ‘s 4th largest foreign-exchange trading Centre after London, New York and Tokyo. The World Bank ranks Singapore as the world’sA topA logistics hub. This suggests that Singapore is financiallyA strongA to develop and implement the above Solar and WindA powerA undertakings ( Retrieved April 11, 2011, fromA hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore ) .
aˆ? The South China seaA is locatedA north E Singapore suggesting that Singapore has sufficient H2O militias for chilling systems whichA needA about 25,000 litres of H2O for chilling incase of atomic power andA relativelyA less in other alternateA powerA beginnings.
aˆ? Solar World isA the universe ‘s 3rd largest solar energyA companyA and it is be aftering toA investA S $ 300 million in two solar faculty andA cellA production workss in Asia Singapore.A The Singapore plantA willA be locatedA in a greenfield site in TuasA View whereA It will fabricate wafers, photovoltaic cellsA and faculties utilizing multi-crystalline technology.A This suggest that Singapore has theA favourableA conditionA for resources required for execution.
aˆ? Singapore has on-going land renewal ( change overing of waste land ) undertakings demoing thatA landA is non a job for theA newA alternate energy beginning undertaking.
aˆ? The below figure shows the needed information saying that the solar energy can beA efficientA except for the showery yearss as it has an mean temperature of 31oC.
aˆ? The mountains in SingaporeA are listedA below proposing that there are less favorable conditions to set up a windmill due toA properA deficiency ofA heightA of the mountains.
aˆ? Sembawang Hot Spring: The temperature hot H2O in this spring is soA highA that we shouldA waitA atleastA an hr to soak your legs into it.A This showsA smallA hope forA geoA thermalA energyA plantA in Singapore.
aˆ? Singapore possesses the best engineering in the universe doing aA positiveA pointA forA establishmentA of Wind and Solar power workss.
Some News sing Singapore’sA developmentA for alternate energy-source:
“ Singapore is forcing in front with ambitious alternative-energyA and preservation runs, seting the metropolis province intoA the vanguard of energy efficiency and turn outing thatA businessA and environmentalism can profitablyA mix.
( Andrew Symon. ( 2008, August 19 ) .A Singapore.A Asia Times.A Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.atimes.com )
EnergyA that we depend on every twenty-four hours comesA from a different types of beginnings. Each of the beginnings has its ain pros and cons, but willA continue toA advanceA andA develop with engineering and research. There can non be one individual beginning without any environmental effects and which can carry through our demands but a combination of all beginnings they will carry through our demands.
Energy is all aroundA us, but the fast one is working it inA a utile manner. What of all time alternate beginnings of energy we find it should be environmentally green, inexpensive and renewable.
AsA youA can see, there are manyA viableA surrogate beginnings ofA energyA that we can and shouldA useA toA supplyA our energy needs other than fossil fuels and coal. If we are goingA takeA planetary heating earnestly, so we will necessitate to do a dramatic alteration toA ourA energy infrastructureA shortly, so that we may control planetary C emanations. EvenA thoughA these alternate beginnings ofA energyA may be more expensive than utilizing fossil fuels and coal now, they are acquiring cheaper, and in the long tally, the cost of go oning toA releaseA C emanations into the air, withA ourA current energy substructure, will be much moreA costlyA than utilizing alternate beginnings of energy. So we should put in alternate beginnings of energy now so that we canA lessenA the blow of planetary heating on the universe in the future.A Though every energyA resourceA has its ain disadvantages the 1 with the minimumA relativelyA should be considered and implemented so as to go self sufficient.