The New Kingdom Egypt Essay

“Evaluate the impact of ONE pharaoh to the development of New Kingdom Egypt” Thutmose III Thutmose III gained the throne from his father Thutmose II, but was considered to be not old enough to reign and as a result Hatshepsut, his stepmother became the regent and eventually became came co-pharaoh with Thutmose III, he reigned for just under 55 years, reigned from 1479-1425 BC. When Hatshepsut died in 1458, it meant that Thutmose could step forward and take the reigns on his own; it was at this time that he began what was to be considered one of the most successful military reigns of the dynasty if not in all of Egypt’s history.

Over this period Thutmose had both strong internal developments and a successful foreign policy in which he extended the Egyptian borders. He was so successful at his military campaigns that he was referred to as the “Napoleon of Egypt” by J. H. Breasted, an American Egyptologist. The foreign policy of Thutmose was considered to be very strong by most historians, he was often referred to as the Warrior Pharaoh, and during his reign he had a total of 17 campaigns, all of which were successful.

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The key campaigns in Thutmose’s were the victory at Megiddo, in his 23rd year of reign, the capture of Kadesh in 30th year, his 8th campaign when he invaded Naharin and captured Carchamesh and erected a stela next to that of his grandfathers at the Euphrates, his 10th campaign to defeat the Naharin in his 35th year and in his 42nd year his 17th campaign which resulted in a second victory at Kadesh.

These military successes were beneficial to Egypt in multiple ways; it meant that Egypt had a much larger border under its control, which both showed that it was a strong military power to be feared and that they had a steady income of tribute from conquered areas. Thutmose was known for his military prowess, a few examples of this is when his troops needed to be moved north, he sent them up by using boats instead of marching, this meant that fatigue was minimised.

Also was the way in which he invaded during the harvest time, a time in which his opponents would be at their most vulnerable, as well as this he attacked areas town by town, which demoralised their opponents as they watched their towns falling and meant that they could not band together to become a larger unified force.

Thutmose also built forts and left garrisons in cities that were of strategic value, it was known that at least one fortress was built in Lebanon , this is demonstrated by the tribute that was sent regularly and from references such as one from the Gebel Barkel stela, “when my army which is in the garrison in Ullaza comes” Thutmose had his achievements recorded by two main people, his main scribe and his army commander.

He had his military achievements recorded on the walls of some of his buildings, such as on the festival hall in the temple of Amun Re at Karnak, it was used to record his debt to the god by describing his triumphant campaigns. The Annals is were the achievements of Thutmose was inscribed, it showed things such as the Meggido campaign, it told of why they were going, “to smite those who attacked the borders of Egypt for there was rebellion against his majesty”.

Also shown was the way in which they praised Amun Re for the victory and presented the war spoils to him, “They presented the booty they had taken, (including) hands, of living prisoners, of horses, chariots of gold and silver. ” The reason that the foreign policy was so beneficial to Egypt’s development was that with every victory came war spoils and tributes to be paid, this meant that Egypt had more money coming in to be spent on internal affairs such as the construction of more building such as monuments or temples, and that the army could be even better equipped for future battle.

It also meant that the temple of Amun Re could continue to be proven to be the major god of Egypt as some of the spoils from war were sent to the temple of Amun Re and in many inscriptions the battles were said to be won by the will of Amun Re and be dedicated to him. Despite the fact that so much time was spent on military Thutmose still managed to have a major impact upon the internal development of Egypt, this included religious and buildings.

The reason that Thutmose was able to have such an extensive building program was because of the large amount of tribute that was flowing in from his successful military campaigns. Some of the buildings constructed by Thutmose include two temples, one to Amun Re and one to Thutmose II, at Karnak a festival hall, 6th and 7th pylon, a temple to Ptah and rebuilding of central areas. In the Valley of the Kings and in lower and upper Egypt he built temples and other monuments.

The size of the temples that were built for the gods, in particular Amun Re were to show the power and strength of the gods, but also as propaganda as it showed the strength of the Pharaoh. The temple of Amun Re in Karnak had a large amount of building added to it, in the area surrounding it he added a pylon, on this he had inscribed his foreign campaigns, it became known as the “Annals of Thutmose III”, he also completed the work of Hatshepsut on the eight pylon and erected the 7th and between the two constructed a barque shrine.

A festival temple was build after is second campaign, it was built to the east of his grandfather’s, Thutmose I, hypostyle hall. Religion was an important part of Egyptian life, and Thutmose spent a lot of time on helping the god Amun Re to become the State god, many gifts to Amun are inscribed at Karnak, it is known as the “Feast and Offerings from the conquest”, some of the gifts included two obelisks, two flag staves and a large variety of furniture for the temple and jewellery.

It depicts Thutmose before a statue of the enthroned Amun, an inscription reads “presentation of the monuments by the pharaoh…, that he may be given life like Re, forever. Thutmose had a large impact in both internal and foreign development, this is due to the large success he had militarily, and this resulted in a large amount of tribute and war spoils, with all this wealth coming in

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