The original sandstone walls Essay

Premise Set

Our current 1940 ‘s office edifice in the metropolis Centre is structurally sound and has been built with the original sandstone walls. The edifice has a North – South orientation and is 8 floors in tallness.

The wall thermic insularity is hapless offering a U value of 1.2Q/m2K.

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The individual glazing is giving a hapless U value of 5.5Wm2K.

The net internal: gross external ratio is 80 % and the net useable: net internal ratio is 75 % which gives the edifice a high country of useable floor infinite.

The floor layout is presently offering unfastened program with cellular infinite to accommodate the demands of the administration.

Storey tallness is 4.0m floor to floor with the current coatings holding a suspended ceiling on a raised computing machine floor with downstanding light adjustments.

The conventional oil fired boiler supplying the moisture warming system is presently runing at 65 % and is coming nearer to the terminal of its utile life. The thermoregulators on each floor in the corridor control the temperature in the suites with no independent agencies of control.

The steel panel convectors are located around the margin of the edifice below cill tallness.

With the busy streets outside the edifice suffers from noise impacting on the internal environment. We have tested the air quality within the edifice and when the Windowss are unfastened to supply airing we have recorded hapless degrees of air quality within the edifice.

Air stringency of the individual glassy Windowss is hapless.

The lighting is fluorescent adjustments and traditional switches.

We have done an audit of the edifice from the C trust and it has confirmed that our warming and lighting costs are high compared to similar sized edifices with greater control of services and improved thermic insularity. The audit has confirmed that the high degrees of absenteeism are being caused through to the edifice holding feature of ill edifice syndrome. We have had a BREEAM appraisal which gives the edifice a evaluation of hapless.

The assessment of our options is based on being in the edifice for a farther 15 old ages and the prognosis residuary value.


The purpose of this study is to discourse how our 1940 ‘s edifice can hold its internal conditions improved to be more energy efficient and how its compares to more modern edifices.

The result of the study will reflect the difference from station ascent to refurbishment and comparison with a more modern edifice taking into history and encompassing sustainable patterns and the capital allowance revenue enhancement available for puting in sustainable engineering.

Analysis of Existing Performance

The edifices north south orientation is unresponsive to temperature swings and with being of course ventilated it is hard to command the blaze and noise and air pollution. The blaze means greater usage of internal blinds and raises the demand for unreal lighting.

Solar heat addition is by and large unaffected as the rugs and suspended ceiling will forestall the soaking up of the unwanted heat. The hapless wall building and the hapless air stringency of the Windowss are enabling the release of unwanted heat.

The benefits from the usage of natural airing are being eradicated by staff go forthing Windowss unfastened during the dark and whilst the warming is being provided. The individual thermoregulators are worsening this and are doing important energy wastage.

The current boiler is running at 65 % efficiency and is uneconomical compared to newer theoretical accounts with the individual thermoregulators neglecting to take into history the varying demands for heating throughout the edifice. The south facing offices require less warming than the north which is n’t being considered with the current controls.

The bing lighting is being left on when the edifice is un-occupied and with the solar blaze the usage of natural visible radiation is non being utilised although this is a seasonal job.

Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR )

The edifices current status is neglecting to exhibit sustainable features in footings of energy efficiency and supplying a wellness environment for the residents. It is advised to demo that the company takes its CSR earnestly that a significant part is required to be invested in upgrading and re-lifting the edifice enabling us to remain put in the edifice which is of import for historical grounds.

To battle the noise and air pollution against the comfort conditions and wellness and the heat loss natural airing is no longer a feasible option appropriate for the edifice. The energy wastage is being caused through the mutual exclusiveness of the edifice services to the edifice and deficiency of control in at that place usage. If the edifice is non updated it is anticipated the current high degrees of absenteeism will surely go on.

Building Management Systems ( BMS )

With the metropolis Centre location the air and noise pollution requires a high degree of intelligence in the design of the cloth and the edifice services.

Due to the edifice planning restraints we can non supply any solar shading.

Natural airing looks like it will hold to be sacrificed for an air conditioning system.

With the cardinal location of the controls for the warming and illuming better control is required to cut down energy costs.

There is a demand for the debut of unreal intelligence within the edifice with warming and illuming detectors that will react to the edifices residents and its use.

Building Energy Management Systems ( BEMS )

Supplying farther intelligence in the agencies of a BEMS system will manus the control for pull offing the energy use over to the edifice residents which shall be controlled from a centralized point within the edifice. As this is the lone belongings the company have an outpost is non practical.

The fiscal assessment of the determination to put in a BEMS will be determined by the likely payback period and the size of the edifice and its map.

A farther factor in make up one’s minding to put in a BEMS will be the degree of edification in the service of the edifice in the air conditioning. Sustainability will necessitate to be considered in doing a determination.


The eventual pick of options will be drawn up based on the undermentioned standards:

Cost – to stand for value for money in the 15 old ages residuary value.

Sustainable – energy efficiency cut downing the C footmark of the edifice.

Comfort – to supply a healthy environment to work in.

Payback – The payback of the period non transcending three and a half old ages.

Planing – What will the planning ordinances allow us to make?

Decisions and Recommendations

The appropriate scheme to better the energy efficiency will be a mixture of a systematic and ad hoc attack.

Comparison with Modern Building Incorporating Conclusions and Recommendations

The current individual glazed Windowss offering a hapless u value of 5.5Wm2K is recommended to be replaced with more modern aluminum window system which will give the edifice an improved value of 0.4Wm2K and would be similar to that used in new modern edifices. In footings of the blaze and unwanted heat addition coming through the Windowss we would hold the Windowss glazed with low emissivity glass to cut down this job and would offer better usage of the infinite.

Assorted manner airing with a alteration over design would be achieved by puting a detector on the Windowss and out-of-door temperature detector and will be based on a seasonal footing. It is thought that during the summer months we will utilize dark chilling which will be more efficient. The sum of mechanical airing has the infinite to be accommodated within the suspended ceiling nothingness. There is many different types of assorted manner airing this is one of the ways in which the coveted consequence could besides be determined in a modern edifice.

The BMS will integrate the energy direction which will be controlled at the cardinal location within the edifice and will give 5 air alterations per hr. The BEMS integrating the window and out-of-door temperature detectors will command the motors providing the ventilated air. In a modern edifice or edifices the controls would besides be in a Centre location or in a distant outpost. The sum of detectors in a more modern edifice will be designed to make the ultimate comfort conditions and energy use which we are seeking to accomplish by upgrading our older edifice.

The conventional oil boiler will be replaced by a gas fired distilling boiler which will offer a greater 80 % efficiency and cut downing co2 emanations there will be the chance to cut down this cost under the authoritiess capital revenue enhancement allowance strategy. It will be of import that we get the new boiler designed so that it will work at its most efficient. The gas condensation boilers are being used in modern edifices and will be designed similar to guarantee they are working at there most efficient.

The usage of the equipment within the edifice computing machines, pressmans, illuming, figure of residents etc will hold to be factored in to the control settings for the warming and airing. The BEMS can command the demands for these based on the detectors throughout the edifice and its tenancy. When our edifice was built this would non hold been taken cognise of and will be factored in to new modern designs.

The bing fluorescent lighting will be replaced throughout which will be designed with the sum of lx required in each room with dimming controls available to get by with the seasonal conditions and business of the edifice which will be controlled by the BEMS. There will be PIR ‘s fitted in all countries and suites which will assist with commanding the sum of energy use through visible radiations being left on. The proposed lighting system is used in modern edifices and is found to hold great energy salvaging possible when used decently.

The usage of H2O in the lavatories and kitchen countries will be controlled by base entirely presense detectors and pumps which will be controlled by the BEMS to seek and conserve energy and run into the resident ‘s demands. The detectors are now common in edifices in seeking to restrict the sum of H2O we use.

It is proposed to present metres and sub-meters on each floor for all services to find where the maximal uses are taking topographic point.

Where our edifice will be different from its more modern opposite numbers is in the wall status which is presently got a U value of 1.2Q/m2K. Attaching external wall insularity to better this is non possible due to the planning restraints. Cavity wall insularity will non be effectual due to the tallness of the edifice. The more modern edifices will hold wall insularity batts built in or be blown in during there building. And the external wall insularity can be fitted in the signifier of a render during the physique.

Re-pointing of the bing walls where they are peculiarly upwind harm will assist cut down the sum of moistness and better the thermic insularity of our wall and will assist to keep the edifice for a greater period.

Our edifice compared with our more modern opposite numbers has a greater floor to floor tallness which gives us the option of running the services through the infinites in the floor and through the nothingness above the suspended ceiling. The more modern edifices are designed with merely plenty null infinite to suit the services and as such do non offer any agencies for betterment to bigger size.

More modern office edifices are being built with insulated cladding panels in the roof which are giving greater U values through the roof. It is proposed that in our slate roof we have any harm repaired and insert loft insularity to give the edifice a much better U value in the roof. There are grants available for bettering the U value.

To battle the sum of staff expostulations to the proposals we will establish an energy consciousness run to explicate the grounds why we are taking the control off from the staff. We will set about studies which will be used to acquire the optimal conditions through taking an norm of what the staff would wish. It is thought that the betterments will battle against the current degrees of absenteeism.

The betterments will demo that our company is take its corporate societal duty ( CSR ) earnestly and is making its portion to cut down its C emanations. To set about the betterments will necessitate a significant capital spending and will hold a break on the concern while the plants are carried out. The capital spending that is anticipated will be recovered through cost nest eggs and will be paid back within three and a half old ages. There are grants available through the authoritiess capital revenue enhancement strategy.

The chief difference within our older edifice if we carry out these ascents will be that the external wall U value will still be high which will necessitate a greater grade of heating during the seasonal periods. It is proposed that we stay in our bing edifice which will assist to maintain the companies historical background and keep our corporate societal duty image. The methods will besides assist to guarantee that we can remain in the edifice for at least the following 15 old ages and will guarantee that the edifice stay in a wellness environment for many old ages after.


To better the internal conditions within the edifice it is proposed that we:

  • Replace the Windowss with new dual glazed aluminum with low emissivity glass.
  • Introduce assorted manner alteration over airing with detectors on the Windowss and exterior.
  • Introduce detectors in the edifice and take the control for the warming and the visible radiations to a cardinal location within the edifice.
  • Replace the illuming with more energy efficient visible radiations with the right figure and present PIRs in all suites.
  • Replace the bing boiler with a new gas condensation boiler which has been designed to run into the edifices demands.
  • Introduce presence detectors on the pumps and lights-outs in the kitchens and lavatories.
  • Meter and sub-meter all of the services coming in to the edifice and at each floor.
  • Re-point the external wall to protect against moistness.

It is believed that version of these betterments will fulfill the demands that were set out in the standards. The costs have taken into history a life rhythm bing based on the edifice being around for 40 old ages. The sum of design work and farther studies required will take a period of three months. After which clip a period will be required for tendering which has been allowed at present to be two months. To finish the work with a minimal sum of break has been programmed to take a period of 6 months.

I await your farther instructions.

Main beginnings of mention.

  • The Facilities Manager ‘s Energy Primer

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