CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Enrolment serves as a vital part in the life of every student upon entering schools or universities, either public or in private. It gives students the impression on how the whole institute manages and manipulate the entire body. Moreover, enrolment serves as the first experience of all students by which he/she takes part either individually or with company of a parent or some relatives.
Enrolment is considered as the first step or procedure that must be done by old students within a particular institute before the semester per school year totally starts, but for those freshmen, or first year students (new students), they are obliged to usually take an admission test, to know and assess them the right course to engage to, followed by a scheduled interview in order to give them brief instructions and information about certain issues with regards to the school’s policies, institutional programs as well as personal information, health, economic status, so on and so forth.
Good enrolment is always an asset in a university, pertaining to fast payment, assessment procedures, and easy transactions with a high rate of accuracy. Therefore, good enrolment within the university, if present, can be described as civilize, organize, accurate and professional. Background of the Study During enrolment, it is undeniably noticeable on some problems and difficulties arising from each respective procedure, hence leading to minor errors and inaccuracy. In college, known as tertiary level, University Administration Officers with the help of the Office of the Student Affairs (OSA) make the enrolment procedure.
Hence, they are the one who are responsible with this matter, and the one who could allegedly change the process whenever enrolment perplexity occurs. Enrolment is more than just a word itself, because for others, it means sacrifice, hunger, dilemma, waste of time, effort and money, knowing that after a couple of days or more, is the only “relief” from it. It is very fortunate to know that most accredited universities throughout the archipelago offers fast and easy enrolment procedures, not mentioning the application of modern technology which made possible by the use of internet.
But despite of this, it is very unfortunate to know, that there are still universities that faces the dilemma of enrolment, specifically the process of payments and accuracy of the performances leading to the so-called enrolment perplexity. Ramon Magsaysay Technological University, Iba Campus is considered as one of those accredited universities that suffer from enrolment difficulties. We, current students, are witnesses in this matter thus looking forward for answers that will end up the queries playing in our confused minds.
For us, it is a matter of what or who to be blamed. Nevertheless, critical research using statistical data as well as plenty of questionnaires are needed to be distributed to each respective respondent within the vicinity campus. As stated earlier, good enrolment is always an asset in a university, pertaining to fast payment, assessment procedure and easy transactions with a high rate of accuracy considering that enrolment is the first school activity a student takes part.
Hence, it is very necessary that difficulties hereto should be solved in order to give students their good impression about the university they’re engaging, for I believe that “first impression lasts”. In line with this matter, the name and dignity of the university bears it all. A good and accurate enrolment procedure shows that the institution is well-organize, civilize and professional. After almost three and a half (3? ) years of studying in RMTU Iba Campus, we always suffer from enrolment perplexity.
After all they implemented the “automated enrolment” last couple of years ago, why then we still encountering such problem? Minor problem it seems for most of us, but let us be reminded that all minor things arises from minor ones – how little it may seems must be given attention. We roamed throughout the university to casts some ideas of what they can say about the problems during enrolment. One of the student we asked confided that during line up, they went to school as early as five thirty (5:30 A.
M) in the morning expecting to enrol first, but when the enrolment started, student who came late were enrolled first, because they tried to get some space between each line up, while others made their own line at all. This shows misbehaviour within students which results to shouting and quarrelling during enrolment. Another student shared his experience about the problem issue concerning enrolment, and his concern was all about the long line-up of students which often reach to the university administration’s rooftop. And what made the matter worst was that the enrolment process seemed not to moved at all.
Maybe because of the problem mentioned above. Because of this, most students are discouraged and decided not to finish their enrolment within that day and come back the other day. Hence, resulting to wasted time and especially money. While gathering data problems to support our research, we encountered this student that revealed his experience as a scholar beneficiary from a particular politician. According to him, his enrolment went smoothly until he reached in the pre-assessment part. He was ordered to have his form cleared by the cashier since they had the master list of the names of each scholarship grants.
While proceeding to the cashier, he was disappointed to see the long line-up that leads to the rooftop, and so he approached the cashier asking if she could just cleared his form, just to clear it – which will only take less than a minute. But to the student’s surprised, he was scolded by the angry cashier and was obliged to go in the last line in order to have his form cleared up. This is one reason why enrolment process became more perplex and difficult to the lives of each students. Another problem encountered was the under time habit of enrolment officials. Students go to school as early as 5:30 A.
M, but they start the enrolment at nine (9: OO A. M). Lack of University personnel particularly in the cashier section, few numbers of operating computers and printers, few number of operating windows, student’s behaviour, under time habit of personnel in-charge, difficulties in seeking for approval because of the distances of rooms/buildings, incurring 2-3 days of enrolment as well as wrong assessment despite of computer-based technology are some of the major problems encountered by the students during enrolment which leads to perplexity in the entire process, hence, this study.
Importance of the Study We, the researchers, are motivated to go deeper into the problem so that we may be able to come up with some findings and recommendations which may contribute toward the improvement of enrolment process in Ramon Magsaysay Technological University Iba Campus. This study considered with great importance because it is expected to find solutions to the problem as well as to give students a good impression to the university in terms of easy enrolment procedures.
The findings of which may serve as a guiding principle, since it could feed data as basis for action in the improvement of enrolment procedure as well as to promote higher accuracy and productivity. For the students. It will help them to enrol fast during enrolment. It is expected that by the end of this research, enrolment process will vastly improve. Typographical errors, if not totally prevented, at least will be lessen especially those in the pre-registration and cashier section.
The messy and long line up of students during enrolment should as well be prevented. For the teachers. Smooth flow of their first week of classes is expected to happen. If the enrolment process will become easy and quick, students will therefore enrol earlier and could attend their respective classes on time too. Hence, teachers can start their lessons right away without waiting for other students to finish enrolling. Interruptions of classes will be prevented. For the parents.
For the parents that enrol their sons/daughters, they will find ease enrolling their children even if they are not familiar with the step-by-step procedure, thus, enabling them to have quick access with the enrolment process. For the university, respect will be obtained as well as pride and honour if enrolment process is accurate and organize, from the first step unto the last. It will show that if easy yet accurate enrolment will be achieved, the university can be considered as professional and highly competitive. The proponents.
The proponents would also be a beneficiary of the study since the proponents would value the importance of enhancing their skills and work performance while grasping knowledge throughout the study. For the future researchers. For the future researchers, this study could be used for their reference if the future researchers would like to formulate a system such as this. Conceptual Framework The study focuses on the predictors that result to enrolment difficulties as well as perceptions toward the conduct of enrolment procedures in the Ramon Magssaysay Technological University Main Campus covering S. Y. 2009-2010.
The university administration must therefore provide the appropriate machines particularly computers and printers, much more skilled personnel in the cashier section to perform financial tasks, proper designation of the tables in clearing scholarships, more operating windows to avoid ine stock-ups and other problems arising from enrolment process. The conceptual framework on the relationship of each variable is best explaining using the input, process, output model. RESEARCH PARADIGM Figure I. For the input framework, it covers the profile of the respondents as to their sex, age and year level or course.
It also covers the discrimination of the problem on the different respondents. On the process frame, it covers on the methodology on gathering the data as the used of questionnaire as the main instrument. On the output frame, it deals with the ultimate goal and objective on the study in the improvement of enrolment process in the Ramon Magsaysay Technological University. STATEMENTS OF THE PROBLEMS General Objective To develop an Easy Enrolment System in the Ramon Magsaysay Technological University that school’s lack of manpower, file-handling, generations of forms and other documents. 1.
How are the profile of the respondents be describe as: 1. 1Sex; 1. 2Age; 1. 3Course/College; 1. 4Height; 1. 5Weight; 1. 6Civil Status; 1. 7Religion? 2. How is the process of enrolment be described as to: 2. 1Admission 2. 2Pre-Registration 2. 3Medical and Dental 2. 4Assessment of Fees 2. 5Payment of Fees 2. 6I. D Validation 2. 7COR Retrieval 3. How is the Admission Process be described as to: 3. 1Examination 3. 2Time Consumption 3. 3Interview 4. How is the Pre-Registration, Assessment of Fees, Payments of Fees be describe as to: 4. 1Line-Up 4. 2Time Consumption 4. 3Accuracy 4. 4Operating Machines 4. 5Operating Personnel . How are the personnel in the cashier be describe as to: 5. 1Number 5. 2Approach to students 5. 3Manner and conduct 5. 4Accuracy 5. 5Time of Operation from morning to afternoon 6. How are the personnel in the Registrar be describe as to: 6. 1Number 6. 2Approach to students 6. 3Accuracy 7. Is there any significant difference on the perception of respondents toward enrolment process according to profile variables as stated in profile number 1? 8. Is there a significant difference on the perception of respondents towards enrolment process when grouped according to profile variables as stated in problem number 1?
Research Hypothesis (1)There is no significant difference on the perception of respondents towards individual factors affecting enrolment factors when grouped according to profile variable. (2)There is no significant difference on the perception of respondents towards enrolment process when grouped according to profile variable. Scope and Limitation of the Study The study is limited to the students in the different colleges in the Ramon Magsaysay Technological University, Iba Campus, Iba, Zambales within S. Y 2009-2010.
It also dealt with the perceptions of the respondents towards common perceptions that were faced during enrolment days. It also include on the suggested recommendations in order to minimize or solve the problems that leads to difficulties during enrolment. This study likewise will also confide to determine the age, sex, college, year level, and civil status of the respective student respondents. Definition of Terms For clarity and lucidity of the study, the different terms were defined operationally as it is being used in the study.
Alternative – this refers to other way on how to perform and make the enrolment process easier. Asset – this refers as the pride and glory of a university that makes it unique and highly competitive among other schools. It is an advantageous characteristic of the university. Automated enrolment – this refers as an evolution to the enrolment process wherein complex applications of new technologies are used. Cashier – this refers to the administration official who performs all the financial matters and payments for everything during enrolment.
Confide – this refers to the speaking out or sharing of ideas, thoughts, suggestions and even comments of the respondents their overviews concerning the issues of “enrolment perplexity in RMTU”. Dilemma – this refers to the problems faced by the students. Freshmen – this refers to the newly – enrolled first year students in a particular university. Minimize – this refers as to decline or lessen such problems arising from the issue or situation. Perception – this refers to the analysis of certain facts and issues within the mind of students.
Personnel – this refers simply to the university officials, faculty and non-faculty members. Perplexity – this refers to the difficulty face by students during enrolment as well as the inaccuracy. Pre-Registration – this refers as one of the enrolment process before paying in the cashier, wherein availability of subjects to be enrolled will be checked, examined and printed out by the campus registrar. Questionnaires – this refers to the answer sheets made by the researchers to be distributed to the respondents which contain all the questions that seek to find solutions.
Recommendations – this refers to the suggestions of ideas with regards to research problem for the betterment of the enrolment process. Research – this refers as the scientific process of investigation and study to discover new facts. Respondents – this refers to the college students enrolled in RMTU within the school year 2009-2010 who will answer the questionnaire. Roam – this refers to the searching of the researchers in the locale of the study in order to find respondents that will take part on the research by answering interviews and questionnaires.
Scholarship grants – this refers to the financial support programs or assistance given by politicians or people of high living in different towns of Zambales. Some scholarship grants payed all the students’ tuition fee, while others give only a fixed amount of support. Study – this refers to application of the mind in order to gain and get knowledge. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES One of the most significant steps in a research project is conducting the literature review. Through this chapter, the readers can familiarize to the study of the proponents.
The related and previous studies presented in this chapter would give the readers and future researchers, an idea of the proposed system of the proponents. The proponents selected and reviewed these studies and previous works to provide information for the readers. Related Studies Foreign Long Beach City College Switches On Enrollment System Kopf, David. 2007 Southern California community college Long Beach City College has gone live with a new Cognos-based enrollment management system that was designed by Irvine, CA-based professional services firm e2e Analytix.
Prior to installing the new system, LBCC, which has two main campuses and multiple satellites that support nine schools and 34 departments, handled its enrollment via manual spreadsheets. With no reporting, continuity, or standard practices, and with lengthy error corrections, the school’s enrollment management budgeting and planning took up to three months to compile, consolidate, and implement. LBCC tapped e2e Analytix, which specializes in higher education, to design a web-based enrollment management system using Cognos Enterprise Planning software from Cognos Inc. (Ottawa, Ontario).
Using Cognos for enrollment management was a unique application for Cognos, according to Dan Galuppo, e2e’s director of professional services, but the result delivers real-time data collection, consolidation, workflow, and calculations to help LBCC enrollment staff make faster and more informed decisions. “Our new system provides flexible and powerful model development with the Cognos Analyst component and supports any business planning or customizing of the enrollment management model”, said Linda Umbdenstock, LBCC’s administrative dean of planning in a prepared statement. The solution dramatically reduced the amount of time to process, consolidate and implement forecasts. It provided real-time service cost and expense planning per semester. ” ACM Portal http://portal. acm. org/citation. cfm? id=1181300 The on-line student enrollment system enables students to enroll into their subjects prior to the commencement of their semesters. This enrollment system not only allows international students to enroll through internet without traveling to the campus but also incorporates the business rules.
These business rules cover a wide range of regulations and policy such as subject pre-requisite, student’s payment status, course coordinator’s decision and the correspondence of students’ seniority to the intended enrolling subjects. Besides business rules, the system also incorporates various notification mechanisms like Short Messaging Service (SMS) and E-mail. XML is used to store business rules and this allows the portability of the system interface to wider range of devices such as Personal Device Assistant (PDA). The interface auto-detects the user’s device either PC/laptop or much smaller screen device such as PDA.
In short, the enrolment system backend engine runs based on the business rules and front-end engine runs to provide high satisfaction user experience. With the business and user interface, the system is able to run the workflow of the student enrolment from the online enrolment form to approval workflow cycle running in parallel with the notification capability. Online Enrollment for ECU http://www. doir. wa. gov. au Edith Cowan University (ECU) is currently enrolling more than 5, 000 new students, which has been made easier with its Oracle-based online enrolment system.
This has allowed ECU to substantially re-design its business processes. The system is known as the Edith Cowan University Web Enrolment System (ECUWES), and replaces traditional hard copy enrolment. According to the coordinator of Admission Support, Kerian Greenaway, the system offers immediacy and convenience of course enrolment via the Internet. The technology in use was set up by Oracle in 1998, when ECU moved towards creating an innovative web-based enrolment and administrative system using Oracle database products. New enrolments using ECUWES are managed differently to re-enrolment on ECUWES.
New enrolments are processed while the student is with an enrolment assistant, because there is a need to collect HECS and enrolment papers, as well as to familiarize students with the system. In terms of re-enrolment, the student has full control of enrolling in a six-week period, which allows for any small glitches in the system, such as not being able to get online. ECU also previously faced difficulties with managing student enrolment administration, as staffs were distributed across several locations, so there was a desire for improved access and management of student information.
Similarly, re-enrolment required students to travel to the University and queue for service from administration staff. Faculties also requested that students enroll by porting enrolment sheets on computer bulletin boards. With ECUWES, students from remote areas and international students enjoy easy enrolment with improved time effectiveness. There have been no major problems, apart from a few power failures, but ECU has back-up plans, such as enrolment assistants taking up all the paperwork and processing the information once back online. Illinois Virtual High School Inquiry ttp://www. ivhs. org/ This online inquiry gives detailed information on persons that can be contacted with regard to specific field; example is a general program Issues, Technical Problems, Faculty Information and course development. It also gives information about their regional coordinators for participating schools. The website has a login feature where the students can login using their login ID. The online inquiry system of Illinois High School helps the authors to picture out and develop an ideal database structure for the system that will be proposed.
The proponents system is similar and is based on some capabilities of the system in this study like the inquiry of courses and login feature for the students. Web-based Enrollment System for Veritas Parochial School Pascual, Robert John G. and Riceo, Vincent Joel T. , 2001 A web-based enrollment system is developed to help both the old and new students, to enroll in a more efficient way without the hassles of waiting long hours just to fill up forms, which sometimes become redundant, or to stand in line and pay at the cashier. It is with the Web-based Enrollment System for VPS that this new style of enrollment may be achieved.
This new type of system offers the student with new options for enrolling at VPS. Just by logging on to their website the student may create his new account for the current year he is to be enrolled in. With this, all the student has to do is to fill up certain forms that do not take more than a few minutes to accomplish. Then the records will be stored in the school database for future references. After that the student will be given confirmation that the transaction has been verified and all that the student has to do is visit the school and pay appropriate amount for the current school year.
The student may also browse the web site of VPS and he can check his current account. He can also see the list of the school current tuition fee rates. For further enhancement of the site, an on-line payment or e-commerce is highly recommended. This feature for the system could be achieved by collaboration of the school with banks to provide easier payment and a more secure transaction. Posting of grades can also be a great addition to the site. Especially the breakdown of each grade can be seen by the students but with utmost security.
Compared to the web-based enrollment system for VPS, the proposed system for CMI would only cover the current students; the student would also be asked to log in to his or her account in the website where he/she would be asked to fill up some forms to update the school’s database. A confirmation would then be sent to the student that would inform him/her that the transaction is valid and had been verified. But unlike the system, there would be another option for the mode of payment that the student could choose from namely, on-line payment. AIMS enhances enrollment system of UNO-R Bacolod ttp://www. uno-r. edu. ph The Academic Information Management System or AIMS has enhanced the enrollment system and academic record keeping of the University of Negros Occidental Recoletos in Bacolod City. The school for easy access of students to the school and school academic records acquired AIMS, software of Pinnacle Asia. It has systematized and consolidated the inputs of the college registrar with the accounting office. Bro. Jaazeal D. Jakosalem, OAR, University Property Administrator said that AIMS has made records of both offices analogous with each other.
We were able to solve the loopholes in the past where millions of pesos cannot be counted because their inputs cannot be recorded”, Jakosalem explained. AIMS have greatly improved the school’s information technology infrastructure. UNO-R students and their parents can view the academic records on-line while enrollment procedures has been reduced to only 30 minutes or so with corresponding accounts due within 5 days. School notices and announcements may be read on-line. Faculty members may encode grades and post course/lecture materials on-line.
The school alumni here and abroad may request for their transcript of records and receive the same on line. Jakosalem also announced that UNO-R campus is now a WIFI zone. Foreign and graduate students may access the web at all times using their laptops. This study is related to the proposed system because of the web-based enrolment. The registrar and the students can also view their academic records using the internet. But the difference is that in this study it is not mention that the students can pay their tuitions on-line. Dry-run of Automated Enrollment System ttp://www. ssu. edu. ph Technology innovations had influenced man’s work, from data processing, business transactions, research, planning, monitoring and even in medical operation of man’s body is now entrusted to computer technology. Samar State University (SSU) as one of the University in Samar Island aims to be the center of excellence in education had recently made changes to some of its existing systems. The enrollment system of the university is now computerized, and other systems are on its way. This only show that they are coping with the latest technology.
The Automated Enrollment System of Samar State University aims for an accurate, user friendly, efficient system that can help both the student and personnel for fast data processing of enrollment. Engr. Hediki Hashimoto, a Japanese volunteer headed the creation and conceptualization of the system. The information technology faculty from the College of Engineering and Arts and Sciences assisted him. The system that is web based uses PHP programming language with data stored in MySQL is run through the intranet of SSU. A dry-run for this automated enrolment was done last summer and the first semester of this school year.
Offices affected with the automation were the registrar, cashier, accounting, and the Colleges of Education, Engineering, Arts and Sciences, Industrial Technology, Nursing and Graduate Studies. Feedbacks from the students were formulated when the first semester started. Over 75 % of them say that the automation process of enrollment was better compared with the old system. With the good result of the dry run the automated enrolment system will be finally implemented this 2nd semester. In this study, they have used PHP as for their programming language and they store data using MySQL.
As for the proponents they will use VB. net for their database and Visual Basic 6. 0 for their programming language. And another difference is that they are only automated and the system only runs through the intranet of the university. This means that they can’t access the records using the Internet and outside the school. Far Eastern University Enrollment System http://www. sqlwizard. com/ewizard_testimonial. html With its 25,000 students, Far Eastern University (FEU) ranks among the biggest universities in the country in terms of population.
And with a large population comes multiple problems in enrollment, student records and related data. Wanting a lasting solution to the problem, FEU asked consultants for recommendations. The result was a decision to automate FEU’s enrollment system. FEU decided to automate the enrollment system in two phases: (1), the development of a system for enrollment and student records for Phase I, and (2) the integration of the student’s financial records for. They worked closely with SQL*Wizard to pilot E*Wizard, an integrated system for student enrollment that contains modules with extensive inquiry and reporting capabilities.
They also tapped FEU’s Computer Services Department to iron out kinks. They reviewed organizational structures, assigned people to support groups and asked faculty advisers and staff to train. She also met with the representatives of individual institutes and with the support of the academic managers and SQL*Wizard’s technical group, plotted the move to launch an integrated system during the second semester. The preparation involved cleaning the database, standardizing labels for subject and preparing the subject requirements.
The only similarities that the proponents have encountered here is that the university formulated a powerful database that will hold large number of data and can keep track student transactions. This is one of the goals of the proposed system that the proponents will be developing. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research method, respondent of the study, the instrument, research locale and the statistical tools employed in the study. Research Methodology This study used the descriptive research design with the questionnaire as the main instrument of gathering data.
This method shows the present perception towards the program. This method is consider as most appropriate, since it will be intended to investigate the attitudinal relationship of the respondents with their sex, age, course/college, civil status, and respective year level. Best as cited by Unay (2002) defines descriptive research as describing, “What is”. It involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of conditions that exists. It involves some type’s comparison or contrast and attempts to discover relations between existing and noncontemplative variables.
Likewise, Calmorin (1994) pointed out that the method provides essential knowledge for the measurement in all types of quantitative research. Healey (1996) as used by Mostoles (1998) explains that research do not speak for themselves. They must be 1st arrange in ways that allows the researcher to comprehend their meaning quickly. Furthermore, Gay (1996) discussed that the first step in the data analysis is to describe or summarize the data using descriptive statistic permit the researcher to meaningfully describe many scores with small number of respondents.
If such indices are calculated from sample drawn from a population the resulting values are referred to as statistics. Population and Sources of Data The respondents of this study will use 40 students per college department within the Ramon Magsaysay Technological University Iba Campus for a total of 360 respondents. Sampling Technique During the conduct of this study, respondents will be chosen using stratified random sampling in gathering facts and data. Instrumentation The questionnaire will be the main source of gathering data and information.
The questionnaire will consist of three main parts. Part I will includes the profile of the respondents as to their sex, age, course/college, civil status, and respective year level. Part 2 deals on how the process of enrolment be described as to admission/validation, pre-registration, assessment of fees, payment of fees and retrieval of COR. Part 3 deals on the different functions and solutions needed for the current enrolment system with the proposed system by constantly evaluating and revising the prototype to meet the requirements by the institution. Data Gathering Procedure
After the questionnaire has been finalized, the researchers will seek permission from the College Dean, Professor Normita L. Aguila on the distribution of the questionnaire. Distribution and Retrieval of Data The final drafted questionnaire will be distributed among the selected respondents, which will be chosen using stratified random sampling. A 2-week or 10 working days will be allotted for the distribution and retrieval of the questionnaire. Statistical Tools In the treatment of data concerning the people of the respondents, frequency and percentage distributed will be computed.
To obtain Frequency Count and percentage (frequency Percentage) the formula is as follows: F % = —————————————————– x 100 N Where: F = number of counts N = total number of respondents The weighed mean will use to determine the average of the perceptions of the student respondents about the given variables. ?WV WM = —————— N Where: WM = Weighted Mean WV = Weighted Value N = number of Cases ? = Summation or Sum of The descriptive rating to measure the interest of student respondents toward the research is as follows:
PointWeightDescriptive Rating 54. 20 – 50. 0Strongly Agree (SA) 43. 49 – 4. 19Agree (A) 32. 60 – 3. 39Moderately Agree (MA) 21. 80 – 2. 59Disagree (D) 11. 00 – 1. 79Strongly Disagree (SD) As stated, the gathered data will be analyzed statistically in order to answer some of the questions in this study and to be able to test the hypothesis set forth. Nevertheless, before resorting to it, then weighted mean was computed in order to determine the overall value of the respondents relative to their perceptions.
To test of Significant Difference, ANOVA or analysis of variance will be used to measure the significant differences on the academic performance and level of participation on extra and co-curricular activities when grouped according to the profiles of the respondents as to sex, age, course/college, civil status, and respective year level of the respondents. Anova will be employed to test the hypothesis determining the significant differences on one variable against other many variables with the formula as: First step is to compute the total sum of squares. TSS = (? x2)/N Where: TSS = Total Sum of Squares ?x2 = Sum of the Squares of each entry x = Sum of all Columns N = Total Number of Entries Second step is to compute for the squares between columns. SSb = 1/no. of row x ? (sum of each column) ? (? x2)/N Where: SSb = Sum of Squares between Columns ?x = Sum of all Columns N = Total Number of Entries The third step is to compute for the sum of squares within column. SSw = TSS – SSb Where: SSw = Sum of Squares within column TSS = Total Sum of Squares SSb = Sum of Squares between Columns To compute the Anova Table, Calculate the mean sum of squares MSS = SS/df Where: SS = Sum of Squares (between column and within column) Df = Degree of Freedom Bibliography