The problem and review of related literature and studies Essay

Introduction
Everyone is of course pre-determined to hold an progeny. This would merely be in a relationship of a adult male and adult female. It is non ever true in a relationship if there is a new life that will be formed. Several factors may lend to the hinderances in the formation of new life particularly to adult male because male ( sperm ) gamete is the 1 responsible to originate fertilisation. the brotherhood of male ( sperm ) and female ( ovum ) gametes.

These may include low sperm counts. hapless sperm quality. anatomical jobs and hormonal instabilities. These factors were besides described under male sterility which leads to inability to bring forth offspring. Pre-fabricated drugs to handle this are readily available in the market. but it is associated with some unwanted effects.

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Talahib ( Saccharum spontaneum ) is one of the most abundant workss found in the Philippines particularly in unfastened countries. The different parts of talahib are pharmaceutically used as diuretic. cataplasm. cathartic. styptic and cream. It is besides found to be an aphrodisiac that has an consequence to elicit sexual desire which may resemble to hike birthrate. The research workers aim to turn out the effectivity of ethanolic infusion of talahib on spermatocyte proliferation in male coney ( Oryctolagus Cuniculus ) .

The foliages of talahib will be used in this experiment. The research workers will besides carry on phytochemical showing for the finding of the different chemical components present in the talahib leaves.

Therefore. if the ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages will be proven effectual. it would be good to those twosomes who desires to hold an offspring most particularly to male which is the focussed of this survey on spermatocyte proliferation.

Statement of the Problem
This survey deals with the finding of the efficaciousness of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages on spermatocyte proliferation. Specifically. the survey
purposes to reply the followers:
1. What are the different phytochemical components present in the ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages? 2. Is at that place a correlativity between testosterone degree and sperm count in different interventions of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages? 3. Is there a important difference on spermatocyte proliferation between the different interventions of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages to that of Proviron? Hypothesiss


Ho – There is no important relationship between testosterone degree and sperm count in different interventions of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages. Ho – There is no important difference between ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages and Proviron as commercially used agent for sterility. Significance of the Study

The survey has important bearing information on the spermatocyte proliferation of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages. Therefore. the current survey is important to the undermentioned: Community. The consequence of the survey will be helpful to the community which can supply an low-cost and alternate beginning for the intervention of sterility jobs particularly to adult male. Department of Health ( DOH ) / Department of Science and Technology ( DOST ) . The consequences of the survey will give extra information about the usage of talahib as a beginning of intervention for sterility jobs to adult male.

Pharmaceutical Industries. The consequence of the survey would be of great aid in the preparation of new agent for intervention of sterility most likely if it would be more powerful than the commercially available drug.

Research workers. This survey helps the research workers to put cognition to the position and have a position on the medical specialties available in the market that will heighten the production of spermatocytes. Future Researchers. This survey will function as the footing and mention of the hereafter research workers particularly if their survey focused on spermatocyte proliferation. Setting of the Study The phytochemical showing of the different components present in the ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages will be conducted at St. Paul University Philippines ( SPUP ) College-Science Laboratory. The talahib leaves will be collected at Masical. Baggao. Cagayan. Scope and Delimitation

This survey deals chiefly on the efficaciousness of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages on the spermatocyte proliferation. The infusion will be subjected to phytochemical showing to find the presence of secondary metabolites such as Alkaloids. Quaternary and/or Amine Oxidase Bases. Flavonoids. Tannins and Polyphenolic Compounds. Carbohydrates. Saponin Glycosides. Proteins. Fixed Oils. Fats. and Volatile Oils and Anthraquinones.

The research workers will administrate the infusion through unwritten forced feeding in the male white coney. This survey will quantify the testosterone degree. figure of sperm. morphology of sperm and motility of sperm. This will find the consequence of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages on spermatocyte proliferation. The disposal of the ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages with different interventions of 0. 25 gms. 0. 10 gms. 0. 05 gms. 0. 025 gms and 0. 01 gms of one 100 ( 100 ) per centum concentration will find the capacity of talahib foliages on spermatocyte proliferation.

Conceptual Model

Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study

Theoretical Model
The ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages will be used in this survey to find its consequence on spermatocyte proliferation. The research workers will be utilizing sexually mature male white coneies as the trial animate being from which the seminal fluid and the blood will be withdrawn to be used for semen analysis and testosterone degree analysis severally. The trial animate being will be given equal sums of nutrient and H2O and placed in the same environment for 20 eight ( 28 ) yearss so initial analysis of the seeds and blood of coneies will be conducted to eliminate physiologic factors that may impact the consequences of the survey.

The seminal fluid will be collected through unreal vagina ( AV ) for semen analysis and the blood will be collected through the fringy ear venas for testosterone degree analysis. After the initial analysis. different interventions will be prepared for disposal for another 20 eight ( 28 ) yearss. Each intervention consists of three ( 3 ) replicates given in five doses of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages. the positive control ( Proviron ) and negative control for 20 eight ( 28 ) yearss.

Review of Related Literature and Studies Wild sugar cane ( Saccharum spontaneum ) is a coarse. erect. perennial. normally more or less caespitose or gregarious grass. achieving a tallness of 1 to 3. 5 metres. and lifting from stout belowground rhizome. The foliages are rough. additive. 0. 5 to 1 metre long. 6 to 15 millimetres broad. The panicles are white. erect. 15 to 30 centimetres long. with the subdivisions slender. whorled. fragile. and the articulations covered with long. soft. white hairs.

The spines are about 3. 5 millimetres long. really much shorter than the voluminous. long. white hairs at the base. It is locally known as talahib ( Tag. ) . sikal ( Ibn ) . lidda ( Ilk ) .

Talahib is found in unfastened countries at low and medium heights. go uping to 1. 500 metres. and frequently gregarious. busying about entirely big countries throughout the Philippines. A decoction of the roots is used in the Philippines as a water pill. Harmonizing to Nadkarni. the roots are used as a galactagogue and diuretic ( an agent that promotes nephritic elimination of electrolytes and H2O ) .

Sulit studies that the warm mush of the root is used as a cataplasm and applied to painful parts of the legs. and in instances of enduring from beriberi. Talahib is non merely an ordinary works. but a utile works for it possesses many medicative belongingss which it could truly assist people particularly those who are enduring from fiscal jobs because talahib can be found anyplace and can be prepared easy by themselves. Research workers from the Natural News see environmental pollution. fictile chemicals. pharmaceutical drugs. pesticides. unhealthy diets ; engineerings such as cell phones can lend to an epidemic diminution in sperm counts among modern work forces.

Research workers from the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University in Ohio found that regular cell phone usage leads to a important diminution in sperm count. Harmonizing to studies. an estimated eight million US twosomes now have birthrate jobs. and about half of these instances involve work forces with hapless sperm quality. Last twelvemonth. a five-year survey found that bisphenol-A ( BPA ) . a chemical widely used in many plastic merchandises. is responsible for destructing sperm.

Another survey presented at the 2006 conference of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine found that common selective 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake inhibitor ( SSRI ) antidepressant drugs can literally convey a man’s sperm count to zero. And a recent survey out of the University Hospital San Cecilio. Granda. Spain. found that common pesticides used on nutrient harvests lead to hapless quality and lowered sperm counts. Obesity. eating debris nutrient and imbibing sodium carbonates. utilizing a laptop on your lap. and even taking excessively many hot baths can besides destruct sperm.

Male sterility isn’t something you hear much about on the intelligence. you may be surprised to cognize that male sterility is about every bit likely as female sterility to be involved in a couple’s inability to accomplish gestation. The good intelligence is that most instances of male sterility can be resolved either by handling the job or utilizing birthrate interventions. When this is non the instance. a twosome confronting male sterility may turn to a sperm giver or acceptance to assist construct their household.

Approximately 10 to fifteen per centum ( 10-15 % ) of twosomes will non be able to accomplish gestation after one twelvemonth of unprotected intercourse. Out of this group. the undermentioned statistics on the cause of sterility by and large apply: Thirty to forty per centum ( 30-40 % ) of twosomes will detect birthrate jobs in both spouses. About 20 per centum ( 20 % ) of twosomes will detect birthrate jobs in merely the adult male. About 30 to forty per centum ( 30-40 % ) will detect birthrate jobs in merely the adult female. About 10 per centum ( 10 % ) of twosomes will non happen a ground for their sterility ( besides known as “unexplained infertility” .

Potential causes of male sterility includes complete absence of sperm ( azoospermia ) . low sperm count ( oligospermia ) . unnatural sperm form ( teratozoospermia ) . jobs with sperm motion ( asthenozoospermia ) . sperm that is wholly immobile ( necrozoospermia ) ; the sperm may be alive and non traveling. or they may be dead. jobs with sperm bringing. due to sexual disfunction. an obstructor. old vasectomy. or retrograde interjection. and jobs with hard-ons or other sexual jobs.

There are a assortment of conditions that may take to male sterility. The most common cause of male sterility is varicoceles. A varicocele is a varicose vena found in the scrotum. The excess heat caused by the vena can take to low sperm count and impaired sperm motion. Several causes of male sterility came from what was taken in and behaviors in mundane life. One of the causes of male sterility is the low production of sperm cells which is considered to be the focal point of this survey.

These would assist the research workers and readers for it provides information for the bar of such jobs particularly on the portion of the male. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //infertility. about. com/od/causesofinfertility/a/male_infertility. htm ) In work forces. the footings “erectile disfunction. asepsis and infertility” are frequently baffled and erroneously inter-exchanged with each other. However. in world. these denote three different conditions.

It is. hence. really of import for every grownup adult male who is concerned about his sexual and overall wellness to cognize and understand the basic difference among these three upsets that could hold a profound psychosocial impact on each of any adult male. Sterility is frequently taken as a equivalent word to sterility. though they both mean disablement to bear a kid yet they have a really basic difference. Asepsis means that it is impossible for a twosome to gestate a kid. A diagnosing of asepsis is given after a thorough scrutiny concludes that there is no sperm production and ovulation can non happen.

In simpler words. asepsis means that the individual is unable to reproduce sexually ; this largely is because of job in the generative system. Asepsis is really restricted to the generative system like harm in ovaries or venas in the testiss might do asepsis. Infertility refers to inability to gestate or non being able to acquire pregnant after one twelvemonth of seeking. It besides means that a twosome is non unfertile but for some ground has non been able to gestate a kid. Sterility might be because of certain abnormalcies that might non be related to the generative system.

At times infertility exists because of emphasis. emotional dazes or side consequence of any intervention. There are three conditions that need to be met for construct to be possible: sperm must be present. the fallopian tubing must be unfastened. and ovulation must be able to happen. If one or more of these conditions is non met. the twosome suffers from “true sterility. ” If all three conditions are met but the twosome has failed to gestate. the diagnosing is “sub-fertility. ” Infertility in work forces is non an uncommon status. About tierce of sterility instances are caused by women’s jobs.

Another tierce of birthrate jobs are due to the adult male. The other instances are caused by a mixture of male and female jobs or by unknown jobs. Infertility in work forces is most frequently caused by a job called varicocele. This happens when the venas on a man’s testis ( s ) are excessively big. This heats the testiss. The heat can impact the figure or form of the sperm. Other factors that cause a adult male to do excessively few sperm or none at all includes the motion of the sperm which may be caused by the form of the sperm. Sometimes hurts or other harm to the generative system barricade the sperm. Sometimes a adult male is born with the jobs that affect his sperm.

A man’s sperm can be changed by his overall wellness and life style. Some things that may cut down the wellness or figure of sperm include: heavy intoxicant usage. drugs. smoke coffin nails. age. environmental toxins. including pesticides and lead. wellness jobs such as epidemic parotitiss. serious conditions like kidney disease. or endocrine jobs. medical specialties. and radiation intervention and chemo therapy for malignant neoplastic disease. Erectile disfunction or powerlessness is the persistent or recurrent inability to achieve or keep an hard-on sufficient to finish sexual intercourse or another chosen sexual activity.

It is really common and affects at least one in every 10 work forces. This means that there are an estimated 2. 3 million work forces in the UK agony from erectile disfunction. Unfortunately. merely approximately 10 % of sick persons really receive intervention. The figure of work forces enduring erectile disfunction additions with age. Most work forces have an occasional failure to acquire or maintain an hard-on. It normally consequences from emphasis. fatigue. anxiousness. depression. or inordinate intoxicant ingestion.

The statements above represent the differences between the normally mistaken or baffled footings. erectile disfunction and sterility. It would assist the research workers and the readers to separate these footings from each other. Erectile disfunction is defined as the inability of a male to keep an hard-on sufficient to finish sexual intercourse or activity while for sterility. it is referred the inability to gestate due to low sum or absence of sperm cell production. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //smallpenises. blogspot. com/2011/01/what-are-core differences-between. hypertext markup language ) During spermatogenesis. miosis. or decrease division occurs.

The spermatogonia are stem cells incorporating 46 chromosomes that divide by mitosis to bring forth two girl cells. One remains a root cell. The other becomes a primogenitor spermatogonium. destined to develop into sperm. This spermatogonium divides by mitosis to organize two primary spermatocytes. each with 46 chromosomes. The primary spermatocytes so finish the first meiotic division. bring forthing two secondary spermatocytes. eachof which contains 23 chromosomes ( 1N ) . The secondary spermatocytes later undergo the 2nd meiotic division to bring forth four spermatids. each with 23 chromosomes. 22 somatic chromosomes. and one sex chromosomes ( X or Y ) .

Spermatogenesis and male birthrate are dependent upon the presence of testosterone in the testicle. In the absence of testosterone or the androgen receptor. spermatogenesis does non continue beyond the miosis phase. The major cellular mark and transcriber of testosterone signals to developing germ cells is the Sertoli cell. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. landesbioscience. com/journals/47/article/16956 ) Some endocrines are involved in the sperm production and proliferation of sperm cells.

Gonadotropic endocrines secreted by the hypothalamus stimulate the Leutinizing endocrine ( LH ) and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone ( FSH ) . Leutenizing endocrine ( LH ) goes to their mark cells in the testicles called the Leydig cells doing the production of testosterone that can act upon spermatogenesis. Follicle Stimulating Hormone ( FSH ) goes to seminiferous tubules where the sperm cell is produced doing spermatocyte to develop into the sperm.

Addition in the degree of follicle exciting endocrine consequences to equal sum of testosterone degree and the development of spermatogenesis returns. Testosterone is a endocrine that is secreted in the testicles act uponing the production of sperm and bring forthing secondary sex endocrines. In the seminiferous are besides sertoli cell which are designed to nurture. mature and develop the sperm.

Increase production of sperm stimulates the release of inhibin from the sertoli cells. Inhibin is a endocrine that feeds back to pituitary secretory organ. modulating FSH production. without impacting LH production. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sglearnonline. com/reproductive-system. hypertext markup language ; Essential of anatomy and physiology 6th edition by Seeley. Stephen. Tate Testosterone is a endocrine found in work forces. It is produced in the testicle in work forces and in the adrenal secretory organ in comparatively smaller sums.

It is non straight responsible for the production of sperm cells. but it is nevertheless still a portion of the procedure: when testosterone degrees bead so does the production of sperm. It is besides an built-in portion of men’s sexual activity. tied in with his libido and sex thrust.

Hormone degrees that are affected by the testosterone in the organic structure can do jobs with interjection and hard-ons. This is the primary cause of erectile disfunction. There are many grounds for the diminution of testosterone degrees: age. emphasis. weariness. and medical conditions. This is particularly debatable if you’re seeking to gestate a babe with your married woman. Testosterone isn’t the lone fuel for a man’s sex thrust and public presentation. But low testosterone can cut down your ability to hold fulfilling sexual intercourse. Lack of sex thrust and erectile disfunction are sexual jobs that can ensue from low testosterone.

In a big survey of work forces in Massachusetts. about 11 % overall said they had a deficiency of sex thrust. The research workers so tested all the men’s testosterone degrees. About 28 % of work forces with low testosterone had low libido. These work forces were comparatively immature. with an mean age of 47 ; older work forces might hold worse sexual symptoms. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. enduranz. ph/blog/the-link-between-testosterone-and-sperm-production/ )

Testosterone can cut down the ability to hold a hearty intercourse due to miss of sex thrust and erectile disfunction which consequences from the low degree of this endocrine. It is besides considered as a portion of the procedure for sperm production wherein a low degree of this endocrine. may take to a decreased sum of sperm cell. This information would assist the research workers since the parametric quantities include testosterone degree in finding the sum of sperm produced.

Harmonizing to the Fertility Institutes. Laboratories executing sperm “counts” . in general. vary in the inside informations that they provide the doctor bespeaking the “count” . A general sperm count as portion of a birthrate rating should include the entire denseness or count ( 20 million per milliliter or above ) . and the motile denseness ( 8 million per milliliter or higher ) . The motile denseness is possibly the most of import portion of the seeds analysis. as it reports the entire figure of sperm idea capable of come oning from the site of sperm deposition to the site of fertilisation.

This allows finding if the male have normal seeds value. Sperm morphology is the rating of sperm size. form and visual aspect. It should be assessed by carefully detecting a stained sperm sample under the microscope. The add-on of coloured “dyes” ( discolorations ) to the sperm allows the perceiver to separate of import normal features every bit good as unnatural findings. Several methods of staining sperm are used. and the method employed should be one with which the tester is comfy. WHAT ARE THE METHODS? Several forms or signifiers of human sperm have been identified and characterized. These

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