The Problems Concerning The Main Contractor Construction Essay

The riddance of inefficiencies and accident jeopardies caused by unfavorable on the job conditions and carelessness about the workplace is indispensable in acquiring the occupation done decently and safely. The criterions of Health and Safety on building sites has become progressively of import over the past decennary. The Laws are set out in conformity with the Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 OHS Act ) , to which people in the building industry must stay by when working on building sites. However, due to many grounds, people do non ever follow the ordinances stipulated in the act. This can take to serious jobs and effects for all concerned. The jobs that are to be discussed during this study will be conveyed from a site directors point of position. Bing the Site director for a building company antecedently, I have witnessed first manus legion jobs that are experienced with respect to wellness and safety within the company itself every bit good as associated workers and sub contractors. The focal point of these jobs is around those who do non abide/ adhere to the regulations and ordinances and those who fail to implement the regulations and ordinances sing wellness and safety in building.

1.2. Information specifying job to be researched

1.2.1. Problems refering the chief contractor

The chief contractor has a site direction squad who are expected to supervise the development of the undertaking. This is non merely with respects to the existent physical development of the undertaking but the development and care of a high safety criterion on site. During the period of January 2011 – December 2011 I was involved in a R13 Million redevelopment undertaking of the Mthatha Central constabularies Station. My company had appointed me as Site Quantity Surveyor. However merely two months subsequently, the chief resigned and I was forced to take on the function of chief every bit good as site QS. I had established that the ground why my company did non desire to engage another chief, was to cut costs and salvage on ( P & A ; G ‘s ) . The company nevertheless was penalised in a OHS audit held on site on the 31 August 2011 ( see annexure 1 ) .

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The chief contractor is required to name a site based Safety Officer. The chief contractor is besides required to name a Safety, Health and Environment Representative ( SHE Rep ) who will help the Safety Officer with the responsibilities. Daily, the Safety Officer of the chief contractor is required to travel onto site and supervise the mode in which the workers perform their undertakings i.e. if it is in conformity with the right wellness and safety ordinances. During the period of January 2011 – December 2011 while I was on site, the company had non hired/Appointed a qualified safety officer, alternatively they appointed a junior measure surveyor to take on the function. Once once more the company illicitly appointed some one who was non qualified and trained to take on the function. The company was penalised for this illegal assignment in safety audits held on the ; 09 June 2011, 08 July 2011 and the 31 August 2011, by Mink line Consulting ( see annexure 1 ) .

The company had besides been penalised for an expired ‘Letter of Good Standing ‘ in the audit held on the 03 May 2011.

Even with the aid and aid of the ‘SHE Rep ‘ there was a ocular job with the ratio of workers to safety representation on site. It was impossible for her to supervise all workers on site invariably. It was besides hard for her to hold full control over the sub-contractors ‘ work force. Even though there are Safety Committees established, in footings of Section 19 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993, these do non vouch efficient wellness and safety control at all times.

In some cases the chief contractor allocates the same Safety officer to 2 sites. If the Safety Officer is unavailable on one site, the SHE Rep is left to adult male the garrison. In a instance of an exigency a SHE rep does non ever have the experience to manage a state of affairs.

Besides, as the undertaking develops the force per unit area to finish the undertaking on clip to avoid punishments increases. This allows for the chief contractor to overlook certain conditions in order to accommodate themselves and finish the undertaking timeously. Therefore the safety criterion is non ever maintained.

1.2.2. Problems refering the Main contractor

Sub-contractors, normally have more than one site running at the same time. Sing as there might merely be one Safety officer it will be hard for the safety officer to serve all the sites on clip. On certain sites, safety negotiations have to be held one time a hebdomad whilst others allow for them to be done one time a month as in the instance of Mthatha Central Police Station. This makes it really hard on one Safety officer to be supervising all sites at one time.

As stated in the Occupational Health and Safety Act the direction of a company must supply all personal protective vesture ( PPC ) and equipment ( PPE ) for their workers, free of charge. Most direction constructions try to avoid these costs and do the workers, who are incognizant of their rights, wage for their PPC/PPE. I have witnessed the aforementioned first manus.

Management has besides seen the conditions of wellness and safety as dearly-won and hence did non wish to put excessively much money in it. This will associate to the fact that one Safety Officer was allocated to over seven coincident sites. A qualified Safety Officer will gain around R8000 to R12000, depending on the company. For a company to engage another Safety Officer it will be really dearly-won as the cost will duplicate for the work load to be split. Management is non ever really acute to engage more staff if it ‘s non wholly necessary.

Most workers speak either Zulu or Xhosa. With our safety officer holding small or no linguistic cognition in the female parent lingua created a communicating barrier when she had to convey information refering wellness and safety on site.

1.2.3 Poor Housekeeping On Construction Sites.

What is good housework?

Efficient production and a good working environment are complementary. The riddance of inefficiencies and accident jeopardies caused by unfavorable conditions in and about the workplace is indispensable in acquiring the occupation done decently and safely.

The attending to these of import inside informations -which may be overlooked when direction ‘s attending is concentrated upon fast production, is widely referred to as good housework.

Good housework involves every stage of building operations, and should use throughout the full site, indoors and out. It is more than mere cleanliness. It requires orderly conditions, the turning away of congestion, and attending to inside informations as an orderly layout of the whole site.

Why good housework affairs?

A clean, well-ordered, attractive work environment sets the tone of the building Site. It encourages tidy work wonts in employees. It helps cut down weariness. It promotes good worker-management dealingss. It besides gives a lift to morale, which is reflected in the quality of production and overall efficiency.

Good housework is besides a good advertizement for your company. Clients and clients have more assurance in an administration when they see work being carried out expeditiously in clean, good ordered milieus.

There ‘s an even more of import ground why good housework affairs. It makes the set abouting a safer topographic point to work in.

Stop accidents through good housework

Good housework is a critical factor in forestalling accidents. The bulk of all work accidents are caused during the handling of goods or stuffs, and by people falling ( From Scaffolding, falling Into Excavations, falling of edifices ) being hit by falling objects, or striking against objects in the workplace. All these causes can be reduced by good housework patterns. In fact good housework is the remedy for most accidents which occur on building sites.

Here are some sorts of accidents normally caused by bad housework:

Stumbling over loose objects on floors, stepss and platforms.

Articles dropping from above. ( Bricks, scaffolding, tools etc ) .

Stealing on greasy, moisture or dirty surfaces.

Striking against projecting, ill stacked, or misplaced stuff

Tearing the custodies or other parts of the organic structure on projecting nails, wire, steel strapping on bonds or crates etc )

Typical illustrations of hapless housework that lead to these accidents are:


Excessive stuff, waste or french friess in the on the job country

Congested work countries

Tools left on machines

Waste containers overruning

Cabinets and workrooms in upset

Toxic acids in unfastened containers

Broken Glass

Electric leads or air lines across walking countries

1.2.3. Problems refering the work force

The chief issue associating to wellness and safety with the work force is the linguistic communication barrier. As we have established that most workers have a first linguistic communication of either Zulu or Xhosa, with small or no apprehension of English. This hinders the relaying of critical wellness and safety information to them.

Then there is the fact that most of the work force semen from an underprivileged background and are non extremely educated. This affects the acquisition procedure on site when workers are being trained to execute undertakings in conformity to wellness and safety criterions. When workers find it hard to construe the message of wellness and safety, mistakes occur in put to deathing undertakings in a safe mode and hence lead to incidents or injuries some of which may be fatal.

Many workers work under some signifier of apprenticeship, larning and geting techniques from their higher-ups. This is non ever the best manner as they tend to pick up bad wonts, which are easy to follow, when it is the easiest and least nerve-racking manner to put to death a undertaking. Workers are so set in their ways ; which may non be in the best involvement of wellness and safety. So now when safety calls for alterations in public presentation to bind in with the right safety processs, it is virtually impossible to acquire the workers to alter their bad wonts.

1.3. Information specifying solutions to the job

1.3.1. Solutions from the chief contractor

Not much can be done to increase the figure of Safety Officers per site, as for some instances it might be excessively dearly-won or inconvenient. The chief contractor can nevertheless appeal to the sub-contractors ‘ Safety Officer to help them in the monitoring and controlling of their workers every bit much as logically possible to assist ease their work on site.

For the chief contractor, the ratio of Safety Officers per site should be kept to 1:1. This is in the best involvement for all involved. Stress associating to pull offing one site is adequate ; allow entirely adding another site to it.

SHE Reps must be kept at a rigorous ratio to workers as 1:20, or more, as stipulated in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Section 17. Safety Committees should be, where possible, established if there are two or more SHE reps allocated on site as stipulated in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Section 19. These ordinances are at that place to keep the high criterion safety on site and should be adhered to at all times.

Double criterions should be done off with. If there is a standard created on site with respects to wellness and safety it should be maintained at all times and should non be flexible to suit the demands of the chief contractor or sub-contractors for convenience.

1.3.2. Solutions from the sub-contractor

For a sub-contractor to name a safety officer per site is really dearly-won. With the chief contractors ‘ Safety Officer on site and the sub-contractor ‘s Safety Officer doing regular visits may non ever be adequate. Training should be done with workers appointed on site so that they can ease the care of criterions of safety on site with respects to themselves and their colleagues. For illustration when the safety file demands to be updated, workers should be able to make full in the relevant information regarding tools, equipment and workers on site. They could besides make the hebdomadal tool box negotiations themselves on affairs which they feel are relevant.

Management besides has to take Health and Safety more earnestly. If they are excessively ‘cheap ‘ to supply the needed PPE, PPC and safety installations ; they must be cognizant of the effects of their actions as Health and Safety can be really expensive.

Management should understand that the workers are making all the work on site. If they are injured while on responsibility it is the duty, in bulk of the instances, for the employer to counterbalance workers in conformity to the Compensation of Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 130 of 1993. This is really dearly-won if it is proven that the worker has contracted a disease, injured or killed during employment.

Workshops and squad edifice exercisings can be held to increase consciousness and morale for workers.

1.3.3. Solutions from the workers

Workers need to go more involved with safety on site. The chief intent of safety is to protect workers from being harmed or fatally injured whilst working on site. They need to gain that safety is for their best involvement and will safe guard them, provided that they are practising working safely and responsibly. Another challenge that workers need to get the better of is the fact that if they do n’t cognize their rights or do non understand what is being asked of them, they need to turn to this issue. The inaugural demands to come from them to understand why these regulations are being put into pattern and how it affects their work. The simple laid back attitude does non profit them in anyhow and they need to be more pro-active.

Workers besides tend to hold the attitude of ‘that will ne’er go on to me ‘ . On site, there are many jeopardies and accidents waiting to go on. Workers can be working every bit safe as possible but they can non command the factors around them such as ; other workers ‘ attitudes, hapless care or other site hinderances. Workers hence need to be able to make a hazard appraisal of his working milieus before each undertaking to place what jeopardies he may be faced with.

2. Research Team

This study was research by me as this was an single assignment. I have the followers credentials up to the due day of the month for this study.

2.1. Curriculum Vitae of Rinalen Naidu

Personal Detailss:

Name: Rinalen

Surname: Naidu

Date of Birth: 01/04/1987

Identity Number: 8704015151086

Residential Address: 135 Genazzano Road,

Seatides, Tongaat,4399

Contact Detailss: ( W ) 031- 465 1716

( C ) 073 459 2075

Nationality: South African

Gender: Male

Marital Status: Single

Educational Qualifications:

High School Attended: Seatides Combined

Qualification: Merit Exemption Pass In 2004

Third Education:

Tertiary Institute Attended: Durban University of Technology

Qualification: National Diploma: Building and Quantity Surveying

Employment History:

Company Name: Azcon Projects CC

Duration: June 2008 – Present

Description of Job: Measurement of Drawings, Compiling Tenders, Tender Valuations, Sub Contractor steps, monthly payments, helper to senior QS, helper to estimator, certifications and concluding histories.

Mention: Ismail Seedat ( Senior Qs )

( W ) 031 – 4651716

( C ) 082 7786 202

3. Requirements of the Report:

3.1. Why the is job being investigated

A safety officer for a sub contractor is fundamentally the in-between adult male in safety. The occupation is the nexus between the safety concerned with the chief contractor and the safety concerned with the sub-contractors ‘ workers. The basic undertakings in general is to convey messages of safety from the chief contractor to sub-contractors ‘ work force. Whilst at assorted different sites I came across the undermentioned jobs and realized that attending should be brought to these debatable countries in the work topographic point.

Where we encountered our first job was with safety file audits. On sites where ( WBHO ) is the chief contractor a safety audit is done sporadically. In order to be regarded as competent, the file is assessed and a evaluation of 75 % or higher respects the company as competent and may stay on site. A memo is sent out reflecting the Markss scored and action should be taken consequently to better or keep the mark obtained. On a site where Armstrong building is the chief contractor, a similar process is followed. However, in order to be deemed competent, the safety audit should give a evaluation of 90 % or above. The job with this is that the criterion of Health and Safety is non maintained throughout. Even though they are two different building companies, the competence criterion should be standard throughout the building industry in South Africa. The audits should be standardized so that everyone can be audited reasonably harmonizing to a baseline audit. For illustration ; on all our sites we do non hold a qualified First Aider and on a WBHO site we may subscribe a declaration saying that for the continuance of the undertaking we will do usage of the chief contractors ‘ First Aider every bit good as their first assistance kits. On a Armstrong Construction site a declaration signifier is besides signed saying that we do non hold a qualified First Aider. However, the difference comes with the first assistance kit. A safety kit must be provided by us, the sub-contractor, for our workers on site and is to be kept with the site supervisor at all times. Failure to supply this will diminish out safety audit evaluation by 5 % . If there is no 1 qualified, on behalf of the sub-contractors ‘ work force, and it is understood how is it that a first assistance kit is required. The other issue I feel with this state of affairs is that who will be apt if medicine ( which is contained in some first assistance kits ) or wellness attention is given by person who is non qualified to manage a state of affairs when an hurt has occurred.

At Mthatha Central Police station an employee of the sub-contractor ( D & A ; H Flooring ) was injured when he had his thumb cut unfastened with a Stanley Blade. Upon probes it was found that the worker was non working under safe conditions. This peculiar worker was besides involved in a close girl incident a few hebdomads prior to the Stanley Blade incident. The worker was addressed by the chief contractors ; Safety Officer when he was involved in the close miss incident and was informed that his sloppiness was the cause of the close miss incident and that he should be more cautious whilst working on site. When the worker got cut with the Stanley Blade he did non describe the incident instantly, holding non being to the full cognizant of his rights sing hurt on responsibility ( IOD ) . He felt as though he will lose his occupation if he reports the incident holding merely been involved with a close miss incident antecedently. However, he was spoken to and explained to that even though it was his carelessness that caused the incident and near girl it was non evidences for dismissal. It was so pointed out to him that in such a short infinite of clip he was involved in two separate incidents and that he was going a jeopardy to himself and shortly to be a jeopardy to others around him. He was besides informed that a future incident affecting him will do him to be removed temporarily off site and be issues a formal warning. This clearly indicated that the worker was non cognizant of his rights as worker if he felt he would lose his occupation for being involved in an incident on site. It besides shows that the worker did non take the first incident earnestly if he was involved so rapidly in another 1.

At St Lucy ‘s HospitalA? an incident occurred with one of our sub-contractors ‘ laborer. A scaffold was deemed insecure by the inspector and was out of bounciness until farther notice. However, the laborer needed something at the top of the scaffold and proceeded to mount the outer of the scaffold without a helmet. He was caught making so by the inspector. Legally, he should hold been suspended or dismissed but the occupation was being pushed to be completed by the stipulated day of the month and clip did non allow us to follow the timeous procedure. So, in bend, we were advised by forces of the chief contractor to publish a missive of formal warning to our sub-contractor saying the offense. We were informed once more that as the worker is under the employment of our sub-contractor and that we did non hold the authorization to end his services. The action we so took was to publish the missive and have the sub-contractor and his laborer mark it. The job as I see it in this peculiar incident is that we ( the sub-contractor ) were incognizant of the actions to take sing the state of affairs and to avoid complications agreed upon the possible solution given to us. Had we had adequate clip and had we been more cautious the proper action could hold been taken, alternatively of a speedy hole.

Another job found is that of the updating of safety files. The chief contractor at Mthatha Central Police station had an out sourced company managing their Health and Safety ( Mink Line Consulting ) . Before get downing on site a ‘contractors ‘ bundle ‘ was sent out to all subcontractors. This was a set of safety demands that needed to be fulfilled earlier beginning on site and a transcript of the information had to be sent to the wellness and safety company for blessing, and the original would organize portion of the wellness and safety file for the undertaking. It stipulated that every employee that was to be brought onto site had to be inducted before being called to work on the undertaking, failure to make so would non allow workers permission to work on the site. At start up at that place were merely 15 of our workers on site. It was besides a demand of the chief contractor that safety negotiations should be held one time a hebdomad or one time in two hebdomads and that the file had to be updated monthly. This was verified by monthly reviews an audit done by the external safety company hired by the chief contractor and failure to follow was greatly expressed. The job came towards the terminal of the undertaking about two to three months before manus over when the work load and force per unit area of finishing the undertaking in clip demanded an addition in work force. We needed to name in more squads to rush up the completion procedure which meant that we had about 70 % of our workers on site. A dual criterion was so set as none of the workers were inducted on this site before coming on to site. Updating of files and safety negotiations were non mandatory any longer and no audits on our files had taken topographic point in this latter phase of the development of the undertaking.

All the above state of affairss show that there was clearly a job with the enforcing, execution, adhering to and care of the safety regulations and ordinances on a building site.

3.1.1. Who does it impact?

The above listed jobs have serious effects on many parties involved in the building industry and do non refer merely to the chief contractor, sub-contractor or work force separately.

In building, all the work is done by the laborers. Whether it be an un-skilled, semi-skilled or specialist trades the work is ever done by the labor. The direction is responsible for the planning and commanding over the site which so makes it clear that they should be the 1s who are implementing the wellness and safety criterions on site. If direction does non make the consciousness that is needed for wellness and safety so the workers will be at hazard at all times on site. Management has to implement the regulations so that the work force can be informed and actively take portion safety consciousness for all. If direction fails to make this consciousness the hazard of injury will be greater and workers will non cognize how to carry on their day-to-day work in a safe and low hazard environment and direction will be held responsible for the costs involved if any IODs, or worst instance decease, has to happen.

On the other manus, sometimes safety regulations are enforced and it is the work force who does non follow with what is being implemented. This once more will impact the work force straight. If programs are put into topographic point to make consciousness and to increase the criterion of wellness and safety on site and the work force does non follow, they will be the 1s who are affected the most and who will be apt for their ain IODS. This means that if workers are educated on certain safety jeopardies and they understand what is being asked of them, and they still behave in a manner that endangers themselves or others, so they will be apt for the costs and amendss created.

Problems of wellness and safety could take to accidents affecting the populace. This is a really serious issue and can be really dearly-won to all those involved. If anyone of the populace is harmed in any manner by any undertakings that were being performed on site, the chief contractor will be held apt for the costs involved. If upon probe it is found that it was the carelessness of the sub-contractor or his worker, the liable will still fall upon the chief contractor, as he appointed the sub-contractor, but the chief contractor will so claim from the sub-contractor for the costs involved.

3.1.2. Where the job derived from

The jobs faced are based on the fact that in the history of building, it has been found that wellness and safety was non something that was implemented on site. Historically speech production, there was no recognition of wellness and safety consciousness on a building site. In the past workers were non cognizant of the hazards involved in most undertakings ; there was no major concern with workers who would work at highs, they did non hold as many rights as they do now at a building site, they did non recognize that certain undertakings could be damaging to their wellness ( eg. prolonged contact work with asbestos could take to malignant neoplastic disease ) .

However, upon assorted recent finds wellness and safety consciousness was introduced onto site to forestall the sum of hurts, deceases and disablements. At first it was non regulated by jurisprudence and some companies did non let the publicity of wellness and safety on site. They continued to work in the same mode without formal respect for wellness and safety. Finally a Law was passed which regulated the conditions of wellness and safety on site which overall governed all companies and workplaces in footings of wellness and safety. Slowly the attitude of people changed as they accepted, possibly because they had no other pick, the conditions of the Law.

Because safety is a learn-as-you-go type of system it took many old ages to develop a criterion of wellness and safety across building sites, to which all can conform to. The Occupational Health and Safety Act was passed in 1993 which means the Act has been put into power for 18 old ages.

Unfortunately, even though so much clip has passed, people have still non settled to the modus operandi of carry oning wellness and safety on a correct and regular footing. Some still feel that there are ways to avoid making so and that safety is non excessively of import because they do non understand the full badness of it. They could fault it on the fact that safety was non a demand by jurisprudence in the past and hence are holding problem integrating it into their site development plan.

3.2. How the job is being investigated

I have liaised with our company Safety Officer on site for the full continuance of a few undertakings, therefore it makes it really easy for me to pick up and place the issues faced on site sing all the parties involved. While on hebdomadal or monthly site visits, safety file audits and safety meetings that are held one becomes familiar with the jobs that arise. Unfortunately, most of the clip the job is highlighted after an incident has occurred. But this does make a criterion for the hereafter as people will so be cognizant of the issue and seek to forestall it every bit much as possible.

Most of the information is collected from assorted sites and have been compiled into this study. However, some companies were really loath to let me to utilize their information which made it hard to supply grounds on the instances.

The majority of the study informations is from incidents that occurred on site where my company was working on. Some of the incidents do non merely affect the workers from my company. Where possible annexures will be included to supply cogent evidence of the class taken to rectify and forestall future accidents.

3.3. Possible solutions to the job

3.3.1. Solutions from the chief contractor

There are many ways in which the chief contractor can supply solutions for their jobs but all the solutions have to include all the people who are involved on site.

First, there needs to be a more serious mentality upon wellness and safety. It ‘s unpointed seeking to warn people about the hazards when they can non see it for themselves. Normally on site they have notice boards placed in assorted locations, more consciousness can be made by puting adverts on these notice boards with ocular illustrations of accidents and hurts that have occurred in the yesteryear. The point is that workers need to see what can truly go on irrespective of what they are making because harm can be cause by person else so visuals can be placed stating that irrespective of the undertaking or single, hurts can go on.

Another thing that the chief contractor can make is be more rigorous when it comes to wellness and safety file and attachment that the sub-contractor has to hold for the chief contractors ‘ enforcement of wellness and safety. What this means is that the chief contractor has to be stricter when it comes to the sub-contractor. The sub-contractor must to the full follow with the demands of the chief contractor in footings of wellness and safety. The safety file audits should give a 100 % evaluation because what is required in the file is indispensable. Any portion that is losing whether it is an assignment or a registry should suspend the advancement of the sub-contractor on site until the needed information is required. Equally rough as this sound, one can non find the equality of one demand to another.

The chief contractor can so besides request for the sub-contractors ‘ safety officer to be present one time a hebdomad to look into the safety file and update it every bit good as proctor the mode in which the undertakings are being performed. If this can non go on one time a hebdomad, so the chief contractor and the sub-contractors ‘ safety office can come to an understanding where they will settle on other agreements.

3.3.2. Solutions from the sub-contractor

For the issue of the linguistic communication barrier, the Safety Officer of the sub-contractor should bespeak the aid of a worker who is fluent in the linguistic communication that is most common to assist interpret and associate the message to the workers. The Safety Officer should besides edify workers on ways that will ease their occupation. This means that if or when the Safety Officer is unable to update the file, or do tool box negotiations etc, a worker should be able to make full in the needed inside informations upon the petition.

The Sub-contractor besides needs to understand the value of Health and Safety consciousness. If there are other companies that have been issued with punishments for go againsting the wellness and safety ordinances, the information should be passed along to others so that other companies can larn from their errors. Where possible to protect the company that has been involved, personal information can be excluded. Once the information is spread, companies will so recognize that the sum of money that is invested into wellness and safety consciousness is far less than that of a punishment that will be issued for a misdemeanor, hurt or accident.

A good manner to increase morale and hike engagement of wellness and safety consciousness amongst workers will be to keep regular workshops or squad edifice exercising. This helps non merely by handling workers to a interruption where they will bask the company of fellow workers, but will besides assist to develop and educate workers at the same clip.

3.3.3. Solutions from the laborers

If laborers become more involved with the wellness and safety procedure, it will profit them enormously. Once workers become more involved it will assist them to understand what is being asked of them in footings of wellness and safety. They will be more cognizant of their on the job conditions. This will better their attitude towards wellness and safety so that they will be safe guarded and cognizant of what is expected of them.

If workers help out the Safety Officer they will hold a greater sense of duty. This will give them a sense of belonging and will desire to hold more duties. Once they have this sense of duty is it easy to originate them to educate themselves. If workers educate themselves in footings of wellness and safety they will hold a full apprehension of their rights and what is allocated to them.

If there is a linguistic communication barrier where the workers do n’t understand what is being asked of them, they need to talk up about it and inform their supervisors. Sometimes they agree when asked if they have understood even if they have non. Agreements can be made to utilize another worker who understands English and is fluid in the most common native linguistic communication. He can so be utilizations as a transcriber and associate the message to the workers and who they are seeking to pass on with and frailty versa.

4. Constraints

4.1. Resource restraints

4.1.1. Time constrains

Having liaised with the Safety Officer at my company for merely a twelvemonth, there has non been sufficient clip and experience for me in the field of wellness and safety. But, in this short infinite of clip I have been able to place many jobs with respects to wellness and safety on site.

Apart from my deficiency of experience and the fact that we have many undertakings running at the same time and the clip frame of each undertaking makes it difficult to place and foreground the jobs, put into topographic point a system to get the better of these issues and proctor advancement. Safety it a timeous procedure and for the full procedure to be documented would take up much clip which is non ever available.

4.1.2. Human restraints

When it comes to those who are involved in the building that can be singled out as the 1s to be blamed for certain issues, these people tend to keep back information that could perchance implicate them in affairs which could take to punishments or legal jurisprudence suits.

Peoples are besides non really forthcoming when it comes to wellness and safety as some are merely excessively lazy to set in the attempt but seek to cover up their behavior to avoid being penalized. Peoples besides try to reassign the incrimination every bit rapidly as possible to avoid being involved. For illustration, on a site where we were working, an electrical worker was injured when a ceiling tile had fallen onto his face cutting his olfactory organ while he was seeking to take the tile to repair overseas telegrams in the ceiling. On the interior margin of a room the ceiling grid work is non fixed to the walls, the grid work is hung from the roof structures or concrete slab. This sometimes causes the ceiling to switch. Bing a completing trade ceilings should be done after all electrical connexions, air conditioning pipes and other services are completed. However on this peculiar site the electrical company was falling behind and we were given the spell in front to continue with our work. When the electrical worker was seeking to take the ceiling tile it slipped out of the grid against the wall and fell onto his cutting his olfactory organ. He so instantly informed his Safety Officer who so began continuing that would do us apt for the hurt. Fortunately, for us, the bomber contractors ‘ site chief witnessed the incident and was able to verify that we were non to be blamed. First, we could non be held apt as our undertaking was finished and if the worker had to take the tiles he should hold informed one of our workers to help him in taking the tile to finish his work which he was behind in making in the first topographic point. Then, the worker should hold been able to measure the hazard involved when taking the ceiling tile. The mode in which he removed the tile was the jeopardy which he could non avoid and therefore resulted in an hurt. Traping the incrimination onto the ceiling sub-contractor to be apt was a first inherent aptitude but unluckily it did non work and the affair was referred to as an IOD that merely concerned the electrical sub-contractor.

4.2. Constraints sing criterions and codifications of pattern

4.2.1. What criterions and codifications of pattern were imposed on site

When safety is being implemented on site, safety files must be compiled before get downing with work on site. The files are so audited to see if the demands that have been set out by the chief contractor have been fulfilled. If the safety file does non run into the needed criterion the Safety Office is informed and outstanding information or betterments must be made to the file instantly or it will ensue in the contractor from being stopped from go oning work on site.

On different sites, the majority of the demands are the same nevertheless there are times in which they can change drastically. Some undertakings, ‘green ‘ undertakings ‘ need the stuffs to be least taxing on the environment. Quality Assurance is an full new construct that most are incognizant of, but seeing that wellness and safety trades with the saving of the environment it needed to be included. The job that we faced with this is that we had ne’er had to roll up a quality confidence file before and it was really hard. This file gets audited so failure to run into the criterion would hold resulted in our monthly rating payments being withheld until the file met the needed criterion. The file had to hold checklists for each undertaking done on site to guarantee quality for each procedure. It besides had to include material safety informations sheets ( MSDs ) . Failure to supply any of these paperss would ensue in withholding of payment.

4.2.2. Who has to stay by these criterions and codifications of patterns

The people who are most concerned with the criterions and codifications of patterns are the 1s that impose them and those who are affected straight by them. This means that the chief contractor ‘ safety direction, who imposes the criterions and codifications, every bit good as the sub-contractors ‘ safety direction. Safety direction comprises of the Safety Officer, the SHE reps, the safety commission and safety council. Each individual must follow that criterions and codifications of patterns whether they are the 1s enforcing it or affected by it, all must stay.

5. Cost of research

There is no existent cost for the study. Having liaised with Safety adviser for my company it has allowed me to garner the needed information that was needed for the footing of the study at no excess cost. This was such because I was site based and had weekly site visits to some of the sites discussed in this study and I was actively involved in the safety processes.

Having being so involved I was able to roll up lists of jobs and make solutions in a manner that did non impede the clip or development of the building undertakings. I did non hold to take clip off to look into as it was within my working hours that I collected the relevant information.

6. Benefits of the research

6.1. Who will profit from the study and how

Peoples who are concerned with wellness and safety will profit from this study. The study was constructed in such a manner that the parties concerned with wellness and safety on a building site ; being the chief contractor and their Safety Officer, the sub-contractor and their Safety Officer and all the laborers on site, will be able to place the mistakes and jobs that could be caused by them or by those who are straight linked to them.

When those who are concerned with wellness and safety are able to place possible mistakes in their actions and the actions of the 1s linked to them, they will be able to look into these jobs and look for possible solutions. Sometimes it is besides possible for them to carry on their ain probes and come up with their ain possible solutions based on the guidelines given.

The solutions that have been given may non ever be the best possible solution and people may happen that they see the job from a different facet and may happen better ways to antagonize the job.

The chief focal point is on the fact that they will be able to convey the job out into the unfastened and so happen as many ways to decide the issues which will so take to less incidents, accidents or close girls on site.

7. Impact on the environment

7.1. How the Health and Safety impacts the environment

The environment is invariably at hazard on a building site due to the fact that during the development of the undertaking a great sum of waste is created. This needs to be disposed of as timeously and expeditiously as possible.

Most stuffs on site create some type of pollution which so effects the environment around it. If any incidents occur which causes spillage, from pigment or chemicals etc, will lend to anchor pollution. If risky chemicals are non disposed of right and are dumped into rivers and lakes it will do H2O pollution. Some gases that are release may lend to air pollution increasing the sum of nursery gases in the ambiance which in bend enables planetary heating. These are really terrible instances but if it occurs over a long period of clip it is most likely to go on.

Health and safety criterions have to be developed to extinguish or minimise the sum of waste produced on site. It must besides affect the workers on site as they are the 1s who are managing the stuffs and disposing of the waste merchandises.

If certain programs are non developed to help the saving of the environment it will take to serious effects that will impact the site itself every bit good as the communities and environing countries which could amount to 100s and 1000s of Rands in harm costs.

7.2. Plans developed to diminish the injury on the environment

In safety, the SHE policy means Safety, Health and Environment. Hazard appraisals are carried out to see the types of effects each undertaking has on these three elements.

The hazard appraisals have to be carried out in such a manner so that workers can understand that the waste that is created is damaging to the environment unless disposed of right.

On most undertakings the chief contractor provides skips where general waste can be disposed of. The waste is so removed normally taken by a specializer remotion contracted company and the waste is disposed in conformity with the waste merchandises demands. For illustration, plastic and paper may be recycled.

Most people are incognizant of the fact that there is another intangible pollution that can be created on site which is called sound pollution. Certain undertakings that require heavy responsibility machinery or inordinate boring can take to increase in noise degrees in certain countries which do non allow the noise and this misdemeanor can be a indictable offense.

7.2.1. Who creates the program

Harmonizing to the OHS ActA? commissariats and consciousness must be made to educate people on the preservation of the environment in relation to the undertakings in which they perform every twenty-four hours. In all hazard appraisals workers need to be informed as to what waste is being created daily, what effects these wastes have

Most chief contractors have issued a reasonably new demand, which must be provided in the company safety file is an Environment Management Plan. This program must include a description of the waste that is generated by the specific company every bit good as methods in which the waste will be disposed of. If an external company such as ‘Reclam ‘ or ‘Wasteman ‘ is contracted to take specific stuffs, for illustration Reclam disposes of aluminum waste and Wasteman disposes of glass waste consequently, the chief contractor should be notified.

In footings of general waste that does non necessitate to be removed by a specializer remotion company, the chief contractor provides skips or designates dumping countries on site where the waste can be left. The chief contractor takes full duty of the waste and has the waste collected and disposed of consequently, which will so be charged to the designated sub-contractor for the sum of which depends on the size and badness of the waste created.

If, for illustration, the site is situated in a topographic point that noise does non allow like a unrecorded infirmary, agreements are made by the chief contractor which allows the noisy work to be performed under controlled conditions or at specific times of the twenty-four hours that would be confirmed by the infirmary itself.

7.2.2. Who has to stay by these programs

If the chief contractor has made the petitions, so the chief contractors ‘ work force every bit good as the sub-contractor and his work force must stay by these petitions.

If in the instance of the site where the unrecorded infirmary is concerned, the regulations will use to the chief contractor who so has the duty of informing and commanding the assorted sub-contractors in which the regulations will use to specifically.

7.2.3. What cost factors are involved

When sub-contractors have contracted their ain waste remotion company, they are apt for the payment of their ain waste remotion. A manner in which to cut down the costs will be in the instance of where general waste is created, and where the sub-contractor does non wish to utilize the chief contractors ‘ waste solutions. Here the sub-contractor may offer others the service of the contracted waste remotion services and in bend they will so portion the costs amongst themselves.

If sub-contractors decides on utilizing the designated waste countries or skips that have been provided by the chief contractor they will hold to pay the chief contractor for the usage of these installations. The chief contractor will command the country in which specific sub-contractors collect their waste and so a punishment will be charged to the sub-contractor for the usage of this installation. The costs are calculated on the sum of waste generated and the clip and frequence in which the waste needs to be removed off site. The costs will change and is by and large really high as most chief contractors are seeking to make a greater sense of preservation presents. When the costs are calculated the sub-contractor is informed and punishment is deducted from the monthly rating of the contractors work that has been completed.

When a company is bring forthing an inordinate sum of waste it may be called for a impermanent suspension off site, depending on the attitude the chief contractor has towards environmental saving. The sub-contractor has to so happen options for the disposal of waste or reconsider the stuffs used to cut down the waste if at all possible. The sub-contractor must so publish the new program of waste remotion to the chief contractor for blessing and will so be notified on the consequences. This is a timeous procedure, and if the sub-contractor is suspended off site it means that his hard currency flow and manus over day of the month will be compromised which will impact him financially. When the manus over day of the month is compromised, longer working hours have to be put in therefore that is excess costs and punishments will be issued from the chief contractor for every twenty-four hours that exceeds the manus over day of the month. This sum is site specific which depends on the undertaking size and the importance of the occupation.

8. Decision

The chief facet of this study was to place who was non implementing the safety regulations and ordinances and who was non adhering to them. We looked at who was doing the jobs that would finally take to danger and harm, and we looked at solutions to battle the jobs that have been caused.

If safety has non been given the exposure it deserves workers are put at hazard and the company will so be badly apt for the result of those state of affairss if an incident or accident occurs. We have come to the decision that it is the safety direction ( chief contractors ‘ Safety Officer and sub-contractors ‘ Safety Officer ) who has to implement safety on sites and convey upon greater consciousness for all workers. They have to maintain implementing the regulations and ordinances so that everyone will be able to work more safely and diminish any possible hazards to the wellness and safety of themselves or those around them.

Workers besides do n’t adhere to the safety regulations and ordinances which puts them at hazard, they need to be more unfastened minded when it comes to wellness and safety. It is besides the duty if the workers to take the burdens upon themselves to educate themselves on their rights so that they have the cognition to see for themselves what is required from them in footings of wellness and safety that will necessarily be to their ain benefit. They should besides follow the safety regulations and ordinances set out for them by the safety direction ( chief contractors ‘ Safety Officer and sub-contractors ‘ Safety Officer ) . Together with their ain cognition and the regulations set out for them, they will be able to see what is most of import for them in footings of wellness and safety whilst working on site.

If all who are concerned with wellness and safety take the clip and attempt to move in conformity with the safety regulations and ordinances it will be a better hereafter for all on site. Less hurts or accidents will happen and the standardisation of safety amongst building sites may hold the chance to develop.


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