The Process Of Leading And Directing Construction Essay

Harmonizing to Websters Dictionary, direction defines as the procedure of taking and directing all or portion of an organisation, frequently a concern one through the deployment and use of resources ( human, fiscal, stuff, rational or intangible ) . Other map of direction is the action of mensurating a measure on a regular footing and seting an initial program and the actions taken to make one ‘s intended end. This applies even in state of affairss where planning does non take topographic point. Situational direction may predate and subsume purposive direction. Therefore the care direction will characterize the procedure of taking and directing the care organisation.

British Standard Glossary of footings ( 3811:1993 ) defined care as: “ the combination of all proficient and administrative actions, including supervising actions, intended to retain an point in, or reconstruct it to, a province in which it can execute a needed map “ , “ care is a set of organized activities that are carried out in order to maintain an point in its best operational status with minimal cost acquired “ .

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Harmonizing to British Standard 8210 defined care as the combination of all proficient and administrative action intended to retain an point in, or reconstruct it to, province in which it can execute its needed map. Another British criterion ( BS 8831: 1964 ) ‘maintenance as the combination of any action will be do to retain the points or reconstruct it to do certain it in acceptable criterion, care direction typically required both capital and operating outgo ‘ . The care direction demands to work hard to do certain the care criterion is achieved.

Harmonizing to ( Noble, 1984 ; Lee, 1987 ) .there is no absolute care definition for care, the definition is really subjective, the criterion is depends on individual, or organisation as a client petition. The criterion of care is base on the aims of the company or organisation that the care company will take attention. Every edifice have their map and the care works need to accomplish to do certain the edifice is map as the client wanted, for illustration, for the edifice that map as a concern purposed, the care criterion is high, such as care for hotel edifice.

Harmonizing to books ( constructing pathology rules and pattern by David S. Watt ) , constructing and their services necessarily become disused as a consequence of factor associating to the usage of the edifice ( functional, economic, locational, societal, statutory or physical ) and alterations in the demands of edifice user.

BS 3811: 1984 define care as ‘A combination of any action carried out to retain an point in, or reconstruct it to an acceptable status ‘ . From this definition two cardinal constituents can be identified:

Action that will take is non merely to the physical executing of care, but it besides concerned with its induction, funding and organisation.

The impression of an acceptable status, which implies and understanding or demand for the effectual use of the edifice and its parts which in bend compel broader consideration of edifice public presentation.

The commission on constructing care recommended the acceptance of the undermentioned definition ‘ … work undertaken in order to maintain, reconstruct or better every installations, i.e. every portion of the edifice, its services and environment to a presently acceptable criterion that and to prolong the public-service corporations and value of the installations ‘ .

Harmonizing to Paul Wordsworth ( Lee ‘s Building Maintenance Management, 4th edition ) The Charted Institute of Building offer the undermentioned definition work undertaken in order to maintain, reconstruct or better every installations i.e. every portion of edifice services and environment to an agreed criterion by the balanced between demand and available resource.


Care may be undertaken either in anticipitation of failure ( preventative care ) or carried out to reconstruct the edifice to an acceptable criterion after failure ( disciplinary care ) . Harmonizing to several of mention the successful care plan should accomplish these ends.

Help edifices map as they were intended and run at peak efficiency, including minimising energy ingestion. ( Harvey H. Kaiser, The Facilities Manager ‘s Reference ( Kingston, MA: R. S. Means Companying. , 1989 ) , 81 ; and American Public Works Association ( APWA ) , Public Works Management Practices ( Chicago: APWA, August 1991 ) , 65. ) .

Constructing care must accomplish to do certain the edifice can work as it proposed to be. For illustration, the design for commercial edifice must be map to pull people to come ; proper care to maintain the edifice in good status must be plan.

Prevent failures of edifice system that would disrupt occupant activities and the bringing of public services. ( R. S. Means Company, Inc. , Cost Planning & A ; Estimating for Facilities Maintenance ( Kingston, MA: R. S. Means Company, Inc. , 1996 ) , 264. )

Building that operate trouble-free allow public employee to make their occupations and function the populace. Because constructing care includes regular review and replacing of equipment crucial to runing a edifice, care staff reduces the job that might otherwise take to a dislocation in operation.

Prolong a safe and healthful environment by maintaining edifice and their constituent in good fixs and structurally sound. ( APWA, Public Works Management Practices, 63 ; and International Code Council, Inc. , International Property Maintenance Code 1998 ( Country Club Hills, IL: International Code Council, Inc.,1997 ) , 9-10. ) .

Constructing care must protect every edifice constituent in good status, to make safe and healthful environment to the edifice resident. Any serious defect to the edifice must be take an action because event a little defect it can slowly consequence the edifice construction, and sometimes it besides can consequence to the occupant wellness.

Provide care in ways that are cost- effectual. ( Federal Facilities Council, Standing Committee on Operations and Maintenance, Budgeting for Facilities Maintenance and Repair Activities ( Washington D.C. : National Academy Press, 1996 ) , 29. Cost-efficient denotes both economic efficiency and desirable consequences. )

A chief end of care is to minimise cost without cut down the quality services and edifice public presentation. To accomplish cost effectual a proper edifice care cost planning must be developed to do the care cost that will be spent for the edifice is relevant.

To protect edifice proprietor invest for the edifice. ( Dr. Ahmad Bin Ramly, 2002, Prinsip dan Praktis Pengurusan Bangunan )

Building proprietor has been puting a batch of money for the edifice ; every investing must give an income. The increasing operation and care cost of edifice will do the proprietor investing will unrelavant and besides non economical for a long term. The impact will be more conspicuous when the edifice has a batch of job defect and need a batch of mending plants.


In by and large, constructing care can be classs into 2 classs, planned and unplanned care. Planned care is maintenance organized and carried out with forethought, control and the used of record to a predetermined planned. Care works must be plan decently, to do certain there no failure will happen, any defects or job must be recorded to do the observation plants will be easier. Unplanned care is ad hoc care carried out to no preset program. Harmonizing to the Audit Commission considered a better care to be as follows.

Strategic fix and care.

This represent work required for a long term saving of an plus, and includes planned care of the edifice cloth ( ornament and everyday replacing ) , care of technology services and care fix points such as re-roofing. There are usually item which can be program of because, for some extent there can be foreseen and budgeted for.

Tactical fix and care.

These points are related with twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours plants of minor nature in response to immediate demand. The audit committee point out that tactical care is non needfully the same as antiphonal care as some immediate respond point are clearly of strategic nature for illustration a flat of roof failure.

Harmonizing to BS 3811 and for practical purposed about care categorizations are

Preventive care – this care carried out at pre determined interval, or matching to order standards, and intended to cut down chance of failure or the public presentation debasement of an point.

Corrective care – care carried out after failure is occurred, an intended to reconstruct an point to a province in which it can execute it needed map.

Emergency care – care which it is necessary to set in manus instantly to avoid serious effects.

Condition based care – preventative care as a consequence of cognition of the status of an point from everyday or uninterrupted monitoring.

Agenda care – preventative care to carried out to a pre-determined interval of clip, figure of operation milage etc.

Another care categorization was made by Noble ( 1984 ) that classified care as five different types:

a. Routine or cyclic care, it is task carried out at more or less regular intervals without anterior review, such as cutting grass, lamp changing, cleansing of drains and troughs.

B. Planned care ; can be determined as selected services, works and equipment. It is a regular review and service ( lubrication and accommodation ) with fixs and replacings made or programmed merely when found to be necessary.

c. Planned review, for selected elements of construction, cloth and coatings. It is a regular review but with care work carried out or merely when found to be necessary.

d. Breakdown or exigency care, an action taken to rectify failure.

e. Minimum care, frequently applied to premises expecting disposal. No action except to run into compulsory demands, e.g. for wellness or safety, to conform to the footings of a rental, or to maintain the belongings air current and waterproof.


In care direction there is no specific statement that defines the care criterion for edifice. In by and large, care criterion is base on the client demand and the contractor will cognize the standard base on the proprietor demand.

Harmonizing to Dr Ahmad Bin Ramly, care criterion is fundamentally same in any edifice or equivalent with the type of edifice, nevertheless in practically little size edifice will be easier to keep and easier in care direction. Many of it mending plants can be done as planning. For the edifice that larger and more complex, with sophisticated design it will necessitate a batch of particular service. To carry through the care demand, the edifice proprietor needs to supply one care section to take attention of the edifice installation and services. If the proprietor want to take adviser to keep their edifice, they must stipulate, what care occupations will be carried out, so, all the workers must be supervise decently, to do certain the care work is followed as planned. Besides that, all the care workers must a qualified individual to transport out the plants, there must be no individual can make the care occupation, except the qualified individual or care expert.

Milne, 1985, the chief thought about care criterion is fundamentally the petition or care work order from the proprietor to contractor, which country or desert that should be fix or replace, and this order should be clear as a criterion for the contractor to execute the occupation. The work order should include the sufficient item in order to enable the workingman to take with him the correct measure and type of stuff when doing the care work. In fact some of 40 % of the care criterion was directed in site. ( Lee, 1987 ) have reference, in constructing care direction describe constructing care criterion can be divide into two classs.

Lower degree

The demand of care due to increasing chance of failure affecting non merely enhanced fixs costs but besides eventful losingss where the normal user of the edifice is interfered with.

Upper degree

Set by a cost of accomplishing it. Lee besides said about constructing single component, he divide the care criterion into three status:

Physical status of the elements.

Has two related footings, the status of component that related to the magnitude of defect that calls for remedial action and second is the public presentation or environment systems.

Timess standards.

When the fix or replacing will be do. At this method, the care need patronize review and its demand a small spot knowledge about ornament. The balance between often review, hazard, and effects of failure is the of import portion that should be achieve.

Fiscal standards.

This standard can be taken from the variable amount based on the costs of some primary activity or replacing value, or taken from fixed amount based on historic costs or an analysis of awaited benefits.

In certain clip, care plants sometimes have a trouble during do an operation some merchandise that gives unsatisfaction to the proprietor. However, this job can be work outing if the proper care plants can be plan, beside give a relevant budget. It can be done swimmingly with one good care plan.


Harmonizing to Dr. Ahmad bin Ramly province that in Principe, the of import edifice care can be seen in four chief facets:

Investing value.

Building design

Constructing map.

heritage material

2.5.1 Retaining investing value.

There is no individual that have been invest for one thing privation to lost, they ever hope what they have been spent the money will be acquire a benefit from it. It besides same with edifice proprietor, they have spent a batch of money for the edifice ; so, they wanted their investing will be deserving, and they will acquire the benefits. There are two type of income that normally investor hopes from their investing.

Short term income.

It means the proprietor hope to acquire net income from their new edifice. They hope their new edifice can be sold fastly, particularly when the proprietor used loan to purchase the land, so they must sale the edifice rapidly, so they can cut the loan involvement rapidly. If the sale is slow, the loan involvement will be rise, and when the involvement is more than net income, the proprietor will be lost.

Long term investing.

Long term investing normally consists of computation about rental rate that will be acquire and sale monetary value. If the investor find the land market is in the good status and addition, or any mark that the land market will be a rise, normally the proprietor will salvage their belongings for a longer term, so that, one twenty-four hours, they can sale the land or edifice with the higher monetary value, or they used renter as a beginning to pay the loan.

Constructing Design.

With proper edifice care, the edifice will be look more interesting and less defects will happen. There have some ground that can do the edifice will look non interesting and a batch of defect occurs:

Dirt because of user careless.

Natural environment effects. Such as, conditions, season and air pollution.

Insect onslaught.

Fungus and works attract.

A decay that normally attack at some portion of edifice that has moistness.

Natural catastrophe or any unpredictable accident.

Constructing map.

All edifice that physique have a ground to construct, there have their map. So, proper edifice care plan will assist to retain the edifice map as planned. There have some ground, why the edifice demand care to retain their map:

To stay their existent design map and their building aims particularly for saving and preservation proposed.

To keep and carry through constructing occupant demands or the proprietor.

To stay or followed the statutory demand or other local authorization demand.

To stay building infinite with other services that have been provide for the edifices.

To do certain all the installations that provide or other services ever working and can be used all the clip

Heritage Material

The consciousness and involvement of the public and state to heritage point is increase. Now a twenty-four hours, the heritage stuffs non merely merely a aggregation to the people that involvement with history, but now, it can be chief things to do money. The heritage material such as old edifice, fortress, and houses non merely have high value from their design, but for some local community it was a chief thing to them, to do money. Those constructions can pull tourer from out or in the state to come.

2.5.5 The satisfaction of edifice demands.

Harmonizing to Paul Wordsworth ( Lee constructing care direction,4th edition ) , said that, in order to set the job into position it is necessary to see care in the context of the overall edifice procedure. The edifice needs community is met by interconnected building activities of maintaining, overhauling and replacing bing stock of edifice and by hard-on of extra new edifice. ( figure 2.0 )

The recent express position is that the degree of outgo on care is excessively high. However in order to cognize the sensible of outgo is sensible or non it is necessary to see 3 factors:

Whether the sum spent is inordinate in relation to the work done.

The sum that provide for care plants need to utilize carefully, to do certain the plant is sensible with the budget.

Whether the work which is done is necessary and ineluctable.

There are many reported instances of early care which could hold been avoided with better design and the suitable of the stuff.

Whether it would be advantageous to transport out more plants.

Clearly building resourced are limited and the end should be to accomplish the optimal allotment of work force, stuff and capital between the care and betterment of bing edifice and the building of new edifice.

2.6 MAINTENANCE Planning

The care planning is one of the of import component in develop the good care plants, harmonizing to Barrie Charter and Peter Swallow, ( 1996, The Maintenance Management ) province that, the basic rule of the planning should be steadfastly understood before sing care planning specifically. The planning should be crystalline to do certain the workers are understood what is the care planning and their end to accomplish.

The care planning should be planned before the building edifice, this will do certain to take history the consequence of the edifice design to the care facet. Harmonizing to Dr. Ahmad Bin Ramli ( 2002, Pengurusan Penyelenggaraan Bangunan ) , the care planning should be done in five phases:

The edifice in still in design phase.

The proper care planning should be program at this phase demand to be stiff and nonstop, particularly for those edifice that need to make redevelopment in the hereafter, the care facets need to take history to do certain the edifice long enduring. In the building phase, the care director need to cognize the advancement to do certain the building works is followed as in planned.

Before handover to the proprietor.

the planning should be prepare before the edifice is handover to the new proprietor, the care director must cognize the status of the edifice, and the new proprietor demand, from the information, care director can plan the care works for the client demand.

The alteration of usage to the edifice.

The care director should hold a planned if the edifice will alter to the new map, they must cognize the relevant of the new map that will be usage to the edifice. The care director should give advice or inform to the new proprietor about the impact of the edifice map to the care.

The alteration of care budget.

The alteration of care budget is non impossible if the client faces the economic job, the care director need to be after what should make to utilize the new budget to the care. That ‘s average if the client decides to cut the care budget, the director should cut down the unimportant plants, and merely concentrate on the serious care plants.

Change of work force.

There have a possibilities that the work force will diminish, this is because with some ground, such as because of high demand that the workers can non accept the state of affairs, and resign. The because of the economic job by the proprietor, possibly a batch of worker will be reject to cut the operation fees. The care trough should reprogram all the planning, and happen the other alternate to confront the job.


Maintenance direction is really of import for the edifice, a good care direction will do the edifice life span is more, and besides can cut down care cost for the edifice. Any little defects at the edifice must be identify and must be work out it every bit shortly as possible, because the little defects is like a malignant neoplastic disease that easy will go large defects in the hereafter. Large defect agencies, large job, and large job demand large cost to work out.

However, why there still have some of the edifice that have care section, but the defects still occurs? Until sometimes the defects have cause hurts to the people who used the edifice. There are some general thoughts about the job in care direction:

The edifice design.

The edifice design is one of the factors that cause job in care direction. Sometimes, the edifice interior decorator does non see about edifice care during design the edifice, the design merely take serious about constructing visual aspect comparison to constructing care. Some care entree must hold to supply to do care plants can be done rapidly and safe, beside that to do certain all portion of edifice can be reach, so that any job to the edifice can be Identify and work out rapidly.

Maintenance budget.

Budget for care is really of import things, with the relevant budget, the care direction can pull off all the care cost decently. Most of the proprietor did n’t desire to pass a batch of budget for care, because for them, the money is more of import to utilize it in their concern. For authorities edifice, limited budget to keep will do the care direction could non make their occupation decently. Because, the care equipment, such as any specials equipment is really expensive, but it is really of import tools, to do certain the edifice trial or study is accurate.

Poor care plan.

Poor care plan means the care director failed do their occupation to pull off the edifice decently. Good care direction can supply the good care plan such as, supply care information direction, everyday care agenda, proper care planning, and pull off care budget.

Lack of professional accomplishments.

Maintenance direction is a work that needs a accomplishment to pull off it. Less professional workers to pull off edifice care is really of import to do care direction procedure can make swimmingly. Professional individual in care demand to cognize all about care, such as, programming care work, acquire to cognize, the suited stuff to utilize for edifice and besides cognize how to make and analysis trial. Some state needs to import the professional worker from oversea to make this works. It is really sad, when authorities need to pass a batch of money to pay foreign workers. It will be better if the plants can be managed by local people.

Unqualified workers

Care plants need a qualified individual to make the work ; this is because care work is unsafe which the workers need to manage unsafe equipment such as electrical system. At this phase, care direction is responsible to take a qualified individual, besides have high accomplishment or experience to make care plants. The care workers need have a high cognition about the plants that they will make, they need to cognize how to cut down the hazard and work safety during do the care works.


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