THE QUAKERS MOVEMENT
Members of the Quaker motion are ever involved in political relations, either as single citizens or as politicians. These people are besides involved jointly involved in political relations, through a figure of bureaus such as QCEA, which is located in Europe, QUNO, which is found at the United Nations, and The Friends Committee of National Legislation ( FCNL ) , which is a United States anteroom group. William Penn is an illustration of a politician who ascribed to the philosophies and beliefs of the Quaker motion. He is celebrated because he is one of the designers of the fundamental law of Pennsylvania, which was drawn in 1681 ( Crawford, 2010 ) .
He was besides the governor of this province, and governed for a figure of old ages. His political ideals, based on the rules and beliefs of the Quaker motion gained credence to the fundamental law of a figure of provinces in the United States, and besides the fundamental law of the Federal province. Religious society of friendss participated extensively in the political relations of the Pennsylvania provinces in the early old ages of the motion, every bit good as in the Rhode Island. In the British parliament, legislatures such as Philip Noel Baker, Joseph Pease and John Bright ascribed to the beliefs and rules of the Quaker Movement ( Sweis, 2012 ) .
The engagement of Religious society of friendss in political relations has ever taken a assortment of signifiers, and this includes wider candidacy, protagonism, and public statements. Leaderships of the Religious society of friendss in assorted provinces normally make public statements on current political issues. This is ever for intents of doing an influence to the policies and political determinations of the leaders of authorities and politicians ( Ferrell, 2006 ) . Most of these Religious society of friendss normally make these statements as single people, but due to their influences within the Quaker motion, policies holders normally think that those statements are developed on behalf of people who subscribe to the rules of the Quaker motion. Take for illustration in 2010, when the Australian Quakers wrote to the authorities sing defence disbursement.
Another case is on January 2008 when the Religious society of friendss in Nairobi Kenya wrote a missive to the so President reprobating the force that was happening in the state, and they proposed a manner frontward. The force occurred because of the December 2007 elections which were non free and just. The Quakers besides conducted a run on political issues either independently, or jointly ( Manousos, 2011 ) . For illustration, the Religious society of friendss were at the bow forepart in recommending for the abolition of bondage, and a humane intervention of captives in Britain and the United States. Presently, single Religious society of friendss are involved in puting up of assorted protagonism groups such as Oxfam, Greenpeace, Amnesty International and Anti-Slavery International ( Gray, 2012 ) .
In the United States, the FCNL, which is a Quaker organisation invariably, writes to members of the Congress refering certain statute laws that they think they should back up, and those that their legislative assemblies should non back up. Religious society of friendss are strongly against violent actions as a agency of accomplishing any peculiar aim. For illustration, Religious society of friendss encouraged their members to boycott any sugar merchandises that are produced through bondage. This was during the periods in which they were runing against slave labour.
To them, bondage is a violent agency of accomplishing economic prosperity, and hence it is unacceptable. The British Religious society of friendss on the other manus came up with a preparation plan referred to as Turning the Tide. This was to assist people who did non subscribe to the rules of Religious society of friendss on the better methods of non-violent direct action. Religious society of friendss have besides mediated in international political differences, such as those of India and Zimbabwe. On other occasions, Religious society of friendss have been involved in the internal political relations of the states in which they reside. For case in Rwanda, Quakers tried to intercede between the Hutus and the Tutsis during the 1994 race murder ( Williams, 1998 ) .
In Kenya, Quakers tried to intercede between the two warring political parties that involved themselves in the 2007 December elections. This struggle was referred to as the station election force of 2007 to 2008. On most occasions, in seeking to decide their differences, Religious society of friendss normally want the supporters to happen and develop their ain solutions to the job under consideration. They use a technique referred to as non-formal diplomatic negotiations. The Quakers normally take these people to a confidential environment, referred to as the Quaker House. They can portion repasts together, for intents of understanding each other, and have a record treatment.
An illustration of a Quaker House is the QUNO, which is referred to as the Quaker United Nations Office. They are two in figure, one is situated in Geneva, and another one is situated in New York. The QCEA, which is abbreviated as the Quaker Council on European Affairs is situated in Brussels and is responsible for developing policies ( Vincent, 2002 ) . Examples of these policies include disarming, sustainable energy, painstaking expostulation and renewing justness. Religious society of friendss in a given state can besides develop an establishment responsible for developing policies, and feed those policies into the political system of the given state.
The Quakers believe in an facet referred to as non-formal diplomatic negotiations. It is the desire of the Quaker to construct an international system that is peaceable. On this footing, the Religious society of friendss resolved to intercede in international and domestic struggles. On their portion, the Religious society of friendss believe that the best solution to a struggle is the one which is derived by the supporters of the peculiar struggle. The Religious society of friendss have their offices at the European Union and the United Nations ( Kaplan and Weisberg, 2012 ) . These offices are referred to as good offices, and they normally help in easing duologue between the supporters to a struggle. For illustration, the Religious society of friendss United Nations Office ( QUNO ) ever plays a host to a assortment of universe leaders who seek to decide their differences through duologue. This construct of non-formal diplomatic negotiations is based on the fact that Quaker do non recommend for force as a agency of work outing jobs. Religious society of friendss normally advocate for peaceable steps of work outing differences and this dates to the periods of the outgrowth of this motion. For illustration, in 1678, Robert Barclays, a prima member of the Quakers led a group of embassadors in Nijmegen for intents of negociating a decision of the Franco-Dutch war ( Sommerstein and Bayliss, 2012 ) .
In 1854, Quaker sent a mission to Tsar Nicholas of Russia which was led by Joseph Sturge. The intent of this mission was to forestall the Crimean war. While developing this construct of non-formal diplomatic negotiations, Quakers ever act as sure hosts for the assorted parties to a struggle ( Hennessy, 2008 ) . Through their good houses, Religious society of friendss guarantee that there is confidentiality and secretiveness on anything that the supporters to a struggle discuss. On this footing, parties normally trust the Quakers to move as impersonal go-betweens on the struggles that face them. Under this construct of non-formal diplomatic negotiations, Religious society of friendss do non merely rely ongood housesto advance universe peace ( Niezen, 2003 ) . This is because Religious society of friendss have established embassies in Europe, such as those in Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow, Salonika, Paris and Vienna. This is chiefly for intents of transporting out a non-formal diplomatic negotiations aimed at advancing universe peace. These offices were established at the terminal of the First World War, and their purposes was to forestall the outgrowth of the another universe war of such sort of a magnitude. However, these embassies did non last long, motivating the development of Quaker United Nations Houses in Geneva and New York. Through these offices, Religious society of friendss have managed to keep a series of private negotiations and treatments with diplomats ( Vincent, 1990 ) . These are people who would non run into on any other circumstance, but under an invitation of the Quakers, every bit long as the meeting is confidential ( Stevenson, 2011 ) .
Religious society of friendss believe in the catholicity of human rights. After the Second World War, the International community came up with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Under these declaration, assorted authoritiess all the universe were forced to acknowledge the right to an individual’s life, right for an entree to societal, instruction and security resources, equality before the jurisprudence and right/ freedom of look. However, for Religious society of friendss, this impression of Human Rights is an extension of their spiritual beliefs whereby everybody is equal. Peoples such as William Penn and George Fox advocated for equality and the freedom of faith ( Rasmussen, 1995 ) .
The Quakers further believe in the right to a test which is just, and are against anguish. This believes come from their witting that an person should non be coerced in supplying information. Harmonizing to the Quakers, freedom of witting involves freedom of address. This in bend refers to freedom of assembly and association ( Vincent, 2002 ) . During the outgrowth of the Quaker Movement, adult females had an equal standing before work forces, and they were allowed to be vocal curates. An illustration is Elizabeth Hooton. In progressing their belief in Human Rights, during the 19Thursdayand 18Thursdaycentury, the Quakers began a motion recommending for captives reforms.
These motions were led by William Tuke and Elizabeth Fry. Their chief purpose was to better the mode in which captives were kept. Currently, Quakers advocate against the acceptance of decease sentences all over the universe ( Nugent and Vincent, 2004 ) . Presently, the Religious society of friendss are involved with a run that advocates for the rights of refugees, and people displaced by war. Religious society of friendss besides recognize the rights of worker, and they were innovators in recommending for an betterment of the conditions in which people were working under.
The job identified is the non-violence belief of the Quaker people. The Religious society of friendss do non believe in any action of force and this is a job because certain struggles and state of affairss can merely be resolved through force.
The Religious society of friendss do non believe in any signifier of force, and that is the ground as to why they normally engage in non-formal diplomatic negotiations for intents of debaring force. However, this construct is incorrect and debatable. This is because there are certain fortunes when there is a demand of force to work out a state of affairs. For illustration, when an person is attacked, and is on the brink of being killed. Diplomacy can non be effectual in this circumstance because the individual attacked will hold to support himself. Other cases where diplomatic negotiations failed is the 1994 Rwandan race murder which killed about 500,000 people. On this footing, selective application of force can be an of import tool of advancing peace and justness within the universe.
Violence, coupled with a principle policy can be used to work out a job. Take for illustration the outgrowth of terrorist act whereby guiltless people are ever killed by terrorists. It is of import to denote that terrorists normally ascribe to extreme spiritual rules, and it is hard to negociate with them. To protect people, it is of import to utilize force for intents of oppressing terrorist motions. An illustration is the war on panic initiated by President George Bush, which was aimed at contending Al-Qaeda, a terrorist group. This war against panic is paying off, because there is a decrease of terrorist onslaughts in the universe. If George Bush did non originate this war, there is a possibility that excessively many people would hold died under the custodies of terrorists.
Violence is besides necessary to rectify some ailments of administration. Take for illustration the disposal of Idi Amin in Uganda. Idi Amin was a dictator, who killed 1000s of his people. He refused to step down from power, and the lone option was to take him by force. On this footing, the Government of Tanzania sent forces to tumble down the dictator. If this could non hold happened, Idi Amin would still be in power, killing many more people. On this footing, force was used as a tool of protecting the people of Uganda, and the stableness of the East African part. In respect to these statements hence, force is a necessary tool of protecting the vulnerable within a society. But it should be conducted under a sound policy, which is aimed at protecting the identified good.
Introduction and Conclusion of the Argument:
Many states all over the universe normally use force to work out their jobs. For case, many states have initiated the decease punishment against capital wrongdoers. This is based on the fact that these people either committed slaying, or were on the brink of perpetrating slaying. Others normally go to war, for intents of work outing their differences, and an illustration is the first and the 2nd gulf war that was against the Americans and Iraq. Some of these actions are ever necessary for intents of protecting the involvements of the provinces involved, and the security of their citizens. On this footing, the Religious society of friendss are incorrect when they do non back up force in certain state of affairss. This is because diplomatic negotiations may non ever work on any struggle, and the lone manner to work out the struggle under consideration is force.
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