The relationship between age and patterns of friendship

Family and Friendship.

An probe into the relationship between age and forms of friendly relationship within and outside the household: a discourse analysis.




Literature reappraisal


Discourse analysis


Ethical motives





Repertory 1: Reluctance to trust on household

Repertory 2: Loss of friendly relationship

Repertory 3: Making friends, holding household



Both friends and household provide critical societal webs for most people. But, in the yesteryear, it has been the household which has provided the strongest societal establishment. Changes in society, nevertheless, have been noted by sociologists that suggest the household is going weaker and is being overtaken in importance by friendly relationships. This is portion of the detraditionalization hypothesis. This survey examined how people talk about their friends and household utilizing discourse analysis. Two age-groups were examined, the first 18-28 old ages old and the 2nd 50-60 old ages old with 7 participants in sum. Three repertories emerged from the information. These were: ‘reluctance to trust on household ‘ , ‘loss of friendly relationship ‘ and ‘making friends, holding household ‘ . These repertories did non supply support for the detraditionalization hypothesis. Alternatively the household was found to be by and large more of import than friends, although relationships with the household were complex.

As grounds from psychological science suggests, friendly relationships have critical effects for a individual ‘s overall well-being ( Hartup & A ; Stevens, 1997 ) . Along with our friends, our households frequently rate as the other set of people who are most of import to us. Sociological research and authorship over the last few decennaries has suggested that alterations in society are deeply impacting the manner we interact with both our household and our friends ( Beck & A ; Beck Gernsheim, 2001 ) . In peculiar the individualisation hypothesis and the detraditionalization hypothesis make specific anticipations about the types of alterations that are go oning.

The individualisation hypothesis suggests that traditional ties, like the household, are being weakened in favor of types of relationships which are specifically chosen ( Giddens, 1992, 2000 ) . Similarly, the detraditionalization hypothesis besides suggests that the traditional establishment of the household, along with other of import societal establishments, is being eroded. In its topographic point are emerging what have been termed ‘families of pick ‘ ( Weeks, Heaphy & A ; Donovan, 2001 ) . These types of social displacements hold profound importance for the manner in which we understand facets of our ain egos and the manner society in general operates. It is hard to conceive of life without friends and household.

This survey aims to analyze this inquiry through transporting out a discourse analysis of a set of interviews. Two specific groups of people were targeted for interview, the first in the age-group 18-28 old ages old, the 2nd in the scope 50-60 old ages old. The survey aimed to happen grounds for or against the detraditionalization hypothesis. It was hoped the survey would supply penetrations into the ways in which people talked about, and hence thought approximately, both their households and their friends in the two different age-groups.

Individualization is a societal alteration that has frequently been pointed to in the literature as of import ( Beck & A ; Beck Gernsheim, 2001 ) . Individualization refers to two peculiar types of alterations harmonizing to Beck and Beck Gernsheim ( 2001 ) . The first is the thought that modern societies are puting new types of emphasiss and strains on their citizens. The 2nd, extremely relevant in the context of this survey, is the thought that traditional societal ties are being weakened by a figure of factors. Beck and Beck Gernsheim ( 2001 ) point to the alterations in the province, faith and tradition all holding an of import consequence on these alterations.

The analogue is drawn by Chambers ( 2001 ) between the work of Beck and Beck Gernsheim ( 2001 ) and Giddens ( 1992, 2000 ) who points to the outgrowth of a new ‘pure ‘ type of relationship. Rather than relationships being forged on the footing of hierarchal ties, relationships are now being made on the footing of self-disclosure and trust. These new types of relationships are considered more classless and democratic, emerging out of people ‘s emotional committednesss to each other instead than social ties.

A critical inquiry, so, for the research has been how individualisation and the hypothesised new type of ‘pure ‘ relationship have affected one of the most of import societal establishments of all, the household. Weeks et Al. ( 2001 ) have identified a social displacement they see happening from traditional households, to what are termed ‘families of pick ‘ . Families of pick, instead than mentioning to traditional impressions of household as those to which we are related, looks to the friends that we choose. These friends are chosen specifically because they fit in better with people ‘s attitudes and beliefs, and in some fortunes, in order to acquire off from the attitudes and beliefs of their households.

An of import unfavorable judgment of Weeks et Al. ‘s ( 2001 ) research is that it was carried out on non-heterosexual people and as such, there is a inquiry as to whether this determination can be found in heterosexual people. Surely the suggestion by Weeks et Al. ( 2001 ) is that portion of the motive for non-heterosexual people ‘s engagement in households of pick is that their existent households can sometimes be dismissive of their lifestyle picks. Part of the strength of the households of pick are that they allow a individual to research and construct friendly relationships with those whose attitudes are closer to their ain.

This displacement in the manner households and friends interact through individualisation is seen as portion of the detraditionalization hypothesis. As Pahl and Spencer ( 2004 ) explain, this hypothesis rests on informations and observations from a assortment of beginnings. These include the lifting rate of divorce, lifting degrees of instruction along with much greater societal and geographic mobility. Two of import facets of the detraditionalization hypothesis are pointed out by Thompson ( 1996 ) . The first is that the detraditionalization hypothesis is non reasoning that, for illustration, the household has become wholly disused, more that it has become less unafraid. Rather than being seen as a solid establishment of cardinal importance in society, households are traveling into a more dubious place. The 2nd point is that the detraditionalization hypothesis topographic points greater accent on the demand to bring forth the ego. In the ‘old ‘ universe, before detraditionalization, people could trust on establishments like the household to supply their sense of ego and individuality. In late modernness, as the household is non such a secure site for the production of individuality, people are forced to look elsewhere for their individuality production. One obvious topographic point is in people ‘s groups of friends.

The deduction for household and friends of the work of Thompson ( 1996 ) , Weeks et Al. ( 2001 ) and Giddens ( 1991, 1992, 2000 ) is that the household is of diminishing importance to people, in the face of the rise of personally selected friendly relationship groups, the alleged ‘families of pick ‘ . Standing against the thought, nevertheless, are findings from comparatively recent research. Park and Roberts ( 2002 ) , foremost, present grounds that might propose the household has non decreased in importance to the grade that might be expected by the thesis discussed above. For illustration, it has been found that the modern household is non needfully every bit atomic as has been suggested. Research has found links across three different coevalss happening in many different types of households.

This and similar research has led Park and Roberts ( 2002 ) to reason that the household is really still a strong establishment. Their findings showed that most people got in touch with a member of their close household at least one time a hebdomad. In peculiar a strong determination was that contact increased across coevalss when there were grandchildren involved. Park and Roberts ( 2002 ) besides provide grounds that when in a crisis ; it is to members of their household that people will foremost turn. It seems that in this research friends are non relied on about every bit much as might hold been expected, bearing in head the detraditionalization hypothesis. On the contrary it seemed for some people that the household were about ubiquitous in their lives.

Further research that runs against the detraditionalization hypothesis in footings of household and friendly relationship groups comes from Pahl and Spencer ( 2004 ) . First Pahl and Spencer ( 2004 ) carried out 60 interviews around the UK into how people view their personal communities. In order to transport out this research Pahl and Spencer ( 2004 ) used a map of friendly relationships represented on paper utilizing a series of homocentric circles. Respondents merely bespeak where in these homocentric circles their friends lie. This was used as a manner of accessing how people thought about their household and friends. Pahl and Spencer ( 2004 ) make the point from this research that it is really hard to divide household from friends. Further, they argue small grounds is seen in their research of the household withdrawing in importance in comparing to friendship groups. On the contrary, as seen by Park and Roberts ( 2002 ) , people placed an tremendous sum of importance on their households, possibly more than in the yesteryear.

A 2nd survey was carried out by Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) which involved analyzing informations from the British Household Panel Survey which contains longitudinal information over 10 old ages on people ‘s friends and household groups. Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) find from this information that there is a displacement between age-groups such that those who are older are more likely to state that close household members are their best friends. Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) further suggest that this shows a alteration over age, instead than a alteration over clip. This fact in isolation, nevertheless, is a affair of reading – it could merely as easy be argued in the opposite way. Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) argue, though, that when taken in concert with the other informations they examine it points to the thought that the detraditionalization hypothesis may hold been overstated. This is a point on which Gross ( 2005 ) agrees, mentioning grounds from a broad scope of beginnings to demo that the detraditionalization hypothesis is non every bit strong as may hold been assumed. While household patterns have surely changed since the 1950s, there are still considerable commonalties. The atomic household is still regarded by many people as an highly of import establishment in their lives ( Seccombe, 1993 ) .

An of import possible confound in this research is discussed by Pahl & A ; Pevalin ( 2005 ) . Particularly in those who are over 30 it is likely that a spouse will supply the most of import friendly relationship in people ‘s lives. How is it best to characterize a spouse? There is a good statement for including them in the class of household and besides a good statement for the friendly relationship group. Ultimately, Pahl & A ; Pevalin ( 2005 ) argue, they form a sort of intercrossed class. Clearly the manner in which spouses are classified will hold definite deductions for the detraditionalization hypothesis. If spouses are classified as friends so they would look to supply more grounds for the detraditionalization hypotheses, whereas their categorization as household would back up the antonym. As Jamieson et Al. ( 2006 ) point out, nevertheless, it is possibly in people ‘s ain definitions of how they see their spouses and whether this is included in ‘family patterns ‘ that provides the best reply to the inquiry. Simply redefining friends as household merely serves to dodge the original inquiry.

Discourse analysis

Discourse analysis was chosen as the method of probe peculiarly for its ability to acquire under the surface of human significance. Willig ( 2001 ) points out that discourse analysis is designed to analyze the manner in which people produce their societal world. In peculiar discourse analysis is a type of constructionist methodological analysis. This means that at its bosom is the belief that we each concept our world by the manner in which we talk ( Potter, 1996 ) . Constructionism sees the manner in which people talk as being symbolic of cultural attitudes ( Potter, 1996 ) . Discourse analysis has been used for a assortment of different research ends including how people manage answerability and how they apportion incrimination and duty.

Gill ( 1996 ) identifies four purposes or subjects of discourse analysis. The first is merely that it is the text or talk in discourse analysis that is the most of import factors. The 2nd refers to the constructive nature of linguistic communication. The 3rd purpose or subject, peculiarly of import for this survey is how discourse analysis treats the map or intent of talk. Discourse analysis assumes that people are seeking to obtain peculiar ends through their talk and it tries to bring out what these purposes are ( Gill, 1996 ) . Importantly talk does non happen in a societal vacuity, it forms a buffer between people, a buffer that has a intent. Finally discourse analysis dainties talk as rhetorical. In other words it assumes that certain struggles are involved in societal life, and speak represents a manner of negociating these struggles ( Gill, 1996 ) . This will be peculiarly of import to analyze in footings of how participants see their friends and household.

One of import portion of discourse analysis as a method is its usage of interpretive repertories ( Potter, 1996 ) . Interpretative repertories refer to particular ways which people have of speaking about the topic under survey, in this instance their household and friends. Two types of interpretive repertories are identified by Potter ( 1996 ) . The first draws on ‘standard ‘ ways in which people have of speaking about a topic. These will be given to be used across different state of affairss and scenes to accomplish a assortment of different intents ( Potter, 1996 ) . The 2nd type are more single ways of speaking that have been personally moulded to the state of affairs in order to pass on certain specific types of significance. These two overall types of interpretive repertories, like different repertories in general, will be switched between continuously by people as they construct impressions of their household and friends.


In order to research the ways in which people view their household and friends, hence, discourse analysis provides a figure of advantages. The usage of interviews in discourse analysis is peculiarly effectual as it allows the research worker to derive entree to the interpretive repertories of the participants. The type of interview used here was semi-structured which started off with specific inquiries that are comparatively easy to reply. Participants were encouraged to speak about facets of their friends and household in different ways and infinite was allowed to research a assortment of subjects.

It has been noted in the literature that there is an overexploitation of interviews in discourse analysis ( Potter & A ; Hepburn, 2005 ) . Interviews tend to supply a specific kind of talk which does non needfully accurately reflect that which occurs in a natural scene. A different option for transporting out this research would hold been to detect people of course speaking about friends and household and so transport out a discourse analysis on these texts. It was considered, nevertheless, that interviews were a good manner to acquire at the facets of friendly relationship and household that were being targeted for research in this survey.

Ethical motives

An application for ethical blessing for this survey was submitted to the university moralss commission. This was granted. As portion of the standard pattern of research all the participants were told that they could retreat from the survey at any clip. They were besides reminded at both the start and terminal of the interview that they would stay anon. and that all the information provided would be treated in the strictest assurance. This was peculiarly of import as the participant ‘s treatment in this interview could potentially hold been sensitive to them and their friends and household. Further, participants were told that it was within their rights to bespeak to see any informations that was held on them by the research worker.


The sampling scheme used in this research was to seek and obtain a moderately broad scope of backgrounds of participants. This was so that different types of repertories and positions would be represented. Two peculiar age-groups were aimed at, nevertheless, those between 18 and 28 and those between 50 and 60 old ages old. It was ab initio hoped to derive 10 participants in all, five from each group. This was non, nevertheless, possible due to clip restraints, and so there were 4 participants in the younger age-group and 3 in the older age-group. Across the groups 2 were male and 6 were female. Despite being less than expected, seven participants is considered sufficient to transport out a discourse analysis.

All participants were recruited though personal attacks and were known about through personal webs. University friends and familiarities made up the younger age-group and the older age-group was made up of the research worker ‘s parents and some of their friends. The mean age of the participants in the younger groups was 21 while in the older group it was 54. The younger group was all university pupils analyzing assorted topics. The older group were made up of two retired nurses and a canvasser. One of the dangers identified by the research worker in taking these participants was that they were largely well-known to the research worker. It can be more hard to construe the talk of person who is well-known as it will be fitted into bing thoughts about the manner that individual thinks. It was hoped that every bit long as this job was acknowledged at an early phase, it would let the research worker to acquire over this and see the texts in a new visible radiation.

Due to the fact that written text clip was limited, it was decided to maintain the interviews comparatively short. Each interview, hence, ran for a upper limit of 10 proceedingss. The clear disadvantage was that it was found that the start of the interviews tended to incorporate merely comparatively uninteresting information and participants merely tended to ‘loosen up ‘ a little more towards the terminal of the interview. A better scheme would hold been to hold a longer interview and transcribe the last portion of it. On the other manus, the advantage of this scheme was that it kept the interviews rather focussed leting the indispensable issues to be covered rapidly.


In the written text of the texts, in order to salvage clip, it was decided to exclude mentions to intermissions, emphasiss and other types of colloquial alterations. The purpose of the written text was to capture the kernel of what participants were stating to the interviewer instead than record every vacillation and faux pas. Although this clearly consequences in some loss of intending from the participant ‘s communicating, it had the advantage of being easier to finish the transcript. In retrospect it would hold provided a more powerful analysis if this information could besides hold been recorded, but due to clip restraints this was non possible.


Analysis of the information was carried out by a procedure of reading and submergence in the information. As the transcripts were read, notes were made about any repertories emerging from the information. The research worker asked inquiries about what it was the participants were seeking to accomplish by the types of remarks they were doing in relation to their friends and household members. As the research worker became more familiar with the informations, certain subjects began to emerge, as consistent ways of speaking about friends and household. Once a little figure of classs were identified, quotation marks related to those classs were copied and pasted out of the interviews to supply a representative sample of the manner the participants were speaking about a peculiar subject.

Repertory 1: Reluctance to trust on household

One of the cardinal subjects asked about in the interviews was how people would respond in an exigency. To whom would they foremost go if, for illustration, they had some sort of exigency that meant they needed aid? A clear repertory that emerged was the sense in which interviewees wanted to hold aid from their parents but at the same clip they resented it, as though this did n’t suit in with the manner they wanted to be seen. Participants are merely numbered ‘P1 ‘ to ‘P7 ‘ to continue their namelessness. ‘Int ‘ refers to the interviewer.

P3 ( younger age-group ) : “ I guess it ‘s ever my parents, I do n’t cognize, they merely seem to, they ‘re the first individual, people I think of when something like that, or if, you know… In some ways I wish it was n’t, non that they are n’t great with these kinds of things, they know what to make and that, it ‘s merely… ”

Int: “ Oh yes? ”

P3: “ Mmm, it ‘s like they ‘re ever at that place. Well my Mum ‘s ever calling to happen out if I ‘m eating right and that you know it ‘s sort of nice but so it ‘s sort of annoying I merely want to state to her sometimes you know merely go forth me entirely I can look after myself. ”

What seemed to be emerging here was a reluctance to be in contact with the household despite an credence that they were normally the first port of call. This type of reluctance in relation to the household was besides seen in the older age-group, who did non look to see their household as people they would turn to in the first case.

P5: ( older age-group ) “ It would be Geoff, of class, ”

Int: “ Your hubby? ”

P5: “ Mmm, I would n’t state he ‘s precisely really good in exigencies but at least I can trust on him to be about. ”

Int: “ What do you intend he ‘s non good? ”

P5: “ I do n’t cognize… I suppose I ever imagine person strong kind of standing there and traveling good we ‘ll all sort of work through this and he ‘ll or… but Geoff he ‘s more quiet I suppose, does things softly. ”

Int: “ So in an exigency you ‘d travel to Geoff, what about your household? ”

P5: “ I think they, I do n’t cognize, we have household close by but I would ever seek and screen things out with Geoff foremost but I ‘m certain they ‘d assist out and make what they could ”

Again, this interviewee showed a reluctance to reach their household. It was clear both P3 and P5 were acute to indicate out that their households could be relied on, but that they preferred non to.

Repertory 2: Loss of friendly relationship

A 2nd form that emerged from the information was the sense in which people had friends but could merely trust on them to a certain extent. Here P5 is speaking about her hubby

P5: “ … he ‘s my best friend, and I know people ever say that and it sounds so good it sounds a spot sad I think sometimes, like, have n’t you got any other friends? But he is in that comfy manner, he ‘s my best friend. ”

Int: “ Do you see him as household. ”

P5: “ Well yes, how could he non be my household? ”

Int: “ And so, what about other friends, how do you… ? ”

P5: “ I do n’t truly hold many other friends presents. When I was at work of class there were a few of us used to travel out for drinks and that but nowadays it ‘s more me and Geoff here. ”

Int: “ … and make you see much of them? ”

P5: “ Not now, I mean we ‘re still in contact but I have n’t seen them for, well, ages truly, it ‘s horrid when I think about it. ”

P5 had retired from nursing seven old ages antecedently, and emerging here is the loss of friendly relationship that has occurred since. In many ways, although the younger age-group had close friends, they did non speak about their friends in ways that emphasised their intimacy. That said, they were acute to underscore how of import friends were to them.

P2 ( younger age-group ) : “ Obviously I like know a batch of people here, but, it ‘s sort of, how should I state, non the same manner I used to cognize people back place. I mean when I came off to uni, you know, I ‘d been waiting all this clip to go forth acquire off from my household and here I am off and look… I ‘m like happy here but I suppose now you ‘re inquiring me about friends and whose of import I ‘m believing good like you know, who truly is of import? ”

Int: “ And how of import are your friends to you? ”

P2: “ Truly of import, yeah of class. ”

Int: “ You do n’t look certain… ”

P2: “ I ca n’t assist comparing them to the people back place and I guess they ‘re similar non as of import to me, the people here my friends here, as those back place. ”

Int: “ Why is that? ”

P2: “ Well I guess it ‘s merely, we had all these times together back place and they, I ne’er, I do n’t cognize how to explicate it, it ‘s like good here but different. ”

What is emerging here in what P2 is stating is that in coming to university some new friendly relationships have been made but, at the same clip, friends from ‘back place ‘ have been left behind. The new friends that have been made at university do non look to be rated every bit extremely as those from ‘back place ‘ .

Repertory 3: Making friends, holding household

A 3rd repertory to emerge from the interviews examined more closely the difference between household and friends.

P4 ( younger age-group ) : “ Peoples say, do n’t they, that you can take your friends but non your household and it ‘s sort of a, stupid thing to say.. ”

Int: “ It ‘s obvious. ”

P4: “ Yeah, precisely and what I ever think is you can ever take non to see your household ca n’t you, merely ne’er name them or talk to them, right? ”

Int: “ But they ‘re still your household are n’t they? ”

P4: “ Mmm, that ‘s true, but that ‘s non what I mean. I mean you can take the people you have contact with whether or non they ‘re friends or household. ”

Int: “ So what ‘s the difference between friends and household for you? ”

P4: “ It ‘s sort of like, my friends are like here and my household are manner over at that place, you know? ”

Int: “ Do you intend you ‘re non close to your household? ”

P4: “ No, non truly. ”

Int: “ And what about doing friends? ”

P4: “ That ever seems quite easy for me, I merely acquire more friends, there ‘s ever more friends right? I dunno, it sounds sort of similar heartless but they sort of semen and travel do n’t they and so good particularly at uni, I ‘m hanging out with these cats and so these other cats and people are all off making different things at different times. It can be hard to maintain it all traveling the same manner. ”

P4 showed considerable ambivalency towards her household, and this was besides slightly reflected in her position of her friends as comparatively impermanent and fleeting. A contrasting position is from P6.

P6 ( older age-group ) : “ … friends, new friends, no, I do n’t truly do any new friends presents, of class I ‘m run intoing new people every now and so, down at church or you know, merely out and approximately, but I would n’t state, well it ‘s rather hard to do new friends at my age. ”

Int: “ Truly? ”

P6: “ You ‘re merely immature so I suppose you do n’t cognize what it ‘s like. When you get to my age though, you merely kind of thrower along with the thing you ‘re making and that. ”

Int: “ And how frequently do you see your household? ”

P6: “ Oh all the clip, my brother does n’t populate really far off and he ‘s ever round for one thing or another, usually to borrow something! I ‘ve got a boy every bit good, he ‘s up in town, works in computing machines, we do n’t see so much of him but he acquire ‘s down when he can. Of class my parents have passed off, but they merely lived the other side of town and we ‘d see them all the clip. ”

Int: “ So you ‘re close to your household so? ”

P6: “ Yeah, I think so.

P5 had a similar experience of household, in contrast to that of friends, the household were near.

P5 ( older age-group ) : “ We see rather a spot of the household now, even truly the 1s who live much further off. Cousins and things. They ‘ll drop in when they ‘re on the manner down to Cornwall on vacation, remain a dark or two, it ‘s ever good to see them. My three sisters of class, I see them all the clip, one lives around here and the other two non excessively far, non more than an hr in the auto, which is nice truly. Your hear about so many households spread far and broad and we ‘re really reasonably close.

Int: “ It sounds good. ”

P5: “ I suppose it is, we have our ups and toss off merely like any household and sometimes there ‘s statements over this and that but I guess that ‘s normal, the kind of thing that happens in all households? ”

Int: “ Yes, of class. How do you happen that, when things are n’t traveling good with your household? ”

P5: “ Makes me wish I had more friends! ( laughs ) Seriously though, it can be sort of what ‘s the well claustrophobic, I mean I have known these people all my life and they we have the same old things you know conversations. It ‘s no bad thing but it would be nice to acquire some distance every now and so because it ‘s sometimes I think about traveling off, we ‘ve ever wanted to acquire down nigher the seashore, but I do n’t cognize if it would be right in some ways. ”

P5 once more shows contact with other members of the household is high although some ambivalency towards the relationship is seen.

This survey aimed to analyze the manner in which two groups of people, the first aged 18-28 and the 2nd elderly 50-60, viewed household and friends. The background to this survey was the scrutiny of the detraditionalization hypothesis, portion of which is the thought that people are traveling off from their households towards groups of friends they have chosen ( Beck & A ; Beck Gernsheim, 2001 ) .

Three chief repertories emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The first, ‘reluctance to trust on household ‘ , pointed to a sense in which those in the younger age-group of 18-28 were slightly loath to trust on the aid of their household although they acknowledged that their household were the first people they would travel to in a clip of crisis. To a certain extent this fits in with the thought of the detraditionalization hypothesis. That people are more likely to see themselves as independent and non necessitating aid from the exterior. On the other manus, nevertheless, it besides works against the detraditionalization hypothesis as participants acknowledged that it was their household they would travel to in the first case.

There was a duality seen here in the older and younger age-groups. The participant from the older age-group said she would foremost travel to her hubby, but that she considered her hubby portion of the household. This underlines one of the conceptual issues already outlined, as to how long-run spouses should be characterised. It seems clear, in this instance, that they should be regarded as members of the household.

The 2nd repertory seen in this survey was about a ‘loss of friendly relationship ‘ . Participants in the older age-group had lost touch with friends, and now relied to a greater extent on their household. In the younger age-group there was besides a trust on household, although it was loath. Friends were seen here as transitory, particularly in the spread created by go forthing place and traveling off to university. New friends gained at university were seen in this light as approaching and traveling. One difference between the younger and older age-groups was that the younger tended to see more friends as coming along easy whereas the older did non. This repertory does non back up the detraditionalization hypothesis as it tends to take down the importance of friends and raise the importance of household.

The 3rd repertory was about ‘making friends, holding household ‘ . This repertory displayed the complex relationships the participants had with their households. Both age-groups mentioned this thought of a distance between themselves and their households, more in a metaphorical sense than geographic. Despite this there was an recognition of their permanency by both age-groups and the of import function they played in life. Both age-groups were characterised by an ambivalent attitude towards their households ; at one time both ask foring them in, admiting their importance, and at the same clip forcing them off. The older age-group appeared to see more of their households, but this seemed more because of alterations in forms of life style than because of specific demands or penchants.

Returning to the inquiries posed by old research, to what extent do these repertories shed visible radiation on the detraditionalization hypothesis? In general the findings discussed here back up the work of Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) who criticise the over-emphasis on the detraditionalization hypothesis. Contrary to what might hold been expected, participants maintained strong connexions with their households, despite the fact these relationships, in both age-groups, were complicated by many different factors. Again, in both age-groups, friends were seen as of import, but participants were highly loath to allow them higher position than their households under any fortunes.

In peculiar, the detraditionalization hypothesis suggests that geographical disruption is a factor in doing friends of all time more of import. On the contrary, this research suggested that, particularly for the younger age-group, traveling from topographic point to topographic point made the household more of import as they were the lone invariable in a changing universe. Participants in the younger age-group did non look to swear their friends to the extent that they did their households. Like Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) , this research tends to propose that friends were non lifting in importance above household. Participants did non speak about anything resembling the ‘pure relationships ‘ ( Giddens, 1992, 2000 ) . Small grounds was found, nevertheless, as Pahl and Pevalin ( 2005 ) province, that older people tend to state members of their household are their best friends. This could merely hold been down to the limited sample here.

One of the most interesting kineticss seen in the repertories here was the push-pull relationship between the participants and their households. It appeared that considerable makings were frequently applied to the relationship to household members. Despite this, the household were clearly really of import to all the participants. The strength of transporting out a discourse analysis is that it provides more in-depth information about people ‘s ways of believing about the universe.

Two chief spreads were seen in this survey. Firstly it would hold been utile to transport out more interviews. It was non felt that a full scope of repertories emerged from the information here. Second, it would hold been utile to cover a greater scope of age-groups. Part of the job with the two age-groups is it left out the ages in between in which, some might reason, it is more likely that the types of ‘pure relationships ‘ to which Giddens ( 1992, 2000 ) is mentioning, might be found. Peoples in their 30s and 40s are possibly more likely to hold less contact with their household, holding been populating off from them for a decennary or more, and greater sums of trust on friends. This, so, would be one suggestion for farther research. It would be interesting to farther analyze this push-pull relationship with households further by concentrating the research inquiry straight on this country, but across a wider age-group. Surely, in the wider context, this survey suggests the household is merely every bit healthy as of all time in comparing to friends.

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