The Relationship Between Building Performance And Facilities Performance Construction Essay

How did installation direction evolve into the current profession. Merely in the past 30 twelvemonth has installation direction go a accepted and needed procedure of organisation throughout the universe that expends resources on people, their work environment, and the ways they work. Facility professionals must look in front with minimum cognition and be able to both perform and better modus operandi undertakings. The desire and ability to work good with people in a service capacity, to be practical, economical, available, tactful, flexible, persuasive, antiphonal, and seasonably, are extra installation direction traits and demands.

Facilities direction has traditionally been regarded as the hapless relation within the existent estate, architecture, technology and building ( AEC ) professions. Harmonizing to ( Atkin and Brooks, 2000 ) , this is because “ it was seen in the antique sense of care-taking, cleansing, fix and care. ” Harmonizing to ( O’Sullivan and Powell, 1990 ) “ A decennary ago, FM duties broadened to embrace purchasing, merchandising, developing and accommodating stock to run into wants proprietor sing finance, infinite, location, quality and so on. ” Harmonizing to ( Alexander, 1996 ; Brown et Al, 2001 ; Douglas, 1996 ; Granath and Alexander, 2006 ; Kweon et Al, 2008 ; Neely, 1998 ; Then, 1999 ) “ Recognition of the consequence of infinite on productiveness stimulated the development of the Facilities Management subject. ” Harmonizing to ( Hamer, 1999 ) , “ From the 1990s onward, there has been a tendency toward more unfastened market, and particularly toward bit by bit increased competition, as a consequence of globalisation. ” Nowadays, it cover existent estate direction, fiscal direction, alteration direction, human resources direction, wellness and safety and contract direction, in add-on to edifice and technology services care, domestic services and utilities supplies. These last three duties are the most unseeable. The function of FM is bit by bit different from get downing and now, the map of FM is acquiring more of import and critical to the organisation.

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The international Facility Management Association ( IFMA ) now defined installation direction as a profession that encompasses multiple subjects to guarantee functionality of the physique environment by integrating people, topographic point, procedure and engineering. The definition clearly illustrates the holistic nature of the subject and mutuality of multiple factors in its success.



Frequency modulation

Topographic point


Figure 2.1 Peoples, Process, Place, Technology ( developed by the international installation direction association in the response to the development and the of import of the engineering in FM and FM client ) what is FM? – EuroFM. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 19 Jul 2012 ] .

2.2 Definition

2.2.1 Healthcare FM

FM is non-core activities to healthcare organisation in the past, but now it has been turning bit by bit and has its impact on the quality and effectivity on health care services. Harmonizing to Gelnay ( 2002 ) health care FM consider as one of the cardinal component for successful bringing of health care service. In healthcare FM direction there are five nucleus sphere playing an of import function as shown in the Pentagon below.

Figure 2.2 Healthcare installations direction nucleus sphere [ M.Shohet, I. and Lavy, S. ( 2004 ) Healthcare installations direction: province of the art review.A Facilities, 22 p.210-220. ]

2.2.2 Risk Management

Harmonizing to O ‘ Donovan ( 1997 ) defined the term “ hazard direction as a procedure where an organisation adopts a proactive attack to the direction of future uncertainness, leting for designation of methods for managing hazards which may jeopardize people, belongings, fiscal resources and credibleness. Risk direction activities are designed specifically to patients ‘ and staff safety and effectual to cut down those jeopardies. ”

In infirmary, different edifice system and constituent, such as fire protection system electricity and other, must exhibit high degree of public presentation. The minor dislocation of the system leads to a critical losingss. Risk direction should be placed at high precedence for any healthcare installation.

2.2.3 Performance Management

Harmonizing to Becker ( 1999 ) defined the “ application of the public presentation construct in edifice as three-step procedure. First is human demands are translated into utilizations demand and the demand are transformed into proficient public presentation demand. The last measure is these demands are implemented in the design and tenancy stages of the edifice. ” A public presentation measuring have to be carry out in order to measure the edifice, services and work procedure of the organisation. Performance monitoring and direction can help in comparing the public presentation of the installation to other health care installations and place the point f strengths and failing for each installation.

2.2.4 Maintenance Management

Harmonizing to Jardine et Al. ( 1997 ) , “ the chief end of care is to minimise the maintenance-related operating costs. ” Harmonizing to Vatn et Al. ( 1996 ) , the chief aims of care are the maximization of forces safety together with the minimisation of the entire cost loss, the entire operational cost, the environment menace and the hazard of material harm. ” In order to accomplish the optimum balance between minimisation of cost and maximization of public presentation, the two chief options is maximization of public presentation degree while keeping a limited care budget or minimisation of cost topic to minimum needed public presentation degree of edifice.

2.2.5 Supply Services Management

The turning laterality of demand for cost effectivity and high public presentation force the installations director to obtain an optimal degree of resources in order to accomplish the coveted public presentation. It can be achieved by in-house proviso and outsourcing of FM service. Harmonizing to Francheschini et Al. ( 2003 ) “ the theoretical account of outsourcing is integrate the four chief stages. There is internal benchmark analysis ; external benchmarking analysis ; contract dialogue ; outsourcing direction. ” That is finding the thing want to outsource and choosing the supplier. By organizing the relationship between organisation and services supplier and manage it during the term of the contract. Supply services direction finding the best combination of other services, such as cleansing, security, horticulture and other. FM is hence needed to happen the best contractual and fiscal agreement for monitoring and analysing the outsourcer public presentation.

2.2.6 ICT Development

The development of ICT is of import presents because it able to analyze all sort of consequences and infer quickly what measure to implement following. The complexness involved in, and between, the different FM subjects can be solved and better understood if ICT implemented. Although ICT play an of import function in the health care industry, but it comparatively small investing has been made in the application of ICT in this industry.

2.2.7 Case-Based Reasoning ( CBR )

CBR was originally motivated by a desire to understand how people remember information for the intent of work outing their jobs. Subsequently, it was recognized that people normally do so by retrieving how similar jobs were solved antecedently ( Watson, 1999 ) .

2.2.8 POE ( Post-Occupancy Evaluation )

Post-occupancy rating ( POE ) is a new tool which installation director can utilize to help in continuously bettering the quality and public presentation of the installations which they operate and maintain. Harmonizing to Presiser, W.F.E. , Rabinowitz, H.Z. and white, E.T, ( 1998 ) ,

2.3 Building Performance

Building is of import for us. In the developed universe the huge bulk of people live and work in, if non use, constructing every twenty-four hours. Harmonizing to ( James Douglas, 1996 ) “ Buildings hence are of import for the undermentioned ground. First, is environmental, it provide suited internal environment which can defy the inauspicious consequence of climatic status for people and trade goods. Second is economic factor, they are lasting fixed assets with good capital growing potency. In term of functional, they enable activities and undertaking to be carried out and trade goods to be housed under controlled conditions. The 4th ground is the cultural ; they reflect the architectural aspirations and historical feature of the community within which they reside. The last ground is legal affair. They are required to enable proprietors and users to follow with certain statutory demands. ” Building provided a infinite to a people carry out a series of activities in day-to-day life and it besides a portion of the human life.

Harmonizing to ( Clift, M. and Butler, R. 1995 ) , “ edifice public presentation has been defined in BS 5240 as behaviour of a merchandise in usage. ” Harmonizing to ( William, B. , 1993 ) “ It can be used donated the physical public presentation feature of a edifice as a whole and of its portion. It therefore relates to a edifice ‘s ability to lend to carry throughing the map of its intended usage. Building public presentation is of import both in an inter-building and an intra-building sense. An inter-building rating is where one edifice is being compared against another edifice. An intra-building rating, the edifice is assessed on its ain without direct mention to other belongingss.

Figure 2.3 the relationship between edifice public presentation and installations public presentation ( n.d. ) A Google Image Result for hypertext transfer protocol: // [ on-line ] [ Accessed: 19 Jul 2012 ] .

Harmonizing to ( ( n.d. ) A 310_667-49-2.htm. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 26 Jul 2012 ] ) and Unknown. ( 2007 ) A Bhs 2007 Minimum Design Standards Final PDF Doc. 198958 7.

From the Figure 2.3, Point X is where the edifice ‘s public presentation begins to fall below that of the installations it is supposed to be back uping. After the place Z the degree edifice public presentation is such that efficiency of the installations themselves will be adversely affected. From this figure we know that the existent edifice public presentation will drop over the clip due to influences such as climatic status, unequal care and other factor.

The patient suites shall hold a lower limit of 100 square pess ( 9.3 square metres ) of clear floor country per bed in multiple-bed suites and 120 square pess ( 11.2 square metres ) of clear floor country for single-bed suites, sole of lavatory suites, cupboards, cabinets, closets, baies, or anterooms. The dimensions and agreement of suites shall be such that there is a lower limit of 3 pess ( 0.91 metre ) between the sides and pes of the bed and any wall or any other fixed obstructor. In multiple-bed suites, a clearance of 4 pess ( 1.22 metres ) shall be available at the pes of each bed to allow the transition of equipment and beds. Minor invasions, including columns and toilets, that do non interfere with maps may be ignored when finding infinite demands for patient suites. Where redevelopment work is undertaken, every attempt shall be made to run into the above lower limit criterions.

Each required window shall hold a underside of glass lift non higher than 3′-0 ” ( 91 centimeter ) above finished floor and shall be above class. In suites necessitating Windowss, the clear glass country of the Windowss shall be a lower limit of 10 per centum of the needed floor country of the room. A clear unobstructed sing distance of 20 pess ( 6.10 metres ) plus one pes ( 0.3 metre ) for each 2 pes ( 0.6 metre ) rise above the first narrative up to a upper limit of 40 pess ( 12.2 metres ) shall be provided in line with the caput of the patient ( s ) beds. Windows within a normal sight line that would allow observation into a room shall be arranged or draped to supply for patient privateness.

The minimal ceiling height shall be 7 pess 10 inches ( 2.39 metres ) , with the undermentioned exclusions:

First, ceilings in storage suites and lavatory suites shall be non less than 7 pess 6 inches ( 2.34 metres ) in tallness. Ceiling highs in little, usually unoccupied infinites may be reduced.

Second, suspended paths, tracks, and pipes located in the traffic way for patients in beds and/or on stretchers, including those in inpatient service countries, shall be non less than 7 pess ( 2.13 metres ) above the floor. Clearances in other countries may be 6 pess 8 inches ( 2.03 metres ) .

Wall finishes shall be washable. In the locality of plumbing fixtures, wall coatings shall be smooth and water-repellent. Wall building, coating, and trim, including the articulations between the walls and the floors, shall be free of insect- and rodent-harboring infinites.

The healthcare cardinal must be easy to clean and keep. This is facilitated by:

Appropriate, lasting coatings for each functional infinite

Careful detailing of such characteristics as doorcases, casework, and finish passages to avoid dirt-catching and hard-to-clean crannies and articulations

Adequate and suitably located housework infinites

Particular stuffs, coatings, and inside informations for infinites which are to be kept unfertile, such as built-in cove base. The new antimicrobic surfaces might be considered for appropriate locations.

When speaking about the handiness, the two chief component have to guarantee is guaranting classs are level plenty to let easy motion and pavements and corridors are broad plenty for two wheelchairs to go through easy. The 2nd 1 is guaranting entryway countries are designed to suit patients with slower version rates to dark and light ; taging glass walls and doors to do their presence obvious

In add-on to the general safety concerns of all edifices, healthcare cardinal have several peculiar security concerns:

Protection of hospital belongings and assets, including drugs

Protection of patients, including helpless patients, and staff

Safe control of violent or unstable patients

Vulnerability to damage from terrorist act because of propinquity to high-vulnerability marks, or because they may be extremely seeable public edifices with an of import function in the public wellness system.

Table 2.1 Sound Transmission Limitations in General Hospital. ( n.d. ) A Google Image Result for hypertext transfer protocol: // [ on-line ] [ Accessed: 19 Jul 2012 ] .

Harmonizing to Unknown. ( 1996 ) A guidelines for design and building of infirmary and wellness attention installations.

Harmonizing Table 2.1, public infinite includes corridors ( except patient room entree corridors ) , anterooms, dining suites, diversion suites, intervention suites, and similar infinite.

Next, service countries include kitchens, lifts, lift machine suites, washs, garages, care suites, boiler and mechanical equipment suites, and similar infinites of high noise. Mechanical equipment located on the same floor or above patient suites, offices, nurses Stationss, and similar occupied infinite shall be efficaciously isolated from the floor.

Furthermore, patient room entree corridors contain composite walls with doors/windows and have direct entree to patient suites.

Table 2.2 Ventilation Requirements for Areas Affecting Patient Care in Hospitals

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Harmonizing to (, 1989A Texas Department of Health. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 26 Jul 2012 ] . ) and ( Unknown,1996A guidelines for design and building of infirmary and wellness attention installations ) .

Harmonizing Table 2.2 the airing rates is cover airing for comfort, antisepsis and door control every bit good in countries of ague attention infirmaries that will straight impact patient attention on health care installations being preponderantly “ No Smoke ” installations. If smoke may be allowed, so the airing rates should be doing some accommodation.

In the design for the airing system shall supply air motion that is usually from clean to less clean countries. If any signifier of variable air volume or burden casting system is used for energy preservation, it must non colony for the corridor-to-room force per unit area equilibrating relationships or the minimal air alterations required from the tabular array.

To run into exhaust demands, the of import should be need is replacement air from the exterior. It would non try to depict specific sums of outside air to be supplied to single infinites except for certain countries such as those listed. For the agreement the outside air, added to the system to equilibrate required exhaust, good technology pattern is most of import. While the system is in operation must certainly stay changeless the minimal outside air measures.

Number of air alterations will be reduced if the room is can non busy if commissariats are made to guarantee that the figure of air alterations indicated is re-established any clip the infinite is being utilised. Adjustments should be done such as commissariats so the way of air motion shall stay the same when the figure of air alterations is reduced. Areas non indicated as holding uninterrupted directional control may hold airing systems shut down when infinite is unoccupied and airing is non otherwise needed, if the maximal infiltration or ex-filtration permitted is non exceeded and if next force per unit area equilibrating relationships are non compromised.

Air from countries with taint and/or smell jobs shall be exhausted to the exterior and non re-circulated to other countries. Note that single fortunes may necessitate particular consideration for air fumes to the exterior, e.g. , in intensive attention units in which patients with pneumonic infection are treated, and suites for burn patients.

The scopes listed are the minimal and maximal bounds where control is specifically needed.

Table 2.3 Temperature and Humidity Requirements for Areas Affecting Patient Care in Hospitals

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Harmonizing to ( ( 2004 ) A Figure: 25 TAC A§133.169 ( degree Celsius ) . [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 26 Jul 2012 ] . )

Harmonizing Table 2.3, where temperature ranges are indicated, the systems shall be capable of keeping the suites at any point within the scope. A individual figure indicates a warming or chilling capacity of at least the indicated temperature. This is normally applicable when patients may be undressed and necessitate a warmer environment. Nothing in these design criterions shall be construed as preventing the usage of temperatures lower than those noted when the patients ‘ comfort and medical conditions make lower temperatures desirable. Unoccupied countries such as storage suites shall hold temperatures allow for the map intended.

The term injury room as used here is the operating room infinite in the exigency section or other trauma response country that is used for exigency surgery. The first assistance room and/or “ exigency room ” used for initial intervention of accident victims may be ventilated as noted for the “ intervention room. ” Treatment suites used for Bronchoscopy shall be treated as Bronchoscopy suites. Treatment suites used for cryosurgery processs with azotic oxide shall incorporate commissariats for wash uping waste gases.

Figure 2.4 Degree of public presentation predictability ( n.d. ) A Google Image Result for hypertext transfer protocol: // [ on-line ] [ Accessed: 25 Jul 2012 ] .

From the figure 2.4 we realize measuring public presentation of whole edifice is a completed due to high complexness and hard to carry on an appraisal. Vice versa identified the public presentation of stuff is easier and faster. The public presentation informations and the specification of the merchandise could acquire from the makers ‘ merchandise booklets.

The incorrect stuff used in the health care Centre is critical to the edifice public presentation. The instance go on which the new healthcare cardinal was grow bacteriums on the wall of the edifice. By investigate and place the mistake stuff used so can make the do good on the job.

2.4 POE ( Post-Occupancy Evaluation )

“ Post-occupancy rating is the procedure of consistently comparing existent edifice public presentation, i.e. , public presentation step, with explicitly stated public presentation standards. These are typically documented in a installation plan, which is a common pre-requisite for the design phases in the edifice bringing rhythm. The comparing constitutes the rating in term of both positive and negative public presentation facets. ”

In the yesteryear, changing of the edifice is comparatively slow, the method of evaluate the edifice public presentation is informal. The cognition about the public presentation was passed on from coevals to coevals of constructing specializer. This specializer usually is a adult male with multiple accomplishments and the well known which the client operated every bit far as cultural, societal, economic and proficient parametric quantity were concerned. Nowadays these state of affairss were wholly changed with increasing of the specialisation of work and besides the complexness of the edifice is acquiring higher. Harmonizing to Eberhard, J.P, ( 1965 ) , “ since major edifice determination are made by commissions, and an increasing figure of proficient codification and regulative demand are placed on installations, it is ease to see that the public presentation of the installations is something that need to be good articulated and documented, normally in the signifier of the installation programme. ” That manner, all participant in the edifice bringing procedure have a clear apprehension of what type and degree of public presentation should be achieved in a installation.

The procedure of consistently comparing existent edifice public presentation with explicitly stated public presentation standards. The procedure of feedback about how edifice performs and how they interact with their users. It besides provide functional information which is aid pull off the edifice and be fed back into the design phases for the following edifice undertaking in the edifice bringing rhythm.

Figure 2.5: The public presentation construct in the edifice bringing procedure

Unknown. ( 2012 ) [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

A by and large common set of job in edifice public presentation, even for new edifices ; there is wellness and safety job, security job, escape, hapless signage and manner determination job, hapless air circulation and temperature control, handicapped handiness job, deficiency of storage, deficiency of privateness, hallway obstruction, aesthetic job, entry door job with air current and accretion of dirty, insufficiency of planing infinite for equipment, maintainability of glass surface.

Figure 2.6: Building public presentation rating model

Unknown. ( 2012 ) [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Harmonizing to Peter Barrett and David Baldry, 2nd edition, “ the benefit of POE as below:

Short term

Designation of and solutions to job in edifice installations ; Improved infinite use based on feedback from usage ; Improved attitude of residents through active engagement in the rating procedure ; Understanding of deductions on edifice public presentation dictated by budget cut ; and informed determination doing during design.

Average term

Built-in capacity for constructing adaptation to organisational alteration and growing ; Significant cost nest eggs in the edifice procedure and throughout the edifice life rhythm ; Accountability for constructing public presentation by design professionals and proprietors.

Long term

Long-run betterments in edifice public presentation ; Improvement of design databases, criterions, standards, counsel and benchmark successful construct ; Improved measuring of edifice public presentation through quantification.


Figure 2.7 Post-Occupancy Evaluation ( POE ) Process Model

Unknown. ( 2012 ) [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

An declarative POE provides an indicant of major failures and successes of a edifice ‘s public presentation. This type of POE is usually will be behavior within a really short clip span, from two or three hours to one or two yearss. An declarative POE presumes that the judge / rating squad is experienced in carry oning POEs and is familiar with the edifice type to be evaluated, every bit good as the issues that tend to be associated with it. Some data-gathering methods are typical of an declarative POE such as Performance Issues, Walk-through Evaluation, and Interviews.

An fact-finding POE is more time-consuming ; more complicated, and requires many more resources than an declarative POE. Often an fact-finding POE is conducted when an declarative POE has identified issues that require farther probe, both in footings of the installation physical public presentation and the residents ‘ response it. The consequences of an declarative POE stress the designation of major jobs. While the major stairss in carry oning an fact-finding Poe are indistinguishable to those in an declarative POE, the degree of attempt is higher. Much more clip is spent and more sophisticated information aggregation and analysis techniques are used. Unlike the declarative POE, in which public presentation standards used in the rating are in portion based on the judge ‘s or rating squad ‘s experience, the fact-finding POE uses researched standards that are objectively and explicitly stated. The fact-finding POE can cover more subjects in greater item and with more dependability. It by and large require 160-240 man-hours, plus staff clip for support services. In the fact-finding POE, the rating standards are explicitly stated before the edifice is evaluated.

A diagnostic POE is a comprehensive and in-depth probe conducted at a high degree of attempt. It follows a multi-method scheme to measure each of import edifice public presentation facets. It includes: Questionnaires, Surveys, Observations, and Physical Measurements. The diagnostic POE may take from several months to one twelvemonth or longer to finish. The consequences and recommendations are long term oriented, taking to better non merely a peculiar installation but besides the province of the art in a given installation. Diagnostic POE are normally large-scale undertakings, affecting many variables. Diagnostic POEs utilize edification in both informations aggregation and analysis techniques transcending that of fact-finding and declarative POEs. A‰ Diagnostic POEs keep the possible for doing reasonably accurate anticipations of edifice public presentation and for adding to the province of the art cognition for a given edifice type through betterments in the design standards and guideline literature. Diagnostic POE are normally large-scale undertakings, affecting many variables. Diagnostic POEs utilize edification in both informations aggregation and analysis techniques transcending that of fact-finding and declarative POEs. Diagnostic POEs keep the possible for doing reasonably accurate anticipations of edifice public presentation and for adding to the province of the art cognition for a given edifice type through betterments in the design standards and guideline literature.

Figure 2.8: POE rating procedure theoretical account

Unknown. ( 2012 ) [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Evaluation the public presentation by utilizing POE theoretical account is divided into three stage. These 3 stages is be aftering the POE ; Conducting the POE and using the POE. Each stage consist of three measure.

Phase 1 Planing the POE, The planning stage provides counsel for originating and forming the POE. There are several preliminaries to detect in originating and forming a POE undertaking prior to the on-site informations aggregation.

The client must be briefed on the nature of POEs, the type of activities involved and the resources needed.

Agreement is reached on which type of POE to carry on.

Historical and other background information that may help in be aftering the rating is identified and obtained.

Coordination with user groups within the edifice begins and possible benefits for participants are outlined.

Resources for carry oning the rating are organized, and a preliminary agenda, work program, and budget are established in which undertaking squad members ‘ undertakings and duties are defined.

Research methods and analytical techniques are determined, and beginnings for rating standards are identified.

There are three stairss included in this stage: reconnaissance and feasibleness, resource planning, and research planning. For every measure, the judge should put out and/or province: the intent of the measure, justification for this measure, activities involved in carry oning this measure, resources necessary to carry on this measure, and the expected consequence of this measure.

Phase 2: Conducting the POE, there are three stairss included in this stage which is originating the on-site data-collection procedure ; monitoring and pull offing data-collection processs ; and analysis informations. For every measure, the judge should put out and/or province: the intent of the measure, justification for this measure, activities involved in carry oning this measure, resources necessary to carry on this measure, and the expected consequence of this measure.

Phase 3: Using the POE, In this stage of the POE, findings are reported, decision drawn, recommendation made, and finally the resulting actions reviewed. The stairss involved in the using stage of POE are describing findings ; urging actions ; and reexamining results. For every measure, the judge should put out and/or province: the intent of the measure, justification for this measure, activities involved in carry oning this measure, resources necessary to carry on this measure, and the expected consequence of this measure.

2.5 Information and Communication Technology ( ICT )

The current development of computing machine applications in the country of Facilities Management ( FM ) is still slow, peculiarly due to a deficiency of the as-built information required by such applications ( Yu et al. , 1997 ) . However, increased involvement on the portion of the health care sector in unreal intelligence ( AI ) and ICT which can be found in more practical applications than of all time before ( Clark and Metha, 1997 ; Waring and Wainright, 2002 ) .

Constraint-based analysis and scheduling was developed chiefly in order to work out scheduling jobs. These jobs contain restraints that must be fulfilled and other penchants that are to be satisfied ( Fahle et al, 2002 ; Hopegood, 1993 ) . Fuzzy logic is a methodological analysis based on an input vector that computing machine an end product vector by using a set of lingual conditional statements or regulations ( Costa et al, 1996 ) . It besides can cover with multi-variable, non-linear, and time-varying procedures ( Stylios and Groumpos, 1999 ) . Familial algorithms are a hunt and optimisation technique based on genetic sciences and inspired by natural development ( Leite et al. , 2002 ; Lingtas, 2001 ) . In order to work out a job, the optimum is sought within several possible required solutions ( Goldberd, 1989 ) . Logic scheduling is a combination of logic and processs, and consists of the undermentioned constituents:

An alphabet of symbols ;

A set of tax write-off regulations ;

A set of maxims ;

A definition of maps within the logic ( Cercone and McCalla, 1987 ; Garcia and Chien, 1991 ) .

Telemedicine, a comparatively new subject, uses ICT to supply medical information and services in the health care industry. Waring and Wainwright ( 2002 ) criticized the effectivity and success of ICT in NHS ( National Health Service ) , mentioning the disregard of political and organisational issues through the proficient execution of ICT to be among the grounds for its deficiency of success.

Ng and Li ( 2003 ) reviewed the relationships between organisations ‘ cognition direction and ICT utilizing the Hendriks theoretical account for cognition direction, which claims that the construct of cognition direction can be to the full understood merely as a direction construct. It was stressed that ICT fits in better with a cognition direction scheme aimed at codification of the cognition.

Sigala ( 2003 ) examined the productiveness of ICT in the hotel industry, reasoning her research with the decision that a more strategic attack to ICT execution and direction is required in order to optimise ICT value. The survey found that all three ICT capablenesss ( information, systems integrating and architecture ) should be managed and aligned with concern scheme and operations.

ICT employs a broad scope of engineerings. Recent surveies that researched the effectivity and the efficiency of this subject in information- intensive industries found that ICT can be optimized when its execution is aligned with the concern scheme and operation. Although ICT plays an progressively of import function in the health care industry, comparatively small investing has been made in the application of ICT in this industry, this tendency can be attributed to the single footing on which health care organisations operate, and the deficiency of statute methods for direction. ICT execution in healthcare FM would be enhanced by the development of quantitative methods every bit good as structured, strategic means towards healthcare FM. ( Igal M. Shohet and Sarel Lavy, 2004 )

Gallant ( 1994 ) outlined the chief aims of AI as the creative activity of applications that perform every bit good as worlds on undertakings affecting acquisition, vision, linguistic communication, and robotic gesture. During recent old ages, a great trade of involvement has been expressed in AI techniques, which are being introduced progressively into assorted practical applications ( Clark and Metha, 1997 ) . The current development of computing machine applications in the country of FM is, nevertheless, still slow ; chiefly due to the fact that it requires comprehensive, structured as-built databases ( Yu et al. , 1997 ) . AI is frequently developed in footings of assorted methodological analysiss, such as constraint-based scheduling, fuzzed logic, familial algorithms, logic scheduling, ANN, and CBR, all of which were developed over the past three or four decennaries ( Watson, 1999 ) . In the undermentioned, we will analyze the different AI techniques, and see AI ‘s possible pertinence in deciding FM jobs:

Fuzzy logic can be considered as a methodological analysis that computes an end product vector from an input vector by using lingual regulations or statements ( Costa et al. , 1996 ) . The fuzzy regulations are read as IF-THEN conditions. Therefore, fuzzed logic can successfully cover with multi-variable, non-linear, and time-varying procedures ( Stylios and Groumpos, 1999 ; Ligas and Ali, 1996 ) . The architecture of the job in this research that includes public presentation and hazard rating can non be characterized utilizing lingual conditional statements ; accordingly this methodological analysis is deemed unsuitable.

Familial algorithms are a hunt and optimisation technique based on genetic sciences and inspired by natural development ( Lingras, 2001 ; Leite et al. , 2002 ) . Familial algorithms belong to the class of probabilistic algorithms, and their problem-solving procedure requires several executable solutions ( Goldberg, 1989 ) . Since the job in this survey is non an optimisation job ( except certain parts of it, e.g. the care policy ) , and since the range of informations in FM is limited, this technique is inappropriate for successful execution here.

Logic programming combines logic and processs ( Cercone and McCalla, 1987 ) . Garcia and Chien ( 1991 ) described the undermentioned four elements that make up logic scheduling: an alphabet of symbols, a set of scheduling: an alphabet of symbols, a set of definition of maps within the logic. The FM job consists of qualitative and quantitative informations, and as a consequence, no maxims can be defined. Therefore, logic scheduling may be suited for work outing portion of the job, e.g. hazard direction, but is non suited for deciding the FM job presented in this research

The development of ANN was started 60 old ages ago by McCulloch and Pitts ( 1943 ) , and was motivated by a desire to seek to both understand the encephalon and copy some of its strengths. The ANN technique is inspired by biological science, and similar to the human encephalon, it consists of a web of interrelated processing elements ( besides called nerve cells, units, cells, and nodes ) . Its memory uses a weighting system that connects nerve cells together in several beds ( Fausett, 1994 ; Flood and Kartam, 1994 ; Garrett et al. , 1997 ; Chao and Skibniewski, 1998 ; Edwards et al. , 2000 ) . The application of ANN has several drawbacks, viz. , its ability to cover merely with numerical figures, and its demand of a big organic structure of informations sets ( Yau and Yang, 1998a ) . The FM job is characterized by a limited figure of instances, and by losing and uncomplete informations ; therefore the usage of ANN is unsuitable.

Yu et Al. ( 2000 ) perceived that “ future FM package must be more incorporate so that installations can be managed in a more comprehensive mode during their life rhythm ” . FM normally requires an analysis of a considerable sum of informations, which makes it really hard to obtain and bring forth appropriate and suited cognition ( Christian and Chan, 1993 ) . As can be seen from the features of the above techniques, they are unequal or merely partly suited for execution in an incorporate FM theoretical account. Therefore, we will next analyze a potentially suited AI technique, viz. , CBR.

2.5.1 Case-Based Reasoning ( CBR )

A different problem-solving paradigm attack is known as CBR. CBR was originally motivated by the desire to understand how people remember information, and it was found that people by and large solve jobs by remembering how similar jobs were solved ( Watson, 1999 ) . CBR is capable of using the specific cognition obtained in antecedently experienced concrete instances ; therefore, it is a technique that solves a new job by recovering old instances from a “ bank ” of classified instances, utilizing sets of indexs and regulations ( Kim and Han, 2001 ) . Aha ( 1998 ) described five chief stairss for accomplishing a solution to a new job:

recover a set of stored instances decided to be similar to the description of the new job ;

recycle one or more solutions from these instances ;

revision: adjust these solutions in order to work out the current job ;

reappraisal: buttocks the consequences attained from using the proposed solutions to the current job ; and

Retain: evaluate if the new job is appropriate to be added to the library of instances as a new instance.

The literature cites many research workers that have been known to utilize the CBR attack in work outing complex jobs, with the bulk of applications being in the field of medical specialty ( Ozturk and Aamodt, 1998 ) . In building technology CBR has been used in assorted applications, including: a steel span members works where it was used to analyze and urge disciplinary actions for industry mistakes ( Roddis and Bocox, 1997 ) ; the choice of retaining walls ( Yau and Yang, 1998b ) ; the appraisal of its application in a house-renovation support system ( Brandon and Ribeiro, 1998 ) ; work outing of scheduling jobs ( Dzeng and Tommelein, 1997 ; Burke et al. , 2000 ) ; in a survey on the command behaviour of contractors in the procurance of different undertakings ( Chua et al. , 2001 )

Arditi and Tokdemir ( 1999 ) compared the two attacks, CBR and ANN, in order to foretell the effectivity of the techniques in work outing building judicial proceeding jobs. They found the CBR attack to be more successful, particularly due to the sort of information it provides ( which includes different definitions of characteristics ) . In CBR, each instance is represented by a figure of Fieldss that take on assorted signifiers, such as numerical, logical, alphabetical, and strings. Yau and Yang ( 1998a ) concluded that “ a CBR application ‘s input and end product are more clear than that of a nervous web application ” . One of import advantage of CBR is its suitableness for execution in instances in which the interactions and dealingss between variables are non clearly formulated and understood ( Cunningham and Bonzano, 1999 ) .

Many surveies can be found in the literature that use the CBR attack to work out complex jobs with the bulk of applications being in the field of medical specialty ( Ozturk and Aamodt, 1998 ) . However, in the last decennary, CBR has besides been used for a assortment of intents in building technology ( Brandon and Ribeiro, 1998 ; Burke et al. , 2000 ; Chua et al. , 2001 ; Dzeng and Tommelein, 1997 ; Roddis and Bocox, 1997 ; Yau and Yang, 1998a, B ) . There are, nevertheless, no CBR applications that deal with health care FM.

2.6 Decision

As a drumhead, FM is necessary to the healthcare cardinal and playing of import function in term of keeping a good edifice public presentation.

The five nucleus sphere of FM in healthcare cardinal is risk direction, public presentation direction, care direction, supply service direction, ICT development. These five spheres is critical to the FM, each one is playing of import function in healthcare cardinal.

The edifice public presentation shall carry through the map of its intended usage. In a healthcare cardinal, the air quality in the edifice must be good, the lighting must be sufficient and other maps suppose to be public presentation by the edifice. The healthcare cardinal edifice should follow with the minimal criterion of the demand. A people is ever wish to hold a higher public presentation of the edifice, but the fact is the edifice public presentation is keep bead when the clip is increasing

POE is tool used by installations director to mensurate the edifice public presentation. It is a procedure of comparing the existent edifice public presentation. The traditional method to measure the edifice public presentation is acquiring non efficient due to the increasing of the complexness of edifice in presents. POE is benefit to the FM in short term, average term, every bit good as long term. POE procedure fundamentally is divided in three stage which is be aftering, carry oning and using ; every stages is divided in three degree besides. In this procedure, dark measure need to gone through and is a rhythm to reiterate it in order to maintain bettering the edifice public presentation.

ICT is one of the of import portion in the FM.


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