Competitive fence ( foil, saber and epee ) has experienced a rapid addition in engagement rates during the past decennary ( Harmer, 2008 ) . The athletics topographic points alone demands on the jock and is characterised by dissymmetry and the incidence of rapid gestures which have the possible to bring forth big forces ( Geil, 2002 ) . In peculiar, the often used lurch which is the footing of most assaultive gestures is a high impact motion ( Kopetka & A ; Stewart, 2005 ) .
The enlargement in engagement combined with the biomechanical demands of the athletics has led to heighten consciousness of the incidence of hurts associated with fence. Nonetheless, prospective, epidemiological surveies of the incidence of insistent strain and overexploitation hurts in fencing are scarce. As a consequence, it is hard to pull reliable decisions sing the etiology of fencing hurts and their bar based on impartial information ( Roi & A ; Bianchedi, 2008 ) . However bing surveies indicate that overexploitation hurts account for about 30 % of hurts that interfere with preparation ( Carter et al. , 1993 ) . The bulk of hurts are confined to the lower appendages ( e.g. , emphasis breaks, impingement enthesopathies of the patellar sinew and shinbone and plantar facia ) associated with fence ( Harmer, 2008, Wild et al. , 2001 ; Zemper & A ; Harmer, 1996 ) feature of dynamic activities affecting high speed alteration in impulse actions ( Harmer, 2008 ) .
No evident information has been published supplying information sing the entire figure of lurchs executed during a competitory turn. However, Roi and Bianchedi ( 2008 ) suggest that there are anyplace between 66 and 210 onslaughts ( depending on the arm ) during a competition, which given the lurch ‘s map as the most common attacking mechanism, it appears that swordsmans will be on a regular basis subjected to the impact forces imposed by the lurch.
One of the features of the pes impacting the surface during a lurch is a rapid alteration in speed of the pes and this speed reaches zero upon foot arrangement in a short period of clip ( Whittle, 1999 ) . This impact leads to the transmittal of an axial transient daze wave through the organic structure and carries with it the possible for hurt. It is of import to recognize that burden is necessary for care of gristle, bone, and musculus wellness ( Stone, 1988 ) . An optimum burden window for tissue strength can be characterized by frequent impacts of certain magnitude, continuance, and frequence. Motions beyond the optimum burden window can take to the dislocation of organic structure tissue and overexploitation hurts ( Hardin et al. , 2003 ) . The magnitude of the impact daze is normally measured utilizing shank mounted accelerometers. This method has been used to analyze the padding belongingss of athletic footwear ( Lake & A ; Greenhalgh, 2005 ) and better differentiates between impact conditions compared to informations acquired utilizing a force platform ( Lafortune & A ; Hennig, 1992 ) . The high impact nature of the lurch implies that the lower appendages may be at hazard from overexploitation hurts.
The 1992 U.S Fencing Association reappraisal of the factors that may lend to fencing hurts indicates that of the three primary countries for bar, lacking equipment and installations may be responsible for every bit many as 28 % of the hurts associated with fence, with uneffective footwear organizing a important constituent ( Carter et al. , 1993 ) . The reappraisal noted jobs with fencing places mentioning unequal padding every bit good as the deficiency of footwear designs that could screen against the high impact nature of the athletics, peculiarly hurling. To cut down hurt, Zemper and Harmer ( 1996 ) have suggested a redesign of fencing places.
The primary map of athletic footwear as described by Stacoff et al. , ( 1988 ) is to supply daze fading. The belongingss of athletic footwear have been linked to the bar of overexploitation hurts. With many different types of athleticss footwear available supplying different degrees of midsole padding, choosing the most suited for a athletics can be critical in forestalling the oncoming of hurt. Fencing equipment retail merchants in the UK offer really few options for specific footwear, with merely 2 major trade names on offer ( Adidas and Hi Tec ) . It besides appears that the fence shoe has been more specifically designed for the map of the trail pes to enable good clasp on the piste every bit good as maximizing the life span of the shoe if dragging the back pes, which is common in fence.
To day of the month there is no information available sing the potentially damaging consequence of the impact accelerations experienced during this motion. However, epidemiological surveies suggest that a relationship exists between the magnitude of the transient shockwave and the etiology of a figure of lower appendage overexploitation hurts ( Nigg & A ; Segesser, 1992 ) . Therefore with a important figure of lurchs being undertaken by a swordsman and the possible connexion between the magnitude of the impact shockwave and the incidence of overexploitation hurts makes it of import to look into the daze fading belongingss of fencing footwear.
Therefore, the limited handiness of specific daze rarefying footwear to the swordsman may predispose swordsmans to overdrive hurts. The bulk of surveies analysing the influence of different footwear conditions on impact dynamicss have focused on running. The principle behind the present survey was two times. First, we assessed the peak axial tibial transient accelerations associated with the lurch in fencing. Second, we compared the influence of different places on peak axial tibial transient accelerations during the lurch stage. In peculiar, it was predicted that peak axial transient accelerations were lower in places which have been peculiarly developed for daze absorbing qualities ( running and squash places ) in comparing to fencing places during the stance stage of the fence lurch.
Nineteen male experienced competitory swordsmans with a lower limit of 2 old ages experience ( Age 25.6 + 8.3 old ages ; Height 1.78 + 0.5 m ; Weight 76.8 + 9.0 kilogram ) consisting a mixture of the foil, epee and saber subjects, volunteered to take portion in this survey. All were injury free at the clip of informations aggregation and completed an informed consent signifier. The process was approved by a university ethical board.
Each participant was fitted with four braces of places for the survey. The places were the same for each participant ; they differed in size merely ( sizes 9 and 10 work forces ‘s UK sizes ) and consisted of a conventional running shoe ( Saucony Grid forum ) , squash shoe ( Hi-Tec squash indoor ) and fencing places ( Hi-Tec blade ) and ( Adidas en guard ) . A tri-axial ( Biometircs ACL 300 ) accelerometer trying at 1000Hz was utilized to mensurate axial accelerations at the shinbone. The device was mounted on a piece of lightweight carbon-fibre stuff. The combined weight of the accelerometer and mounting instrument was 9g. The electromotive force sensitiveness of the signal was set to 100mV/g, leting equal sensitiveness with a measurement scope of ± 100 g.
The device was attached firmly to taking leg on the distal anterio-medial facet of the shank 8 centimeter above the median maleolus in alliance with its longitudinal axis.
This location was selected as the boniest prominence of the distal shinbone in conformity with the Nokes et al. , ( 1984 ) decisions to better the mechanical yoke of the accelerometer mounting to the shinbone and cut down artifact due to interposing soft-tissue. The accelerometer was positioned so that acceleration was measured in the way up the shinbone ( Figure 1 ) . Strong adhesive tape was placed over the device and the lower leg to avoid overrating the extremum positive acceleration due to weave artifact. The device was attached as near to the shinbone as possible, the tegument on overlying the bone itself was stretched therefore guaranting a more stiff yoke between accelerometer and shinbone. Such fond regard, as proven in earlier surveies [ 21-231 is capable of dependably mensurating the amplitude of a daze moving ridge. Furthermore, adhesive tape was positioned over the device itself to guarantee it was maintained in a fixed place along the longitudinal axis of the shinbone. The acceleration signal was sent to a Biometrics information lumberman with a 2 GB memory card. The information lumberman was fastened firmly to a lightweight back pack to cut down motion of the device during tests.
The swordsmans completed a suited tune-up and were allowed equal clip to familiarise themselves with the experimental protocol and footwear status prior to the beginning of informations aggregation. They were so required to finish 10 lurchs hitting a silent person with their arm in each footwear status whilst returning to a starting point ( pre-determined by each participant prior to the beginning of informations gaining control ) following each test to command lunge distance. Each test was comprised of a lurch where contact between the blade and silent person defined a successful result. The get downing point for the motion was adjusted and maintained. The order in which the different footwear conditions were worn was randomized. Upon decision of the informations aggregation participants were asked to bespeak which shoe they preferred for fencing on a Likert graduated table of 1 to 10.
Kinetic information was quantified/processed utilizing Biometrics data-link package. The stance stage of each test was acquired from each accelerometer signal for analysis. Peak positive axial tibial acceleration was defined as the highest positive acceleration measured during the stance stage after a 60Hz 1st order low base on balls filter had been implemented in conformity with the Lake and Greenhalgh ( 2005 ) recommendations.
The average values of the footsteps per participant/condition for the axial constituent of the acceleration signal was quantified and used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable including agencies and standard divergences. Differences between footwear conditions were examined via a perennial steps analysis of discrepancy with significance accepted at the P & lt ; 0.05 degree. Appropriate post-hoc analyses were conducted utilizing a Bonferroni rectification to command for type I error. All statistical processs were conducted utilizing SPSS 17.0.
Figure 2 provides the mean and standard divergences for the peak tibial accelerations for the four different shoe types. The Mauchly ‘s sphericalness premise was violated and as such the grades of freedom of the Fstatistic was adjusted via the Greenhouse Geisser rectification. The analysis of discrepancy was important ( F ( 1.97, 35.52 ) = 16.31 ; P & lt ; .001 ; ?2 = .48 ) . Post-hoc comparings showed that the peak axial tibial daze was significantly lower in the squash and running places in comparing to the fence places ( P & lt ; .01 ) . The fence places did non differ from each other in footings of extremum axial acceleration ( P = 0.48 ) nor did the running and squash places ( P = 0.087 ) .
The purpose of this survey was to find the differences in the magnitude of the transeunt acceleration between traditional fence places and standard athletic footwear during the impact stage of the fence lurch. The consequences of this survey back up our hypothesis, in that the magnitudes of the axial impact shockwaves were significantly lower in both the running and squash places compared to the traditional fence footwear. The transient shockwave is linked to the development of a assortment of overexploitation hurts ( Whittle, 1999 ) . It is indispensable to admit the nexus between the magnitude of these forces and overexploitation hurts, as the frequence of these conditions can be reduced by rarefying the impact magnitude ( Whittle, 1999 ) . Therefore the important decrease in impact daze found would propose that running/squash footwear may help in the decrease of overuse hurt happening.
Interestingly, despite the higher impact magnitude and concerns sing the possible development of overexploitation hurts, the bulk of participants indicated that they preferred fencing specific footwear for fencing. This determination agrees with those of Geil ( 2002 ) who hypothesized that this determination centred on plantar centripetal proprioceptive mechanisms, whereby the feel of the fence piste underneath the pes is reduced in places that offer a high grade of midsole padding. Geil ( 2002 ) suggested that footwear may act upon fencing public presentation. They noted that increased midsole padding and travel of the pes during compaction may take to slower gesture of the pess, which in bend could lend to lessened speed of the arm manus, cut downing the overall executing quality of the motion itself.
The consequences of this survey suggest that there is some justification for the Zemper and Harmer ( 1996 ) recommendations sing the re-design of fence places due to the demonstrated high transient impact forces on the front pes during the lurch. The primary design quandary confronting footwear makers is to include characteristics that would function to rarefy the big impact forces and aid cut down overuse hurts. At the same clip, the design features should besides supply the swordsman with an equal feel for the fence piste beneath the pes.
The terrible dorsi-flexion angle between pes and land on initial contact is besides important when planing the shoe. The shoe buffering system must therefore provide protection in the utmost rear of the heel, an country non usually associated with consistent high impact forces in other athleticss. The obvious dissymmetry of the athletics presents a challenge to footwear makers and statements can be made for the development of asymmetrical footwear designs.
Several different surfaces in fencing are used. Training is traditionally conducted on a difficult athleticss hall floor, whilst multiple surfaces are used during competition. During competition a difficult floor can be used, every bit good as a metallic piste ( either a fabric placed over the difficult floor or a difficult metallic piste ) . Surface stiffness can hold a important influence the magnitude of the impact forces and is therefore an country that needs to be investigated further.
Surface stiffness can hold a important influence on the magnitude of the impact daze during landing ( Kim et al. , 1994 ) . This survey was conducted during preparation Sessionss on an indoor surface as opposed to a traditional piste used during competition therefore the consequences obtained may non adequately represent during existent competition on a fencing piste. Future research should therefore dressed ore on the magnitude of the impact daze during competition on a true fence piste.
Accelerometry is a complicated attack and methodological jobs can impact the efficaciousness of collected informations ( Lake and Greenhalgh 2005 ) . The magnitude of the signal obtained from the accelerometer is dependent on the climb interaction, doing cross survey comparings hard. Soft tissue artifact can besides act upon the acceleration recording of underlying bone ( Light et al. , 1980 ) . Attaching the device straight to cram represents the most accurate method of mensurating impact daze and farther work is necessary to find the efficaciousness of the less traumatic tegument climb technique.
The device signal is besides reliant on the centripetal acceleration due to angular gesture of the shank in the sagittal plane during land contact ( Lafortune and Hennig 1991 ) . Lake and Greenhalgh ( 2005 ) noted that despite the application of a distally mounted device, rectification for angular gesture was required in order to quantify impact daze magnitude. EXPAND
Another possible limitation/restriction of this survey is that the consequences obtained are wholly specific to the footwear and ground surface conditions, any fluctuation in these parametric quantities would most likely cause alterations to the participant ‘s fence kinetics/kinematics. In add-on this survey analyzed the lurch gesture merely. The lurch represents the highest impact motion during fence ; nevertheless there are other motions of lower strength which may still be of import in footings of the development of overexploitation hurts. Therefore, extra research is necessary sing the influence of footwear on the magnitude of the transient shockwave during different fencing motions before appropriate prescriptions of fencing footwear can be made.
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of the shank.
Table 1: Subjective evaluations of preferred places ( n=19 ) .