In this chapter, the survey will discourse about the old chapter which is focal point on the supply concatenation in drink fabrication. At first, this chapter will reexamine and discusses about the old literature and overview definition of supply concatenation and supply concatenation direction. Besides that, this chapter will besides discourse the job of supply concatenation, the flexibleness of supply concatenation, effectual ways to better supply concatenation, and size and each phase of supply concatenation.
2.1 Overview and Definition of Supply Chain and Supply Chain Management
Supply concatenation direction is a critical arm for every organisation to implement their concern efficaciously. Firm are needed wholly related entities in supply concatenation to assist in implementing house ‘s supply concatenation. Harmonizing to Lummus and Vokurka ( 1999 ), house are unable to longer vie in isolation of their provider and entities in supply concatenation. Since from 1980s boulder clay now, the involvement and the importance of the construct of coaction relationship in supply concatenation already increasing stable among the houses. There are some different between supply concatenation and supply concatenation direction it will be discuss on later.
Besides that, supply concatenation defined by Christopher ( 1994 ) as a web which is involve upstream and downstream is produce value-added merchandise and service to ultimate client. An illustration of supply concatenation seems like below:
Flow of good
Flow of information and fund
Figure 1: The Basic Supply Chain
Beginning: Chopra and Meindl ( 2001 )
Harmonizing to Lummus and Vokurka ( 1999 ), there has assorted definition of supply concatenation has been defined by the APICS Dictionary as:
“ The procedures from the initial natural stuff to the finished merchandise associating across supplier-user companies and the map inside and outside a company that enables the value concatenation to bring forth merchandises and supply services to the clients ”.
The supply concatenation involve four basic phases, there are program, beginning, do, and deliver. From these four phases, it clearly defined those attempts which are be aftering and managing of supply and demand, the usage of natural stuff, green goods and assembly portion of merchandises, warehousing and logistic for bringing ( Quinn, 1997 ).
However, supply concatenation direction has different intending with supply concatenation. Supply concatenation is a procedure involves all the activities of entities. However, supply concatenation direction is a direction portion in co-ordinate and integrates activities in supply concatenation.
Harmonizing to Sheikh ( 2003 ), supply concatenation direction is defined as the planning, design and controlling of the flow of information, stuffs or resources and fiscal flow among the supply concatenation in order to run into client demands in efficient mode.
Another definition of supply concatenation direction defined by Chopra and Meindl ( 2001 ) is supply concatenation is a direction of flow between or among each phase of the supply concatenation to accomplish the profitableness of house.
From the definition on above, supply concatenation is wholly different significance with the supply O concatenation direction. Supply concatenation is a procedure or web of organisation which is involve program, beginning, make, bringing to bring forth a merchandise or service to ultimate ingestion client. However, supply concatenation direction is utilizing a direction doctrine which involves planning, design, and control of the activities in supply concatenation.
Furthermore, there are some misinterpretations about the supply concatenation direction. Harmonizing to Lummus and Vokurka ( 1999 ), supply concatenation direction is non the construct direction such like below:
Driven from the Supply Side
A Shipping Strategy
The Logistic Pipeline
A Computer System
Meanwhile, the misconstruing impacting the operation of supply concatenation, until the growing of entireness supply concatenation has been slow. There are several grounds why the supply concatenation turning easy ( Lummus and Vokurka, 1999 ) :
Lack of guideline for making conference or brotherhood with supply concatenation spouse, such as provider and trader.
Failed in develop step to supervise conferences or brotherhoods.
Inability to spread out the supply concatenation vision beyond procurance or merchandise distribution to carry through big concern procedure.
Lack of trust among internal and external of company
Organizational obstructions or perturbation to the construct.
Lack of bargain in to top director.
Lack of completed information system and electronic commercialism associating houses.
2.2 The Problem of Supply Chain
Logistic job in supply concatenation already go a common phenomenon to the house, particularly from the clip to clip in inward logistic flow. It makes the makers hard to pull off the supply concatenation adequately. This is because the makers are dependence upon on the inter-relationship entities in supply concatenation. Inbound logistics have an inter-relationship with outward logistic. If occurs the holds of clip in inbound logistics, so it will happen the clip perturbation in outward logistic flow. For illustration, makers who suffer from obstruction in inward logistic, it will take suffer from obstruction in outward logistic to clients. ( Svensson, 2001 )
Uncertainty environment is such of the job in supply concatenation. Harmonizing to Stevenson and Spring ( 2007 ), an uncertainness in supply concatenation is sing the dependableness and trustingly of provider, quality of merchandises, and actions of rivals. The cardinal beginning of uncertainness is related to measures, timing, and specification of client demand. In the cardinal beginning, uncertainness in measures is mentioning to the deficit of merchandises or stock measures. Manufacturers will necessitate to do certain the stocks are non in a state of affairs of out of stock. Besides that, timing is sing to the clip of fabrication, assembly, and bringing. The uncertainness of timing is late bringing, hold in setup clip. The uncertainness of specification of client demand is sing to the hapless form, form, colour or other demand on the merchandise. We agree with Van der Vorst and Beulens ( 2002 ), uncertainness will take an inefficient processing and non-value added activities in supply concatenation web. Due to this, there are several beginning of supply concatenation uncertainness can be identified by Van der and Beulens ( 2002 ) as below:
Characteristic Features of Chain
Last, another job in supply concatenation is perturbation of stuff and constituents. The perturbation of stuff and job can kindly categorise into qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative of perturbation are the cause lead lacks of constituent and stuff in supply concatenation. For illustration such like hapless quality merchandise, defect in merchandise, measurement mistake in constituent. Besides that, quantitative perturbation are the deficiency of stuffs and constituents at downstream activities in supply concatenation. ( Svensson, 2001 ).
All of this job in supply concatenation will take inefficiency in supply concatenation. To work out the jobs, we identify some effectual ways to better the supply concatenation. Following subdivision of this survey will discourse the effectual ways to better supply concatenation. Previously on the treatment of effectual ways to better supply concatenation, we will necessitate to place the flexibleness of supply concatenation.
2.3 The Flexibility in Supply Chain
Flexibility can be defined by Stevenson and Spring ( 2007 ) as in term of scope, mobility, and uniformity. There are several flexibleness dimension are usage in step the flexibleness in supply concatenation.
2.3.1 Flexibility Dimension
The flexibleness dimensions are such as hardiness, re-configuration, relationship, logistic, organisational, and inter-organizational can be use in measuring of supply concatenation of fabrication industries ( Stevenson and Spring, 2007 ).
The bing of supply concatenation construction is able to vie in the market while the scope of market alterations. The scope of market alteration involves demand of client and supply to client, new rivals and other. The house should hold a strong and stable supply concatenation in compete with other rival.
Firms possible to reconstitute, reengineering, re-align the construction of supply concatenation while the market alteration. They will make some change to fit with the market alteration. Re-configuration schemes need to taken by all entities in supply concatenation, such as provider, trader, client, director, and all the workers. It involves the full worker in supply concatenation upstream and downstream.
Firm is ability to construct up collaborative relationship in development of new merchandise, procedure, and logistic flow. The collaborative relationship involves both entities of upstream and downstream. Many houses overcome the addition complexness and restriction of engineering in bring forthing merchandises dependence upon on the partnership relationship with the provider ( Aghazadeh, 2004 )
In the logistic flow, steadfast ability and potency in the bringing of merchandises cost efficaciously as the market alteration. The house avoids the perturbation of logistic flow to accomplish satisfaction of client in market. Harmonizing to Aghazadeh ( 2004 ), steadfast committedness on physique up and developing the internal construction of supply concatenation bases to back up the logistic fabrication.
Firm ability to re-align and re-distribute accomplishment, tool, and equipment to run into the presently need and demand of supply concatenation.
The quickly altering of market will do the alteration in information system. Firm is ability to administer information system with bing entities supply concatenation to run into the altering information.
2.4 Effective Ways to Better Supply Chain
Previously reappraisal on the job, it cause the inefficient of supply concatenation in drink fabrication. The ways to work out the job is steadfast demand to place the most effectual ways to better the supply concatenation in drink fabrication industry. There are assorted effectual ways to assist in better the supply concatenation in fabrication industry. At first, place the most familiar job in supply concatenation and suit the redress to the instance.
As we know, the most familiar job in supply concatenation is logistic flow job. A hapless logistic flow will act upon the operation of supply concatenation in drink fabrication. Based on this job, the effectual manner to work out the job and better supply concatenation is improve logistic operation in supply concatenation. Manufacturers or houses can take some new distribution manner or system to better their hapless supply concatenation. Harmonizing to Aghazadeh ( 2004 ), as logistic planning, “ it is impossible to set up a new logistic system that can be used successfully without alteration ”.
The new system for logistic can categorized into two ways. The first is the value-added distribution. The value-added distribution system is a scheme used to increase the flexibleness and virtuousness direction, better the bringing clip to market, cut down any complexness in logistics direction. Value-added system helps in stuff planning, buying, warehousing and logistics activities. VAD plan provides the betterment in supply concatenation public presentation. The VAD plan involves the construct of pull fabrication, with distributor-staffed, on-site service and bringing of constituent. ( Aghazadeh, 2004 )
Harmonizing to Aghazadeh ( 2004 ), the uninterrupted refilling system has been used by nutrient retail industry- Wal-Mart to better their logistic operation. Now, the system is seeking to present to the nutrient industry. In this system, the electronic informations interchange ( EDI ) is utilizing into their uninterrupted refilling system. The intentionally is to assist makers easy cover with their providers through computing machine. This system involves the construct of Just-In-time. It can assist makers to salvage the cost, clip.
Furthermore, another effectual ways to work out the job and better supply concatenation operation is outsourcing. Nowadays, many fabricating industries have been increase the outsourcing of internal and external activities in their houses. Many internal activities of house are dependence upon on external supplier. This is because the house may take part in assorted development of merchandise and depend upon on different type of engineerings help in construct up the complexness of merchandise ( Svensson, 2001 ). Outsourcing is aid to do certain the merchandise can bringing as the clip promise to client or purchasers.
In add-on, the job of uncertainness and perturbation on stuffs and constituents in supply concatenation need the effectual ways to better it. The effectual ways to better is redesign schemes. There have three dimension and features of redesigned supply concatenation procedures. There are work redesign features, information features, and authorization redesign features. In the work redesign features ; there are several of import features such as ( Hewitt, 1994 ) :
Widened squad based on activity-set-overall.
Flexibility and responsiveness demand thrust work pattern design.
Feedback loops drive variable activity in mass customizes attack.
Besides that, the features involve into information redesign features are ( Hewitt, 1994 ) :
New combination of informations support new work ways.
Concurrent instead than consecutive determination support is the basic norm.
Information is a corporate plus.
Furthermore, the authorization redesign features are affecting the features seem like below ( Hewitt, 1994 ) :
Customer focused determination doing prevail.
Corporate aims drive wages system.
Front line is venue of authorization.
2.5 Size and Each Phase of Supply Chain
The size of company will acquire a large influence to provide concatenation. It will act upon the house ‘s schemes behaviour. Harmonizing to Garcia Perez, Angeles Sanfiel Fumero, and Rodriguez ( 2006 ), big companies will account for effectual portion to market portion. Meanwhile, the little and average size company whose merchandises are chiefly sold in local markets. The little and moderate-sized companies have a best lacks in resource if comparison with the big organizational. However, little and moderate-sized companies hapless and weak into the placement of their merchandises in the market. In add-on, big companies aim to accomplish a strong and robustness construction by chiefly affect the amalgamation or engagement in or with other companies ( Garcia Perez, Angeles Sanfiel Fumero, & A ; Rodriguez, 2006 )
Besides that, each phase of supply concatenation besides playing an of import function in supply concatenation. The supply concatenation fundamentally have four phases, there are be aftering, beginning, production, and bringing. At the first phase of supply chain- planning, makers will used the prognosis method such as traveling norm and simple exponential smoothing to mensurate the demand of client and beginning ( Chae, 2009 ). Besides that, makers besides panning the rhythm clip in hebdomadal, and monthly.
At the phase of beginning, makers are get downing to take and order the natural stuff. The elements need to see by makers are vendor lead clip, seller fill rate, car buying order rate, and material quality. For the stuff and beginning planning, makers need to have an truth information of buying, such as measure of stuff demand in production, due day of the month of receive the beginning. Nowadays, many makers are utilizing the material demand planning system ( MRP ) into brand certain the measure of stuff needed by following stage- production ( Chae, 2009 ).
In the phase of production, makers must accomplish the on clip production for the better public presentation in supply concatenation. Besides that, there are two methods used by makers in their production phase. The on clip going from fabrication and order fill rates are usage in the production phase in supply concatenation ( Chae, 2009 ).
The last phase of supply concatenation is bringing. It is of import to fast bringing to purchasers. Harmonizing to Chae ( 2009 ), the fast and dependable merchandise bringing is of import for client satisfaction. Companies must calculate out the existent clip of reaching and estimation clip of reaching. This is because they need to calculate out the clip while utilizing different transit and do certain it can on clip deliver to purchasers or clients.