The Tweentieth Century and Essay

Chapter 1: Musical Styles * Glissando * Rapid slide up or down a scale * Tone Cluster * Chord made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart, used in twentieth-century music. * Bitonality * Approach to pitch organization using two keys at one time, often found in twentieth century music. * Polychord * Combination of two chords sounded at the same tine, used in twentieth century music. * Polytonality * Approach to pitch organization using two or more keys at one time, often found in twentieth century music. Atonality * Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much twentieth century music. * Polyrhythm * Use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time, often found in twentieth century music and the music of sub-Saharan Africa. * Ostinato * Motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch, used in twentieth century music to stabilize a group of pitches. * Fourth chord * Chord in which the tones are a fourth apart, instead of a third, used in twentieth century music.

Using the websites provided above, answer the following questions: Select three modern composers of your choice and answer the following questions concerning their background and music: * What social and or political events did the artist witness during his or her lifetime? * How did these events influence their philosophy and composition? * How did the mass media and consumer culture influence the dissemination of their work? * In what ways is free jazz similar to modern classical composition? How does it depart from traditional jazz? * sfksdj Chapter 2: Music and Musicians in Society Mass media was used as a form of propaganda in both world wars. What role did music play in propaganda efforts? * How did the world wars affect the lives of musicians in Europe and America? * Compare the challenges facing modern composers in the 20th century to those of past eras. * Give evidence of shifting attitudes towards race, class and gender in the musical culture of the 20th century. How does this compare to past eras? * What differences in attitude towards race, class and gender are evident in the musical culture of the 20th century? How does this compare to past eras? kjdfjsl * Df Chapter 3: Impressionism and Symbolism * Describe the life and works of three artists and writers from the Impressionist period. * What philosophies and approaches did they share with musicians? * What historic factors lead to such a cohesive movement in art, literature and music? * Dkfsk’ Chapter 4: Claude Debussy Listen to Debussy’s Prelude a` L`Apres-midi d`un Faune then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions: * This music, after the poem by Mallarme, refers to the thoughts and dreams of a pagan forest creature * True The listener can hear the entire orchestra throughout this musical work. * False * The entire orchestra only rarely can be heard at one time * The three sections of this work can be represented as ABC * False * This work is in ABA form * An important difference between the first A section and the second A section is tone color * True * This work has been described as a quiet revolution in music * True * Impressionism * Musical style (flourished 1890-1920) which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy. Pentatonic scale * Scale made up of five different tones, used in folk music and music of the Far East. * Whole-tone scale * Scale made up of six different tones, each a whole step away from the next, which conveys no definite sense of tonality; often found in the music of Debussy and his followers. * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 5: Neoclassicism * Neoclassicism Musical style marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity, inspired by the forms and stylistic features of eighteenth century music, found in many works from 1920 to 1950. * How did Neoclassicism combine elements of the classical period with the Modern period? * Describe the confluence of styles that resulted in Igor Stravinsky’s version of neoclassicism. * Describe Hindemith’s The Craft of Musical composition. * Describe Hindemith’s public performances. * Why did Paul Hindemith move to the United States? Chapter 6: Igor Stravinsky

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Listen to Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du Printemps, Part I: Introduction, Omens of Spring – Dances of the Youths and Maidens, Ritual of Abduction then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions: * The melodies of the The Rite of Spring are folklike, with * Narrow ranges * Musical fragments * Repeated chords * All of the above * The theme in the introduction is a fragment of a * Lithuanian folk tune * The polychord that opens the Dances of the Youths and Maidens is so called because it is * A combination of two chords at once. The Ritual of Abduction features * Changing meters * Virtuosic instrumental passages * Strong percussion * All of the above * The Rite of Spring is a primitivist evocation of * A solemn pagan rite in which a young girl dances herself to death. * Primitivism * Evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds. * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 7: Expressionism * Expressionism Musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion and harsh dissonance, typical of German and Austrian music of the early twentieth century. * Describe the life and works of three artists and writers from the Expressionist period. * What philosophies and approaches did they share with musicians of the time? * What historic factors led to such a cohesive movement in art, literature and music? * Gkfdgj Chapter 8: Arnold Schoenberg Listen to Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot), No. 1, Mondestrunken (Moondrunk) then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions. Pierrot Lunaire “Mondenstrunken” can be found on CD4, track 24 of the 4-CD set that accompanies textbook. ) * Pierrot is a tragic clown character derived from European theater. * True * Moondrunk is scored for voice, piano, flute, violin, cello, and percussion. * False (this work is scored for all of the above excepting percussion) * No repletion occurs in this innovative work * False (Several motives are repeated. ) * Moondrunk is a serialist work * False (Moondrunk is freely atonal. * This work begins with the piano, and ends with piano and flute. * True * Atonality Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much twentieth century music. * Twelve-tone system * Method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones (tone row or set); developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s. * Sprechstimme * In German, speech-voice; a style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing, typical of Schoenberg and his followers. * Tone row (set, series) * Particular ordering of the twelve chromatic tones, from which all pitches in a twelve tone composition are derived. * Where was this artist born and educated? Who were his contemporaties? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 9:Alban Berg * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 10: Anton Webern Listen to Webern’s Third Piece from Five Pieces for Orchestra then indicate the best answers for each of the following questions: * Five Pieces for Orchestra was composed with twelve-tone technique. * False * The instrumentation includes mandolin, guitar, and cowbells. True * Our listening example is extremely loud and energetic. * False * The dynamics in this example never rise above pp. * True * Some of the notes in this work are relatively unimportant. * False * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 11: B? la Bart? k Listen to Bartok’s Concerto for Orchestra, Second Movement: Game of Pairs (Allegretto scherzando) then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions: * Bartok’s Concerto for Orchestra Is his most popular work * Received its title because it was written for an orchestra of virtuosi. * Is romantic in sprint because of its emotional intensity and memorable themes. * All of the above * Concerto for Orchestra is in ______ form. * ABA * This concerto is an example of Bartok’s * Late style. * The five wind duos in the A section of this work appear in the following order: * Bassoons, oboes, clarinets, flutes, and trumpets. * During the B section of this work, the snare drum * Still is without snares. * Where was this artist born and educated? Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 12: Charles Ives * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 13: George Gershwin * George Gershwin’s compositional style bridges which two musical generes? * Describe Gershwin’s main musical influences. * Describe George Gershwin’s public performances. Rhapsody in Blue has a fascinating history. Describe the origin of this important work. * Did audiences originally receive George Gershwin’s “American opera” enthusiastically. Chapter 14: William Grant Still Listen to Still’s Afro-American Symphony, Third movement: Animato then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions. * Regarding the blues theme that appears throughout this symphony, still said he “wanted to demonstrate that the blues, so often considered a lowly expression, could be elevated to the highest musical level. * True The Afro-American symphony was composed and first performed in 1964 * False ( This symphony was composed n 1930 and first performed in 1931) * The third movement is subtitled, “Humor. ” * True * The banjo can first be heard in the second melody of this movement. * False * Although both thematic melodies in this movement are syncopated, the first melody is more so * True * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? * What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 15: Aaron Copland

Listen to Copland’s Appalachian spring, section 7: theme and variations on simple gifts then match the following variation number with the musical descriptions (Appalachian spring, section 7: theme and variations on simple gifts can be found on CD , track 41 of the 4cd set that accompanies the textbook. ):: * Oboe and bassoon and strings * Variation 1 * Full orchestra, first part of theme * Variation 5 * Clarinet * Theme * Trumpets and trombones * Variations 3 * Woodwinds, second part of * Variation 4 * Where was this artist born and educated? * Who were his contemporaries? What were his most important musical pieces? * What were his most important musical accomplishments? Chapter 16: Musical Styles since 1945 * Serialism * Method of composing which uses an ordered group of musical elements to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color, as well as pitch, developed in the mid twentieth century. * Minimalist music * Music characterized by steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patters, its dynamic level, texture, and harmony tend to stay constant for fairly long stretches of time, creating a trancelike or hypnotic effect, developed in the 1960s. Quotation music * Works which make extensive use of quotations from earlier music, common since the mid 1960s. * Chance music (aleatoric music) * Music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone color and rhythms, developed in the 1950s by John cage and others. * Microtone * Interval smaller than a half step. * Compare “indeterminism” and serialism” How are they opposite approaches to creating music? * What impact does electronic music in elite compositional culture have on approaches to popular music? * What is a theramin? Give examples of contemporary recordings of the instrument. How did john cage define “open minded? Chapter 17: Music since 1945: Four Representative pieces Listen to the following musical pieces then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions: Cage, Sonata II (Sonata II (3667. ok)) Varese, Poeme electronique (Electronic poem) (Poeme electronique can be found on CD 4, track49 of the 4CD set that accompanies the textbook) Zwilich, concerto Grosso 1985 (Concerto Grosso 1985 can be found on CD 4, track 51 of the 4 CD set that accompanies the textbook) Adams, Short ride in a fast machine (short ride in a fast machine (6109. k) * Cage’s sonata II is in AABB form * True * Sonata II blends prepared sounds with typical piano sounds, * True * Poeme electronique was created in a tape studio for the 1958 Brussels world Fair. * True * Forty loudspeakers were used to project Poeme electronique pavilion at the world Fair. * False * Of Concerto Grosso 11985, Zwilich said, “I found myself using compositional techniques typical of the baroque period.. ” * True * In concerto Grosso 1985, the Handel quote is inaudible because it is accompanied by so much atonal music. False ( the Handel quote is quite recognizable, and it is not accompanied by atonal music. * The tempo indication for Adams’ Short Ride in a Fast machine is delirando (deliriously) * True * Short Ride in a Fast machine is critically acclaimed but rarely performed. * False * The orchestra in a short ride in a fast machine includes two synthesizers and a variety of percussion instruments. * True * What is meant by the term “chance music”? * Define minimalism and cite examples of composers who employ it as a compositional strategy. * What is serialism? Describe Edgar Varese’s interest in expanding the traditional instrumentation of the orchestra and give examples/instrumentations from his repertoire of works. * Describe how these stylistic approaches are at play in the artiest examples listed above. Chapter 18: Jazz Listen to Smith’s Lost your head blues then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions. (Lost your Head blues can be found on CD 4 track 57 of the 4 CD set that accompanies the textbook) * The structure of each verse of this and most others blues songs can be described as AAB. * True Lost your Head Blues is accompanied by cornet and piano. * True * The words to this song are about a love story with a happy ending. * False (The song is about unrequited love. * The term blue notes refer to notes that especially sad. * False (Blue notes refers to microtonal shadings and slides between pitches. * Listen to Louis Armstrong and His Hot five’s Hotter than that then match the following chorus number with the musical descritptions. Hotter than that can be found on CD 4 track 58 of the 4 CD set that accompanies the textbook. ) * Clarinet solo * * Trumpet guitar * * Accompanied trumpet solo * Vocal solo with scat singing * * Muted trombone solo * * Jazz * Music rooted in improvisation and characterized by syncopated rhythm a steady beat, and distinctive tone colors and performance techniques. * Call and Response * When a voice is answered by an instrument or when one instrument ( or group of instrument) is answered by another instrument ( or group). * Rhythm section * Adds rhythmic interest and provides supporting harmonies. Consists of piano, bass, tuba, percussion and sometimes banjo or guitar. * Chorus * Statement of basic harmonic pattern or melody. * Swing Steady beat with a feeling of lift, precision, and relaxed vitality. * Ragtime * Style of composed piano music, generally in duple meter with a moderate march tempo, in which the pianist’s right hand plays a highly syncopated melody while the left hand maintains the beat with an ioom pahi accompaniment. Ragtime was developed primarily by African American pianists and flourished from the 1890s to about 1915. * Blues * Term referring both to a style of performance and to a form; and early source of jazz, characterized by flatted, or iblue, inotes in the scale, vocal blues consist of 3 line stanzas in the form a a_b. 12 bar blues * In vocal blues and jazz, a harmonic, framework that is 12 bars in length usually involving only three basic chords: tonic (i), subdominant (IV) and dominant (V). * Subdominant * Fourth note (fa) of the scale, or the triad (chord) based on this note. * Dixieland jazz * Jazz style originating in New Orleans, in which the front line, or melodic instruments, improvises several contrasting melodic lines at once, supported bu a rhythm section that clearly marks the beat and provides a background of chords; usually based on a march or church melody, a ragtime piece, a popular song or 12 bar blues. * Front line In New Orleans or Dixieland Jazz, the group of melodic instruments which improvise on a melody, supported by the rhythm section. * Break * In Jazz, a brief unaccompanied solo. * Swing band * Typically a large band made up of fourteen or fifteen musicians grouped in three sections: saxophones, brasses, and rhythm. They play swing, a jazz style (see above) * Riff * In jazz, a short repeated phrase that may be an accompaniment or a melody. * Bebop (bop) * Complex jazz style, usually for small groups, developed in the 1940s and meant for attentive listening rather than dancing. * Bop * See bebop * Cool jazz Jazz style related to bebop, but more relaxed in character and relying more heavily on arrangements; developed around 1950. * Free jazz * Jazz style that departs from traditional jazz in not being based on regular forms and established chord patterns, developed during the 1960s. * Jazz rock (fusion) * Style that combines the jazz musicianis improvisatory approach with rock rhythms and tone colors, developed in the 1960s. * Fusion * See jazz rock * Describe the roots of jazz. * Describe the musical elements of jazz. * What role do you believe jazz has played in contributing to a diverse society? Chapter 19: Music for Stage and Screen

Listen to Bernstein’s Tonight Ensemble from west side story then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions. * For west side story, Bernstein hoped to tell a tragic strory. * Set in the slums of New York * Based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet * Using musical comedy technique * All of the above * West side story was * A tremendous success. * West side story was written in which of the following styles? * Vaudeville * Latin * Bebop * All of the above * The different performers appear in the Tonight Ensemble in which of the following orders? * Bernardo and gangs, Tony Anita and Maria * The Tonight Ensemble is accompanied by A traditional orchestra * Describe the origins of American Musical Theater. * Describe the stylistic and structural elements of the Musical. * In what way was Show Boat revolutionary? Chapter 20: Rock * Rock * Vocal music with a hard driving beat, often featuring electric guitar accompaniment and heavily amplified sound. * How have TV, radio, and the net influenced the popularity of Rock and Roll? * In your opinion has Rock and Roll contributed to or inhibited cultural diversity? Defend your answer, citing examples in the US and abroad. * Give example of crossovers. * Kfds * Ks * Dfksf * Lfkds * Lfkds * Fkf * Fsd * Fdkffk * sf

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