Simon Overland is the current and twentieth Chief Commissioner of the Victoria Police ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) . Overland rose to the rank of Chief Commissioner of Victoria Police in March 2009 after get downing his patroling calling in 1984 and undergoing periods as a Constable, Superintendent, policy advisor, Chief Operating Officer, Assistant Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner in a figure of constabulary administrations throughout Australia. As the top-ranked Victorian constabulary officer, it is Overland ‘s responsibility to ease and supervise the whole of the Victorian constabulary force and its members. Appointed by the State Government, Overland is the most senior individual at Victoria Police and is to the full accountable for its operations at all times ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) .
Under Overland, the Victoria Police ‘s map is to supply a 24-hour policing service to the Victorian community. Its occupation is to lend to a high quality of life to all persons and strengthen the cultural and economic well-being of all Victorians by guaranting safety and security throughout society. Its schemes include cut downing offense, increasing route safety, and keeping harmonious relationships with the community at big ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) .
Overland ‘s Leadership Style
The nature of Overland ‘s place and the type of aims pursued by the constabulary administration entail a strong accent on public presentation and undertaking achievement ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) , taking to the manifestation of a task-oriented manner of leading. Due to the progressively high value of personal security and the importance of safety, as perceived by people in general ( Stephenson, 2009 ) , constabularies are expected to execute their responsibilities and undertakings of protecting that sense of safety to a high grade of satisfaction. Therefore, Overland has a strong committedness and thrust towards carry throughing chief aims such as cut downing high volume offenses like larceny from motor vehicles and assaults ( Overland, 2009 ) . Overland ‘s primary concern to guarantee that members of the constabulary force strive to accomplish its marks and execute at a high degree illustrates a task-oriented quality to his leading ( Waddell, Devine, Jones, George, 2007 ) .
Furthermore, The Victoria Police, under Overland, aims to develop the accomplishments and capablenesss of its members through an extended instruction and preparation government ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) with the intent of prosecuting the committedness of its employees. This is to fix them for the extraordinary and unknown challenges and undertakings that await them in the universe of jurisprudence enforcement and protecting the safety of the community. “ Victoria Police encourages the on-going acquisition and development of its members, with many in-house preparation classs available to employees ” ( Victoria Police, 2010 ) . Training involves jurisprudence and policing processs, communicating accomplishments, calculating, drills, H2O safety, defensive tactics, pieces, and physical instruction ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) . Overland ‘s dedication to developing and constructing the capacity and competency of constabularies force members, whilst raising a high degree of committedness, exemplifies his disposition towards an piquant manner of leading ( Dulewicz, Higgs, 2004 ) .
Additionally, Overland ‘s purpose to look after the involvements of employees every bit good as the administration as a whole reflects a paternalistic leading manner inclination ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . The morale and satisfaction of members of the constabulary force is kept high to guarantee the highest degrees of attempt and public presentation ( Tomazin, 2010 ) . To exemplify, police staff are rewarded with sensible wage and benefits such as leave entitlements and work-life flexibleness ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) . The abrasion rate within the constabulary force of less than 4 per cent a twelvemonth is a solid and sound indicant of the strong devotedness towards morale and thrust within the force ( Tomazin, 2010 ) . The employee-oriented direction attack shown by Overland is a testament to his paternalistic sense of leading ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .
Finally, with Overland at the helm, the constabulary force remains a extremely autocratic administration, engulfed in bureaucratism ( The Age, 2010 ) . The bureaucratic features of the constabulary force allows for effectivity, efficient allotment of resources and supervising of forces ( Cole et. Al, 2008 ) . For case, Victoria Police has a rigorous hierarchy of authorization provided through its ranking system, from Constable up to Chief Commissioner, where publicity is based on virtue ( Victoria Police, 2010 ) . The force besides divides labor into sections such as Traffic and Transit, Forensic services, and offense bar ( Victoria Police, 2008 ) , and besides upholds rigorous attachment to formal regulations and processs, shown by its rigorous preparation, making and promotional requirements ( Victoria Police, 2010 ) . The division of labor, hierarchy, formal regulations and processs, and publicity based on virtue are all typical features of a bureaucratism ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) .
Leadership Style Advantages
Task-oriented leaders, like Overland, are most effectual when organizational situational features such as leader-member dealingss, undertaking construction and place power are at utmost terminals of the graduated table ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . As the chief focal point of an administration to execute extremely supersedes the option of set uping strong relationships, in unusual and unsure times, it is more likely to digest the adversities more successfully ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . For illustration, if a leader ‘s subsidiaries do non like or swear the leader ( hapless leader-member dealingss ) , the undertakings are complex ( low undertaking construction ) and the leader has minimal control over wagess and penalties ( weak place power ) , it may be more appropriate and effectual for the leader to be focused on accomplishing undertakings at manus instead than seeking to develop good relationships with his/her staff ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . Task-oriented leaders are more advantageous in more acute organizational state of affairss.
Prosecuting leaders are more good to administrations that are capable to rapid alteration and instability ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) . The burden on administrations to construct and develop the capablenesss and competency of its employees better equips them for a greater assortment of challenges and undertakings that they may be required to confront ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) . This is peculiarly of import for members of the constabulary force, due to the significance of their responsibility to protect the safety of society, the broad scope of undertakings they are expected to execute and the continually altering environment in which we live ( Victoria Police, 2009 ) . Administrations that experience great volatility and wide-ranging challenges require a broader scope of accomplishments and capablenesss, which may be nurtured through prosecuting leading ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) .
Paternalistic leading has its advantages in the modern organizational scene. This manner of leading, strongly based on consideration ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) , engenders employee trueness and leads to take down employee turnover ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . A lower staff turnover degree indicates higher morale among organizational members, taking to higher public presentation degrees, care of its base of experience and lower enlisting and preparation costs ( MCB UP, 2002 ) . The low one-year abrasion rate in the Victoria Police of around 4 per cent ( Tomazin, 2010 ) reflects how its paternalistic manner of leading, through a battalion of employment benefits, has lead to high morale and satisfaction degrees. The high degree of trueness and morale prevalent in the Victoria Police reflects the benefits of a paternalistic manner of leading.
The features of a bureaucratic leading provide certain advantages for administrations in today ‘s environment ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . When administrations implement bureaucratic rules such as division of labor, hierarchy of authorization, formal regulations and processs and publicity and choice based on virtue, their public presentation will better ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . By set uping regulations, standard operating processs, and stipulating places within an administration, directors find it easier to organize and command the work of subsidiaries and more efficaciously accomplish undertakings ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . In add-on, just choice and publicity systems improve the sense of security, emphasis degrees, and moralss to foster the public presentation of an administration ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . In the Victoria Police, “ The Victoria Police Manual ” is a comprehensive usher to processs that guarantee the effectivity and efficiency of policing ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . Overall, the employment of bureaucratism has the potency to better organizational operation ( Waddell et al. , 2007 )
Leadership Style Disadvantages
A task-oriented manner of leading has its disadvantages in some state of affairss ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . When a leader of an administration is chiefly focused on executing undertakings to a high criterion, the quality of interpersonal relationships may endure ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . For peculiar state of affairss, particularly when employees thrive on edifice strong interpersonal relationships, this may take to stand in possible accomplishment ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . For illustration, Lawrence Fish, a relationship-oriented leader, led his administration to treble its size in three old ages whilst admiting the importance of good relationships ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . Some state of affairss call for an option to a task-oriented leading mode to boom and win.
An piquant leading manner besides has drawbacks in certain organizational environments ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) . It is less effectual and less common in comparatively simple and straightforward contexts in which a leader sets a way and delivers clearly understood consequences ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) . Due to the comparative stableness and predictability of some environments, less employee liberty and competence is required, whilst more leader way is needed to accomplish cardinal aims and to achieve the coveted public presentation degree ( Dulewicz et al. , 2004 ) . For case, a mill worker with a little figure of insistent undertakings requires less preparation and more directing towards the ends that need to be achieved to guarantee higher public presentation. On the other manus, a police officer may meet a broad scope of issues while on responsibility and will necessitate to trust more on their preparation and capablenesss instead than direct orders from a superior officer ( Victoria Police, 2010 ) . Therefore, there is less leading accent on preparation and development in simple and straightforward environments. Although an piquant manner of leading is utile in certain state of affairss, it may radiate failing in stable and non-volatile contexts ( Dulewicz et al. , 2010 ) .
Paternalistic leading may besides exhibit negative facets. When subordinates become accustomed to having way from their higher-ups, they may go overly dependant on their leaders and necessitate more supervising ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) , ensuing in higher costs. Furthermore, supervising can be damaging to administrations when subsidiaries are independent minds and work best when left entirely ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . The deficiency of low-level engagement in the decision-making procedure may hold a negative impact on the willingness and motive of workers, ensuing in low productiveness ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . The autocratic nature of paternalistic leading may be a disadvantage to administrations.
Bureaucracy frequently has a negative stereotype and is frequently considered a limitation to the growing and development of an administration ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . It entails slow and inefficient decision-making due to its rigorous attachment to regulations and processs and hierarchy of authorization, known as ‘red-tape ‘ ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . Bureaucracies are besides less able to get by with alteration and volatility in the concern environment due to their deficiency of flexibleness and rigorous trust on regulations ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . In add-on, it deters creativeness and invention ( Waddell et al. , 2007 ) . Bachelard describes bureaucratism as “ the dead handaˆ¦bearing down to forestall important cultural alterations from taking topographic point ” ( Bachelard, 2010 ) whilst noticing on the inefficiency and ineffectualness of the Bushfire Royal Commission. As a consequence of all these features, bureaucratism can harm an administration.
Christine Nixon is a girl of a police officer. She was Chief Commissioner of Victoria Police between 23 April 2001 and 27 February 2009 taking 14,000 staff, who operates across more than 500 locations.A She oversaw a budget of $ 1.7 billion and she was the first female Governor ( Linnell, 2010 ) . When she was appointed, she said she may confront opposition in some quarters but bettering constabularies morale will be a precedence. After go forthing Victoria Police, Nixon took on duty for the Victorian Bushfire Reconstruction and Recovery Authority.
Christine Nixon Leadership Style
Christine Nixon was frequently described more as a administrative official and politician than police matron. Most of her calling had been spent in instruction and human resources. In my sentiment, the direction of Christine Nixon belongs to people-oriented leading. This is the antonym of task-oriented leading.
After she was appointed to be the Chief Commissioner of the Victoria Police, Christine tried to do a difference for adult females. So she set an ambitious plan to well increase the ratio of female Victoria Police officers. Female are able to be the constabulary excessively. Christine Nixon would frequently state constabularies used “ their encephalons, pepper spray and wands in bash and other confrontations, non their size, age or gender ” ( Christine Nixon, 2010 ) . Some position had stand up with the position that policing was, is and will be a profession and calling that encourages, respects and utilizes the strengths of adult females. And while Nixon scrapped many of the alleged obstructions such as age, tallness and weight limitations which prevented adult females from fall ining Victoria Police. In fact, adult females, on norm, scored higher than work forces in the choice procedure. Under her usher, the most of people bit by bit realized that patroling – in basic footings – was a adult male ‘s sphere was out of manner.
For her insisting it had a existent committedness to domestic force issues in the constabulary, to child maltreatment issues and to convey them out and holding them cover with far better than they had been. And she besides focused on instruction of the kid.
Christine Nixon has an unfastened head, and she respects the life people choose. For case, Nixon is heterosexual but joined the gay-pride March to show her support for homosexual and sapphic causes, saying “ What I ‘m making is back uping nice and sensible people who want to acquire on with their lives, and they have been treated appallingly antecedently by the Police, and I ‘m prepared to make something about it. And if it ‘s a little symbol of processing with them, so that would be a sensible thing to make. ” ( Nixon, 2010 )
With her lead, the relationship between citizen and the constabulary has become better. 85 % of the population trusts the constabulary now, which is astonishing.
Leadership Style Advantage
With people-oriented leading, leaders are wholly focused on forming, back uping, and developing the people in their squads ( Foti & A ; Hauenstein, 2007 ) . It ‘s a participative manner, and it tends to promote good teamwork and originative coaction. Using this manner is non a mark of failing, but a mark of strength. And it means that your employees are respectable. It makes everyone in the group feel that they are one portion of the squad. What is more, it allows the leader to do better determinations.
Bureaucracy bloomed under Christine Nixon. In this manner, Nixon, two deputy commissioners, executive manager, main information officer and her personal media advisor, they met either one time a hebdomad or two weeks. Its intent was to supply advice to the six standing commissions above and way to senior staff in relation to important issues.
The whole choice procedure for the deputy functions was typical of Christine Nixon ‘s reign. The helper commissioners were given an chance one by one to pass two or three months moving in the function, settling on Walsh and Overland.
People-oriented leaders know their employees ‘ strengths and failings and they place people in places harmonizing to them in order to take advantage of the positive features. The people-oriented leaders, who are besides technically competent in their occupations, inspire their members besides. These leaders are frequently the grounds why people remain loyal to an organisation. Great leaders know what the mission is and they know how to carry through it. And they besides know that the key to accomplishing ends and carry throughing undertakings is the people they supervise.
It creates a squad environment based on trust and regard, which leads to high satisfaction and motive and, as a consequence, high effectual.
Leadership Style Disadvantages
The people-oriented leading can be slippery because some squad members can be leery of the leaders fearing use and/or development. If the squad is deficiency of trust and good will, it is difficult to maintain traveling on.
Under Nixon, undertakings were frequently left to turn over along for non adequate robust answerability. In fact, a reappraisal of bing undertakings at the clip made some damnatory decisions. In fact, there were excessively many undertakings. A big figure had fallen so far behind agenda they were deemed important investing hazards.
Throughout the 2000s, there was a scope of counter-terrorism commissions to take portion in. These things made people tired easy, and they would wish to do a breath. In her direction, she took all duty off from her two deputies. So the deputies were paid more yet had no direct duty. It became a running gag.
The directions are presented with two apparently incompatible leading manners. One of them is older called “ command-and-control ” . The other is a sort of milk-and-water version ( Bens,2006 ) , with the sense of personal duty wholly removed, but with the stirring personal testimonies and exhortations left in.
To construct this leading, it needs the leader to pass much attempt and clip to do people swear each other. And because it bases on the trust and regard between people, so it truly really easy to do the work environment excessively relaxed and merriment that makes the tasks suffers due to miss of way and control.
Task-Oriented leaders, as Overland, focus merely on acquiring the occupation done,
and they can be rather bossy. The leaders believe that they get consequences by systematically maintaining people busy and pressing them to bring forth. And they actively define the work and the functions required, set constructions in topographic point, program, form, and proctor. But they do non believe much about the wellbeing of their squads, so it has troubles in motivation and retaining staff. But in facet of puting ends and pull offing undertakings, it does better than the latter.
People-oriented leaders, like Nixon, are concerned about the human demands of their employees. They build teamwork, assist employees with their jobs, and supply psychological support. They besides make staff experience warm and they are ever supportive in themselves. Compared to the task-oriented, they are more hand-off with respects to the undertakings.
Undertaking and relationship orientations are non additive process.The grounds shows that leaders who are considerate in their leading manner are higher performing artists and are more satisfied with their occupation ( Bens, 2006 ) . We must cognize that the two are opposite but independent of each other, therefore they should non be viewed on opposite terminals of a continuum. For case, a leader who becomes more considerate does non needfully intend that she has become less structured.
Leadership manner is the mode and attack of indicating to way, implementing programs, and actuating people. Although good leaders use all manners or some of them, but with one of them usually dominant, bad leaders tend to lodge with merely one manner.
Leaderships must be really clear about the end of their section. Or they must be clear about the ends that many competent persons must put for themselves and, thereby, the undertakings they must put for themselves.
Once the task-oriented has blocks and the members begin to take hazards by sharing information and speech production candidly about the undertaking, the leader can switch to a people orientation.
In pattern, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented manners of leading. And we must cognize that good leaders frequently switch instinctively between manners, harmonizing to the people they lead and the work they need to make. Establish common trust – that ‘s cardinal to this procedure – and retrieve to equilibrate the demands of the organisation against the demands of your squad.
This thesis inside informations two leadings by presenting two individuals who are working as the caput in the constabulary, Nikon and Overland. They are task-oriented and people-oriented. And it besides individually shows the advantages and disadvantages about the two different leading manners. At last, I compare the two manners and depict the differences and combinations between them. And so give a decision.
There are many methods to sort the leadings by different professors. In my thesis, I use the theory which portion leaderships into 10 manners. It includes bossy leading, bureaucratic leading, magnetic leading, democratic leading or participative leading, individualistic leading, people-oriented leading, servant leading, task-oriented leading, transactional leading, transformational leading. And I find much information of experience about the two individuals in order to definite their leadings. Then depict them by item. In this procedure, I quote many theories from other ‘s books or thesis ; I show my regard to them here. For this survey,