Background to the survey
Waste was an early job of world, and a turning one that is of major concern to every state of the universe ( Allende 2009 ) . In early pre-industrial times, waste coevals was non an issue as populations were smaller. Waste was disposed of in the land where it would turn to compost to better dirt birthrate. Waste direction became a turning job during the passage from mobile hunting and assemblage to farming. Before the industrial revolution, waste reuse and recycling were the major ways of waste direction ( Anon 2009 ) . However, as populations increased, particularly in major metropoliss and urban Centres, infinite for disposing waste became limited and people needed to look for new and better ways for disposing waste. In 400 BC, the first municipal garbage dump was created in ancient Athinais in Greece ( Anon 1998 ) .
Municipal solid waste direction ( MSWM ) is an & A ; lsquo ; of import entry point for incorporate urban direction support ( Schubeler 1996 ) ‘ . It refers to the aggregation, transportation, intervention, recycling and disposal of solid waste in urban Centres ( Schubeler 1996 ) . More specifically, it refers to that portion of the waste watercourse that is & A ; lsquo ; collected by, or on behalf of, local governments ( Waste Strategy, 2000 ) ‘ . The primary aim of waste direction is to give equal protection to the general populace and environment from harmful effects of waste ( Anon 2010 ) .
Municipal solid waste direction is a job that is experienced by all counties in the universe. It is an issue largely witnessed in urban countries as a consequence of high rush in population growing rate and addition in per capita income therefore presenting a danger to environmental quality and human wellness ( Javaheri 2006 ) . Because of its nature, it has remained one of the major environmental jobs adult male continues to face.
An probe into waste direction is now going progressively critical in developing states ( Kyessi and Mwakalinga, 2009 ) . Issam et Al. ( 2007 ) study that waste direction that has by and large been understudied in developing states is now having increasing attending in the literature. Municipal Solid Waste Management ( MSWM ) jobs have become more marked in recent old ages, as a consequence of unequal aggregation and disposal of wastes. In most metropoliss, wastes are non decently collected and where proper aggregation is ensured, merely a little fraction receives proper disposals ( Ayininuola and Muibi 2008 ) .
Solid waste direction has become a serious job in Nigerian metropoliss ( Akinola and Salami 2001 ) . The cragged tonss of solid waste that deface Nigerian metropoliss, and the uninterrupted discharge of industrial contaminations into watercourses and rivers without intervention motivated the Federal authorities of Nigeria to proclaim decree 58 for the constitution of a Federal Environmental Protection Agency ( FEPA ) on 30th December 1988. Despite the preparation of FEPA and national environmental policy, the environment has non been adequately protected with regard to solid waste coevals. Waste aggregation is irregular and restricted to certain countries in the metropoliss while improperly sited unfastened mopess deface several other countries thereby jeopardizing public wellness by promoting the spread of smell and disease, uncontrolled recycling of contaminated goods and pollution of H2O resources. Solid waste generated by an mean Nigerian per twenty-four hours is estimated to be about 0.49kg while commercial Centres and families contribute about 90 % of the entire wastes found in urban Centres ( Solomon 2009 ) .
Municipal authoritiess at local degrees besides formulated policies on solid waste direction. While some attempts are made to turn to this issue by organizing monthly environmental sanitation exercising, equal information about appropriate waste aggregation Centres are non normally available ( Lasisi 2009 ) . Sometimes the chief nonsubjective seems to be to acquire rid of solid waste in strategic topographic points, though this has non been efficaciously done as there are many illegal garbage dumps. It is clear that there is no equal program for proper waste aggregation and disposal ( Lasisi 2009 ) .
The disposal of waste has proved to be a major public wellness issue and a critical factor impacting the quality of the environment. This, particularly in Nigerian metropoliss has become one of the most intractable environmental jobs today. Municipal Solid Waste disposal is now a peculiarly distressing issue that can be likened to a & A ; lsquo ; monster ‘ gazing the governments in the face ( Kironde 1999 ) .
There are assorted techniques that are presently being used for solid waste direction. These include thermic intervention, biological intervention, landfilling and recycling ( Kontos et al. 2005 ) . Out of these, landfilling is the most common method used in many states ( Yesilnacar and Cetin 2005 ) . However, in today ‘s society, happening a site to turn up unwanted installations is going a important job. ( Erkut and Moran 1991 ) . Particularly, landfill siting is a large issue due to the prevalent & A ; lsquo ; non in my backyard ( NIMBY ) ‘ and & A ; lsquo ; non in anyone ‘s backyard ( NIABY ) ‘ concerns from the general populace ( Kao and Lin 1996 ) . Locating of landfill is now really indispensable because of the imperative nature of landfills due to population enlargement and the corresponding volume of refuse ( Or and Akgul 1994 ) .
Statement of job
In many Nigerian metropoliss, there has been a phenomenal addition in the volume and scope of wastes generated daily within the past few old ages ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) . This is due mostly to the increasing rates of population growing, urbanization, industrialization and general economic activities. In these metropoliss, the wont of dumping and disposing waste randomly has become the order of the twenty-four hours and a common pattern among inhabitants ( Sule 1982, Adedibu 1986, Solomon 2009 ) .
Ibadan North is the largest local authorities in Ibadan ( Ayininuola and Muibi 2008 ) . One of the chief jobs confronting the part is unfastened and indiscriminate dumping of garbage ( Omoleke, 2004 ) . Hemorrhoids of disintegrating refuse are found in strategic locations in the bosom of the metropolis. Wastes in such topographic points are evidently a beginning of air and H2O pollution, land taint and environmental debasement. Ayininuola and Muibi ( 2008 ) study that one of the factors responsible for hapless environmental conditions endangering public wellness and quality of life of urban inhabitants is hapless waste direction. The state of affairs of solid waste direction in this country has now called for a speedy action as it would look that many ends of the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) might non be achieved by 2015 since waste disposal affects some issues that the MDGs seek to turn to.
Justification of the survey
The environment in which adult male lives today is heading towards hazard as a consequence of improper waste disposal. & A ; lsquo ; Domestic, industrial and other wastes, whether they are of low or average degree are doing environmental pollution and have become perennial jobs for world ‘ ( Ramasamy et al. 2003 ) . Failure to decently manage this state of affairs in a timely mode can take to a more ruinous event. With the current degree of urbanization coupled with an absence of topographic points to dispose wastes decently, Ibadan North faces a great environmental job. This country is non the lone country being faced with the job of improper waste disposal but as there are a batch of alterations in day-to-day activities and operations throughout the assorted parts of the country, peculiarly in demographic enlargement, it has become necessary to look into the issue of waste disposal.
Since there is no equal proviso for proper waste direction and disposal system, it is hence imperative that a landfill installation for proper disposal be developed utilizing GIS. This is because landfilling is now accepted as the most widely used method for disposing solid waste as it is the most economical and environmentally acceptable method in all states of the universe ( Tchobanoglous et Al. 1993, Sumiani et Al. 2009 ) .
Aim and aims of the survey
The primary purpose of the survey is to place a suited site for the building of a solid waste landfill. The aims are to:
- Capture illegal garbage dumps and create transportation Stationss
- Allocate colonies to assorted transportation Stationss
- Create entree paths to reassign Stationss
- Determine the shortest and farthest transportation Stationss to landfill site
- Burdening standards to suggest the most suited site
It is targeted that the consequences achieved by this survey will assist policy shapers in Ibadan North Local Government Area find a suited site for roll uping and disposing wastes generated in the country and this will in bend aid in work outing the job of indiscriminate dumping as a consequence of absence of disposal sites which Nigeria as a state is being faced with ( Ogwueleka 2009 ) . As there is no survey presently that has explored how GIS and MCE can be applied in site choice for waste disposal. This work will trip up an interesting survey about the part of MCE to GIS in the country of landfill locating Nigerian metropoliss where waste disposal is presently an issue.
The survey country
Ibadan North Local Government Area is one of the five local authoritiess that make up the Ibadan city. This country covers wards from Beere roundabout through Oke-Are to Mokola in the South-West and Samonda to New Bodija in the South-East. The local authorities falls between latitude 7023’00 ” and 70 27’30 ” North and longitudes 3052’45 ” and 3056’00 ” East ( Figure 1 ) . It covers an country of 145.58km, which is about 46.6 % of the entire land country of the metropolis. This makes it the largest in Ibadan ( Faniran 1990 ) . It is besides the most populated local authorities country with an estimation population of 202,270 dwellers ( NPC 2006 ) .
Ibadan is the capital of Oyo State and Nigeria ‘s largest metropolis and the largest metropolis in tropical Africa. As the crow flies, it is 128 km nor’-east of Lagos and 345 kilometer sou’-west of Abuja, the federal capital. Since its establishing the metropolis has had rapid growing, both in country and in population. Harmonizing to 2006 population nose count in Nigeria, Ibadan North was estimated to hold 306,795 dwellers. The local authorities is characterised by big and little industries ( fabrication and agro allied industries ) ; families ; and commercial, educational spiritual and medical Centres, every bit good as other assorted types of establishments.