The modern industrial director is chiefly in charge of the commanding direction operations along with the direction of people and engineering in the industry. Whilst, by and large, as a director, he needs to cognize what motivates employees to travel to work every forenoon ; why some of the employees get great satisfaction from their work and several even take pride in it while others may detest their occupations. In this essay, some of the theories may explicate the phenomenon and show the accurate function of a modern industrial director.
In order to pull off human existences, the demand of employees should be known as a director. Maslow believed that the human existences have five go uping types of demands that they seek to fulfill or carry through within different environments ( Maslow 1999,39-40 ). At the underside of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of human demands is the basic physiological demand for nutrient, shelter and vesture. This sort of demand is the minimal criterions for human existences. Before a individual turns his attending to the higher order demand, these demands should be “ moderately satisfied ”.
Whilst a individual feels certain that the basic necessities such as nutrient and shelter were moderately plenty and he can guarantee that these points will non be taken off, he will come up to the demand for security, which refers to personal safety and warrant for wellness attention. After the two cardinal demands are satisfied, he will so turn his attending to a high degree demand that is societal relationships such as societal intercourse, friendly relationship, love and belonging. Human have a demand of a sense of belonging and a demand to portion personal experiences with others. However, this sort of demand is merely pursued while the lower demands have been achieved.
Above the demand of belonging, Maslow presents two signifiers of “ esteem ” demand. The first regard is the lower regard that is the demand for regard from one ‘s friends, or position ( 1998,23 ; Rowan 1998 ) . In add-on, the other regard, higher regard is self-esteem that is a sort of assurance and independent in which a individual may non concern as much other ‘s sentiments as the individual with lower regard.
At the top of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is self-actualization. It is a really complicated demand, nevertheless, it includes the construct of making one ‘s thorough potency. Furthermore, self-actualization provides a sense of originative satisfaction. When a individual reached this degree of Maslow ‘s hierarchy, the primary feature was innovativeness. Hence, the self-actualization people were far more likely to be originative, to seek the new replies of jobs than people at lower degree of the hierarchy ( Maslow 1790,170-71 ). As a consequence of these, the self-actualization represented the extremum of homo ‘s originative optional.
Among all these five degrees of human demands, the strength of the demands is in inauspicious to the degree of the demand, which means the higher the degree of demands is the less intensive homo ‘s want would be.
When a modern industrial director comprehends the demands of the employees, there are some of import deductions for direction. Harmonizing to the Maslow ‘s theory, there are chances to animate employees through direction method, company event, etc.
For those employees who are seeking for the bottom physiological demands, it is effectual to supply them a free tiffin and sensible rewards that are sufficient to buy the necessities of day-to-day life. While the trough can supply a safe working environment, retirement benefit and occupation security to fulfill those employees at the 2nd lowest degree of the hierarchy. After the employees feel safety about what they already have, it is basically of import for the director to make a sense of community due to team-based undertakings and some societal events. In add-on, the director should acknowledge the employees ‘ accomplishments to do employees experience appreciated and valued. Furthermore, in order to allow the employee reach the highest degree of Maslow ‘s theory, kinds of challenges and chances need to be provided.
However, non all the employees are satisfied with the same demands, different people may be motivated by wholly different facets. It is of import to understand the demand being sought. To actuate an employee, the director must be able to admit the degree that the employee is runing, and utilize matching methods as motive.
While Maslow ‘s hierarchy makes sense of the bulk people, there exist some specific theoretical accounts. For illustration, some civilizations appear to seek societal demands before any others. In add-on, the Maslow ‘s hierarchy barely can explicate the instance such as the “ starved creative person ” that a individual merely pursuit the highest 1s. To clear up the jobs of Maslow ‘s hierarchy, Clayton Alderfer developed the ERG theory. Unlike Maslow ‘s theory, directors must acknowledge that an employee has multiple demands to fulfill synchronal. Furthermore, the ERG theory illustrate that if a higher degree need remain unrealized, the individual may return to lower degree demands that appear easier to fulfill. As a consequence, if the director recognizes the state of affairs, so some stairss can be done to concentrate on related demands until the employees are able to seek growing once more.
In order to pull off the whole modern industry, the director should be besides familiar with the McGregor ‘s theory X-Y. Harmonizing to the theory X, the mean individual is lazy, unwilling to work and efforts to avoid it every bit much as possible, while the mean people besides have no aspiration and no duty, and nor care about the public presentation of the organisation. Therefore, they will try to defy any organisational alterations and non to be peculiarly advanced or intelligent. They work merely because they must work to acquire money and security. On the other manus, it besides appears that they are rather fleeceable and easy to pull strings. If the director operates the company based on the theory-X, he could take either a difficult, commanding attack or a soft persuasive attack.
The difficult attack depends on the tight managerial controls, coercion, inexplicit menaces and close supervising such as an environment of bid and control. In contrast, the soft attack is to pull strings employees with money and low degree of supervising, in an effort to get employee cooperation and sensible degrees of productiveness. However, neither of these extremes is optimum. The difficult attack consequences in ill will and opposition, whilst the soft attack will take to the ever-increasing petitions for wagess while working every bit small as possible. The optimum direction attack under theory-X likely would be the in-between point of these extremes, which weighs the advantages and disadvantages and do an appropriate pick. However, McGregor insists that the stating “ neither attack is optimum due to the premise of theory-X ” non rectify. He asserts that a bid and control environment is non effectual because it relies on lower demand as degrees of motive, nevertheless, in modern society, the abundant and inexpensive nutrient and much better societal safety cyberspaces, have already satisfied most of the physiological and security demands of people.
In the consequence, supplying pecuniary wagess and conveying even penalties would non actuate employees as their annoyance while being controlled. In effect, employee under theory-X will be given to be unwilling to work and to hold no involvement in the accomplishments of the organisation. As such, McGregor argued that theory-X was a self-fulfilling prognostication. From this attitude, McGregor proposed an alternate theory of direction, theory-Y.
In contrast to theory-X, theory-Y assumes that work can be every bit nature as drama and remainder. As such, the employees are ne’er wholly satisfied due to go on necessitate the higher-level demands of regard and self-actualization. Hence, they will actuate them to carry through their work undertakings, even more, they feel they will accomplish higher demands by conquer them. Furthermore, the employees will happen extra challenges and seek to work out them by the of course originative and advanced.
It is an of import circumstance that the McGregor ‘s theory-Y made such a rhythm to do sense, which the directors provides employee intriguing work, which motivate them to carry through, which allows directors to give them more absorbing challenges, hence carry throughing the higher degree esteem demands. Consequently, this rhythm allows the employees to near the self-actualization during the work. In add-on, as the self-actualization is a continually germinating demand, the employees will be motivated continuously throughout their period. Consequently, the directors can aline employee ‘s personal ends with the ends of the company that can actuate them to maxima invention. If such a system can be decently preformed, it would take to really high degree of motive. Furthermore, employees work even harder as the development of both personal demands and work satisfaction.
However, McGregor stressed that Theory-Y direction can non be seen as a soft attack as it is easy for people to pull strings the system by different ways like feigning to be demotivate or concealing the true motive. McGregor besides claimed that some employees may non make the well-developed phase assumed by theory-Y, as such, it may necessitate tighter controls every bit good as relax while the employee develops.
It is of import that McGregor did non take a firm stand that the theory Y was preferred to theory X. He held that both theories had virtue and direction attacks should non to be such a narrow position of motive.
In the same period when McGregor published the book The Human Sides of Enterprise, Frederick Herzberg published his findings that were which factors caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction in an employee ‘s work environment in the book The Motivation to Work. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explicate what he found. Herzberg held that company policy, supervising, relationship with foreman and equals, work conditions and wage would take employees to dissatisfaction. In an facet, accomplishment, acknowledgment, work itself, duty, promotion and growing would basically fulfill them. Herzberg mentioned that due to the different of factors that caused dissatisfaction or satisfaction, these two can non merely be treated as antonym of one another. Therefore, the antonym of satisfaction is no satisfaction, but non dissatisfaction.
Theoretically, Herzberg ‘s thought was that the two sets of factors are independent. Therefore, an employee perchance experience satisfied in a hapless on the job environment along with the extremely acknowledgment. However, these two sets of factors can non be regarded as wholly separated. It is really common like an employee ever bothered and unmotivated while working in an uncomfortable topographic point. Furthermore, if the employee loves the occupation, he may set all his attempts in that even in hapless on the job conditions. The ailments of employees can non be taken literally. With supplying a good external factor such as a delicious on the job status, it is even more of import to step in front to happen some other manner to acknowledge their attempts.
In decision, McGregor believed that the scientific direction attacks could profit from concentrating on the demand to actuate employees and besides from greater managerial control. He argued that both theory-X and theory-Y merely represented different terminals of a continuum of attacks. As a consequence of this, directors should non repair themselves to one terminal of the continuum.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy, theory X-Y, motivation-hygiene theory and other related direction theories, all of these can assist directors to take responsible for piecing and forming the assorted facets of production, including the employees, with the end to accomplish maximal economic benefit.