Thesis: Obesity and Products Essay

Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Scope Introduction/ Research Background For years, people have been trying to lose weight fast to achieve their ideal body image. Unfortunately, losing weight is a laborious process of regulating nutritional intake and performing various exercises for a long period of time in order to shave off excess fatty deposits and achieve the desired result. Recent discoveries in the biochemical and pharmaceutical departments found out ways to “trick” the body into metabolizing these excess fats and promote weight loss, hence slimming products were born.

There are many types of slimming products, pills, tea, and L-Carnitine containing products all promise quick ways to lose fat (McArthur, 1989). Consumers, especially teenagers, mostly women, who are extremely conscious, tend to choose slimming products in order to lose weight rather than losing it naturally with exercise and the right diet. During the teenage years and up to early adulthood is where peers become a big part of ones. This is where body image becomes critical; teens start to try to achieve in order to get the approval of their peers (Pilliteri, 1998).

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Looking good is important to get the sense of belongingness, and it takes time to achieve that result, hence in order to hasten the process, teens often look toward the direction of slimming products. Diet trends such as slimming products are popular now a day but can cause detrimental effects in the body since it is an unnatural way of losing weight. This is why this research paper is created in order to delve deeper in the issue of weight loss.

Being socially accepted is important to teens which can cause them to take desperate measures in order to achieve their ideal body image, which in turn can harm their bodies in a metabolic level, which leaves them victims for many bodily disorders. This research is going to investigate the effects of these slimming products in the body and what overdose can do to you, as well as what goes on in the mind of these young people that made them take these slimming products in a daily basis or in some cases over the recommended regimen.

Our group has taken this issue into hand since there are many overweight or obese young women in our campus who suffer socially due to their body image. The purpose of this paper is to find out the percentage of young women in FEU who are obese who take diet supplements in a regular basis and the reason why they take it. Hopefully, they read this research and somehow convince them that the fastest way out is not always the best way. We want to enlighten these people that a exercise and the right diet can give you confidence with your body image. Statement of the Problem

The research intends to prove that teenagers nowadays, especially girls, are most prevalent users of slimming/ weight loss products as substitute to lose weight easily and to attain their ideal body figure. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is obesity? 4. 1 What causes obesity? 2. What are the ways to lose weight? 2. 1 Which is the most effective? 2. 2 Which is the easiest? 2. 3 Which is the safest? 3. How Important is body image to adolescents? Why is it important to them? 4. What are Slimming Products? 4. What are the Kinds of Slimming Products? 4. 2 What are the good and bad effects of Slimming Products? 4. 3 What are its health risks? 5. What influences adolescents to use Slimming Products? Significance of the Study This research aims to give awareness to the people who patronized slimming products of what is short term and long term effects of dietary products, to know the implications for an individual’s susceptibility to decrease the incidence of those who are suffering from the side effects of using slimming products and to broaden the knowledge about different drugs that can be bused and its effects on behavior and decision-making of the user. And to the non-users, to give information about the effects of drugs and help understand and be aware of what dietary products are. Scope and Delimitations of the Study In this research, we use thirty (30) respondents as a sample in conducting our survey. The researchers believed that this number of respondents is enough to assess the validity and reliability of the study.

This study limits its coverage on teenagers, particularly girls, ages 18 years old and above and young adult women ages 30 years old and below because we believed that these age groups pay greater importance on body image/self-esteem in order to be socially accepted by their peers and considered as “in”. The purpose of the study is to prove that these age groups are more likely to use slimming/weight loss products as the best alternatives in capable to give best results fast in conjunction with a reduced calorie diet and regular physical exercise.

Each of the respondents is given same questionnaires to answer. Theoretical Framework The study deals with adolescent and young adult particularly women that constantly patronize slimming/weight loss products that extremely conscious to their body figure that tend to choose to use these products in order to lose weight rather that losing it in the natural way. During these times, females pay a great amount of importance on bodily aesthetics in order to be socially acceptable to their peers. According to Carlotta (2009), teenage girls are turning to drastic weight loss methods to lose weight.

Exploring the physical fitness and eating patterns among teenage girls has shown that more and more girls are obsessive about their weight. During the teenage years, physical activity considerably reduces, especially with girls. This theory explains that there are many teenage girls have being involving themselves to drastic measure to attain the slim body figures like their celebrities and supermodels idols. That’s why some teenagers at very early ages start using slimming products. In relation to our research, based on our observation, Teenagers at the present time are more conscious that ever particularly with girls.

They think that they would not be socially ‘accepted’ to their peers if they are overweight. In today’s world, women are constantly surrounded by images of young successful media presenters, actresses, and music-stars, who are presented as role models of women’s ‘post-feminist’ achievements, yet these ‘independent’ icons all represent a similar, media-generated, ‘idealized’ perspective of physical beauty (Jackie Guendouzi, 2004). Furthermore, they’ll do everything, whether good or bad, to achieve their desired body images and also to attract men more. Theoretical Model

Slimming/ Weight Loss Products Advertisement/ Media BAD GOOD Social Acceptance Self-Awareness Effects Slimming/ Weight Loss Products Examples Definition of Terms: 1. Adolescents – a particular stage of life very susceptible to accidents, diseases, and or injuries. They are the most adventurous, outgoing, love to try new things, and deviant group of people. It is a crucial and significant part of a person’s life for aside from the major changes taking place during this time, they also develop esteem, self-consciousness, and self-concept during this period. 2.

Self-consciousness – it is being mindful about how you are seen by others physically, sometimes even emotionally. It is also results in modifying your behaviour, appearance, traits, and beliefs to become accepted. 3. Conformity – the act of submitting oneself to change in order to follow preset standards of your chosen group. 4. Depression – an emotional state gone through by people who couldn’t handle pressure or problems. 5. Side effects -unexpected outcome of taking in substances which are bad for the health. 6. Peer pressure – the negative effect of friendship.

The pressure to adhere to what your friends believe in to become accepted. Chapter 2 Reviews of Related Literature and Studies This part of the paper consists of various related literature and studies about factors which brought teenagers to use slimming/weight loss products in order to lose fast regardless if it’s safe or not. It includes articles (both published and unpublished materials), books as well as internet sources. There is a plethora of literature in foreign texts than in local scene. Related Literature Self-Consciousness of Teenagers

Rosenberg (1979) claims that Adolescents, in latter years, are more likely than children to be self-conscious about and pre-occupied with their self-understanding in social isolation. Adolescents turn to their friends for support and self-clarification, including their friends’ opinions in their emerging self-definitions. As one researches on self-development commented, adolescent’s friends are often the main source of reflected self-appraisals, the social mirror into which adolescents anxiously stare (Rosenberg, 1979).

There had a longitudinal study found that from 13 to 18 years of age adolescents’ public self-consciousness (involving aspects of the visible self visible to others such as appearance, actions, and speech) remains reasonable powerful and stable from 13 to 16 years of age and then declined slightly in latter ages. Girls do revealed a greater public self-conscious that boys do. Private self consciousness, involving aspects of self-hidden from view such as thoughts, emotions and attitudes, is increased from 13 to 18 years old. Social Acceptance in Teenage Years To be accepted by a peer group is very important to an adolescent.

According to John W. Santock, when an adolescent is accepted by a peer group it could result into either pleasurable feelings or extreme stress and anxiety when excluded and disparaged by their peers. In terms of socio-emotional development, adolescents who are overweight are more likely than their normal weight counterparts to have lower self-esteem, be depressed, and have more problems with relationships with peers. (Irwin, 2004; Schwimmer, Burwinkle, Varni, 2003) In order to be accepted adolescents modify their behavior, how they dress, music, language, values, and leisure activities and so on.

This is called confirmation (Clasen & Brown, 1987). Obesity in Teenagers According to Helms (2006), Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems (Helms, 2006). Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.

This is one leading preventable causes of death worldwide, especially American teenagers, and it is continuously increasing every year. The cause of this is lack of physical exercise, and excessively eating high-caloric foods which may contribute to the increase of body fat in the body. Many teenagers are considered overweight and obese because they ignore the importance of exercise regularly and eating healthy fruits and vegetables; rather they watch their favorite TV shows and eating junk foods the whole day and dislike engaging into physical activities like sports.

The primary treatment for obesity is dieting and physical exercise. To supplement this, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intra-gastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. Related Studies Health Review of Slimming Tea The benefits of slimming tea are primarily based on the antioxidant polyphenol content inside the tea. As far as concern, many of the dark skin fruits, vegetables and nuts contain polyphenol.

Clinically result also proof that polyphenol inside the slimming tea are good for health. Herbal slimming tea is one of the best example that containing large quantity of polyphenol. Besides, we have all heard of flavonoids as a necessity for good health. Flavonoids fall under the category of polyphenol. It is easy to understand why slimming teas have become so popular for those who take the holistic approach to good health. Major Benefits of Slimming Tea: 1. Speeding up fat burning – Slimming tea (especially herbal slimming tea and Chinese slimming tea) increase the process of fat burns.

Slimming tea helps in improving your digestion system by elimination excessive oil from your body. If you take slimming tea more than 3 weeks time, you will find your stomach become smaller and your pants will also become loose. 2. Increase Body Metabolism – Slimming tea will Increase your body metabolism. It helps for steady blood circulation and preventing your ligaments for being loose. 3. Stop fat absorption and detoxification – Slimming tea has the great tendency to reduce the body’s absorption of fat, perhaps aiding in lowering cholesterol level in your body.

Slimming tea like herbal slimming tea and long slimming tea are good for detoxifying toxin from your body. Slimming tea effective for cleanse your colon and linoleum by trashing out poisoning particles in your body. 4. Reduces amount of insulin – Slimming tea reduces the amount of insulin in our Body. Excessive amount of insulin inside the body will produces to store fat. 5. Protect your body from radicals – Slimming tea aids in protecting the body against free radicals. Everyday our body has been exposed to harmful radicals and these radicals and negative ion will kill our body tissues. . Strengthen Your Body Immune System – Slimming tea bolsters the body’s immune system, and perhaps acting as an anti-carcinogenic. You will find yourself for not easy get sick after a certain period taken slimming tea. Orlistat (Xenical) Helms (2006) claims that Orlistat is the most effective anti-obesity drug and its function its primary function is preventing the absorption of fats from the human diet, thereby reducing caloric intake. Also inhibits the pancreatic enzyme responsible for the breakdown of vitamin esters, thereby decreasing absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

Therefore, the manufacturer recommends that patients receiving Orlistat therapy also take a multiple vitamin supplements. It is intended for use in conjunction with a physician-supervised reduced-calorie diet. Orlistat is the saturated derivative of lipstatin, a potent natural inhibitor of pancreatic lipases isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces toxytricini. However, due to simplicity and stability, Orlistat rather than lipstatin was developed into an anti-obesity drug (Helms, 2006).

The effectiveness of the drug Orlistat as the safest weight loss formula has been evaluated in numerous clinical studies lasting from six months to four years. The average weight loss reported after one year of Orlistat treatment has also been shown to improve lipid profile, glycemic control, and decreased blood pressure in obese patients (Hutton B. Ferguson, 2004). This drug has also common adverse effects which include oily rectal spotting, flatulence, and flatus with discharge, fecal urgency, fatty or oily stools, increased defacation and fecal incontinence.

Sibutarmine Helms (2006) claims that Meridia (or Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) is an orally administered agent for treating obesity. Chemically, the active ingredient is a racemic mixture of the (+) and (-) enantiomers of cyclobutanemethanamine, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-? (2-methylpropyl)-, hydrochloride, monohydrate, and has an empirical formula of C17H29Cl2NO. Its molecular weight is 334. 33. The structural formula is shown below: | Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate is a white to cream crystalline powder with a solubility of 2. mg/mL in pH 5. 2 water. Its octanol: water partition coefficient is 30. 9 at pH 5. 0. Each MERIDIA capsule contains 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate. It also contains as inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, NF; microcrystalline cellulose, NF; colloidal silicon dioxide, NF; and magnesium stearate, NF in a hard-gelatin capsule [which contains titanium dioxide, USP; gelatin; FD&C Blue No. 2 (5- and 10-mg capsules only); D&C Yellow No. 10 (5- and 15-mg capsules only), and other inactive ingredients]. Ephedra Contoversy

Ephedra (Ephedra sinica) is also known as Ma Huang, or Chinese ephedra. This green stemmed herb is native to Central Asia. Ma Huang, as the plant is more commonly known in China, has been used in the East for the treatment of bronchial asthma and related conditions for more than 5,000 years. The therapeutic value of ephedra is due to several closely related alkaloids, of which ephedrine is both the most active and the one present in the largest amount. Ephedrine was researched in the United States during the 1920s and was a standard over-the-counter medication for many years.

But as well as its useful effects as nasal decongestant and bronchodilator, ephedra also has the problematic actions of increasing blood pressure and over-stimulating the central nervous system. Latterly, ephedra has been replaced in over the counter cold and cough remedies by related but safer substances, pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine. For several years in USA, a number of diet products containing a combination of ephedra and caffeine were available over the counter in the US. These have been much publicized by claims to suppress appetite and speed up weight loss.

In 1995, after receiving reports of adverse events, the FDA commenced investigations into ephedra products. By 1996 the FDA had compiled a list detailing over 800 adverse effects including 22 deaths, which they attributed to the ephedra diet products. The FDA proposed to limit ephedra’s use in weight management. However, this proposal was withdrawn after being challenged by the industry and congressional investigators on the grounds that the FDA did not have sound scientific evidence to support their position.

Based on even more reports of adverse events in the past three years, the FDA has begun a new investigation into the safety of ephedra, the FDA began a new inquiry this August and was ongoing through September. Criticisms are being made, based largely on the fact that the FDA’s reporting system for dietary complaint is voluntary and anonymous, laying it open to charges of falsehood or misinformation. Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter will discuss the methods to be used for this research. This will detail the steps that the researcher will undertake in order to accomplish the study.

The said steps will then include the collection procedure of the data that will be required in the delivery and completion of the research. It will also present the manner in which these data will be utilized and integrated in the study and at the same time, detail how the research will proceed to answer the aims and objectives in order to reach to the conclusion. As the research intends to prove that teenagers are more likely patronize slimming products as the fastest way to slim down, the immediate research methodology in mind is the descriptive research design.

Subjects/ Respondents of the Study In order to have first hand information, the researchers have 30 respondents of the study which are composed of FEU (Institute of Nursing) students who we think are more conscious about their weight and image wanting to lose fast. And the introduction of slimming products to our market today, we thought this is the answer to their problems. The first option was to have as many respondents as the research will have, however because of unfavorable circumstances, the research have decided to consider 30 respondents who have responded in the questionnaire given.

On the other hand, due to travel distance and time constraints, the researcher did not think it possible to get qualitative data through face-to-face interviews with these respondents. Hence, the questionnaire-survey has been used to collect data on the respondents’ demographic profile first to check that the sample is appropriately stratified and representative and second to provide further information about the sample for analysis purposes. Locale of the Study The research was conducted within Far Eastern University- Manila campus.

Thirty (30) respondents, mostly girls, are from FEU students in Institute of Nursing and our relatives who considered overweight and wanted to lose weight fast and minimal effort. The reason of picking this location is because we observed many conscious students that are overweight/ obese and we are concern about their health and we wanted to know what methods they used to lose weight effectively and safe. Instruments Used The researcher designed a questionnaire for the purpose of the interview process.

The primary aim of the questionnaire is to examine the opinions of self-conscious teenagers who are more likely patronizing slimming products to lose weight fast. This research will use a mixture of closed questions and more open comments in the questionnaire. A closed question is one that has pre-coded answers (Yes or No). Through closed questions, the researcher will be able to limit responses that are within the scope of this study. The questionnaire consisted of two parts.

The first part was a set of categorical questions to identify a respondent’s personal data, which corresponds to the demographic data the study will need, including the age and gender. The second part of the questionnaire includes a number of questions to measure the attitudes, preferences, and factors that may affect the uses slimming products of respondents, if any. Hence, the primary source of data will come from a questionnaire and interviews conducted by the researchers. The secondary sources of data will come from published articles related to the topic, including books and related journals and magazines.

Data Gathering procedures The primary source of the data will come from a researcher-made questionnaire which will be given to the 30 respondents. The survey will assess their perception about their body-image and how does it affect to their peers. The survey will ask the respondents if they use slimming/ weight loss products rather than the natural way, to lose weight fast and achieve their desired body image. The secondary sources of data will come from articles, books, and newspapers.

Moreover, studies and literature on Obesity, Self-consciousness, and examples of Slimming products commonly used and its benefits and side effects will help in giving ideas to the researcher. For validation purposes, the researchers primarily submitted a sample of the set of survey questionnaires and after approval; the initial survey were conducted to thirty (30) respondents. After the questions were answered, the researcher asked the respondents for any suggestions or any necessary corrections to ensure further improvement and validity of the instrument.

Afterwards, the researcher again examined the content of the interview questions to find out the reliability of the instrument. The researchers then excluded irrelevant questions and changed words that would be deemed difficult by the respondents, to much simpler terms. The researcher also tallied, scored and tabulated all the responses in the provided interview questions. In addition, the presentation and analysis of the data gathered will be administered through graphs, charts, and tables, in the basis of the self-administered questionnaires and interviews done for the study. Treatment of the data

When the entire survey questionnaire had collected, the researchers used statistics to analyse all the data. The statistical formulae used in the survey questionnaire will be the following: 1. Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire. If they are using slimming products, n % = ——– x 100     ; where n – number of responses     N N – total number of respondents If not, n % = ——– x 100     ; where n – number of responses who are not using slimming products     N N – total number of respondents . Weighted Mean f1x1 + f2x2 + f3x3 + f4x4…. + f11x11 x = ———————————————; xt Where:   f – weight given to each response x – Number of responses xt – Total number of responses Limitations of the Study Due to travel distance and time constraints, we think it’s not possible to survey all slimming product users in the entire Metro Manila so we decided conducting within the FEU campus. Chapter IV Presentation and Analysis of Data This part of the study shall be discussing the findings based on the self-administered questionnaire provided by the researcher.

The primary objective of this study is to know whether teenagers are more likely prevalent users of slimming products in order to slim down fast. The study intends to investigate how external factors affect a teenager’s perception to change her physical appearance. Furthermore, this also discusses different kinds of slimming products in the market today and its benefits/disadvantages to its users. Presentation of Data 1. What is Obesity? Obesity is a common health problem in the world today. It is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount body fat.

Fat is an important component of our body its essential for energy production heat insulation, shock absorption, and other functions. However, excessive amounts of body fat are not good for the body. Obesity is a risk factor to many diseases like Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Attack or stroke, Congestive Heart Failure, Cancer and a lot more. What a person eats and how he’s body uses up these food determines his weight. If a person eats more than what he burns then he gains weight. It means to say that it is overeating and lack of physical activities is the most common cause of obesity.

Other than that there are more contributing factors to a person’s being obese. There is genetics, a person whose parents are obese are more likely to be obese because hormones are also involved in fat regulation. Slow metabolism also causes obesity. Men have more muscles than women do. Muscles metabolize more calories than other tissue, which explains why women metabolize slowly than men and why obesity is more common in women than in men. The lifestyle of an individual also determines how much fat is stored and utilized by the body.

Sedentary lifestyle cause obesity for limited activity also limits usage of fat. For some people, emotions influence eating habits. Many people eat excessively in response to emotions such as boredom, sadness, stress or anger. 2. What are the ways of losing weight? Which is the easiest? The safest? Obesity seems to be one of the leading problems of teen agers. Since adolescents are going through period of adjustments, they are becoming more aware about themselves socially, mentally, psychologically and physically.

During these adjustment period, teens especially girls think that they need to deal and manage themselves according to what they think is appropriate to become socially accepted by their peers and to gain confidence. This is the time that they try to experiment and use products that promise amazing effects. Losing weight seems to be one of the primary problems of teenage girls. Though there are many ways to lose weight, they seem confuse on what should they use. Exercise is the healthiest way to lose weight and to attain desired body figure. Working out at least three times a week is healthy.

It helps our body to burn extra fats and calories and makes our heart stronger. It also helps to develop and converts fats into muscles. It also prevents us from getting diseases because we are able to eliminate unwanted fats that may blocked the passage of blood in our veins and we can avoid heart related problems. Diet is also a common way of reducing weight. Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve or maintain a controlled weight. In most cases dieting is used in combination with physical exercise to lose weight in those who are overweight or obese.

Some athletes however aspire to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight. But skipping meals and eating lesser amount of food could be dangerous to our health. Our body needs certain amount of calories to be converted into energy to perform daily activities. It is also needed for body building and body regulating. Some conscious people prefer to be a strict vegetable eater. Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs.

A vegetarian does not eat meat, including: red meat, game, poultry, fish, crustacean, shellfish, and products of animal slaughter such as animal-derived gelatin and rennet. Slimming products such as dietary pills and slimming tea are the most frequently used products. It is one of the easiest ways to reduce weight but some products may have some side effects. Each product promises to lose weight but does it in different ways. Some trigger s the appetite and some increases the urge of defecating. Liposuction is one of the modern methods used especially by certain artists and even simple people in order to lose weight.

Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (“fat modeling”), liposculpture suction lipectomy or simply lipo (“suction-assisted fat removal”) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. Areas affected can range from the abdomen, thighs and buttocks, to the neck, backs of the arms and elsewhere. 3. How important is body image to adolescents? Why is it important to them? Adolescence is a period of increased awareness of bodily cues and self-reflection, including evaluation of body and appearance. Body image is how someone feels about his or her own physical appearance.

Self-esteem is all about how much people value their selves, the pride they feel in themselves, and how sensible they feel. Self-esteem is important because feeling good about yourself can have an effect on how you act. A person who has high self-esteem will make friends easily, is more in control of his or her behavior, and will enjoy life more. For many people, especially those in adolescence stage, body image can be closely linked to self-esteem. That’s because as kids develop into teens, they care more about how others see them. Adolescence marks a time of rapid and intense emotional and physical changes.

There is an increased value placed on peer acceptance and approval, and a heightened attention to external influences and social messages about cultural norms. Body image and related self-esteem emerge as significant factors associated with health and well-being during this developmental phase, as youths begin to focus more on their physical appearance. How adolescents formulate and define their body image ideals and subsequent self-comparisons is strongly influenced by personal, familial, and cultural factors. 5. What influences adolescents to use Slimming products? Advertising make a great impact on women who wanted to feel and look good.

Women frequently compare their bodies to those they see around them, and exposure to idealized body images lowers women’s satisfaction with their own attractiveness (Maynard, C. 1986). One study found that people who were shown slides of thin models had lower self-evaluations than people who had seen average and oversized models, and girls reported in a Body Image Survey that “very thin models made them feel insecure about themselves. Many health professionals are also concerned by the prevalence of distorted body image among women, which may be fostered by their constant self-comparison to extremely thin figures promoted in the media.

Sixty percent (60%) of “normal” weight women think they are overweight and 80% of women overestimate their body size. Today girls compete with standards of health, fitness and beauty established by models and celebrities. Magazine covers and photos are still airbrushed so that no flaws, fat or flab shows. Celebrities are nipped and tucked contributing to the culture of thin. All of this may influence society as a whole, but it pales in comparison to peer pressure in defining the ideal weight of a group of teen girls. Dissatisfaction with their bodies causes many women and girls to strive for the thin ideal.

In addition to the media, part of the societal problems is a result of lack of education. Girls and boys need to be aware of the changes their bodies go through during puberty and why, and as well, why they should feel proud of their bodies no matter what size or shape. In this study girls were more influenced by the people in their environment, particularly their peers, when it came to their own personal view of health, diet, and weight. If many of their friends are overweight and comfortable with it, then they are more likely to be overweight and not consumed by celebrity established norms.

People in societal “pop-culture”, whether consciously or subconsciously, perpetuate the ideal of thinness through their conversations, judgments and teasing of their peers and other family members. The associate of shame with weight, as women tend to not want to disclose what they weigh, or do not want to be seen in “this bathing-suit” or “that pair of shorts” contributes to the sense that they should be ashamed of their body size. Analysis of Data 1. Are you conscious about your body figure? In Table 1, According to the graph 63% of the respondents strongly agree that they are conscious about their body figure.

About 20% of the respondents agree that they are conscious about their body weight, 7% said sometimes, 10% disagree and 0% strongly disagree. The graph shows that a high percentage of teenagers agree that they get conscious of their body weight. As shown by the graph most of the respondents, who happens to be adolescents are very conscious about their body figure. During adolescence, teenagers mostly women starts to get conscious about how they look like, how they behave, how they dress or how they speak.

It is during this time that they try to modify themselves to fit in. It is the stage where they develop self-esteem through conformity to what is accepted in the society. They compare themselves to what they see in magazines and TV ads which they think are ideal. 2. Do you want to lose weight? In Table 2, It’s shown in the graph that there are 60% of the total respondents that wants to lose weight. There is 40% of our chosen respondents are contented with their weight. The graph represented the percentage of teenagers who are interested in losing weight.

During adolescents teenagers become very conscious about themselves. They want to fit into a larger group and be accepted or liked by the society. 3. Do you get depressed with your body weight? In Table 3, it is shown that 53% of the respondents strongly agreed that they do get depressed because of their body weight. 17% of the respondents agreed that their body weight depresses them, 13% answered sometimes, 7% disagreed, and 10% strongly disagreed about getting depressed. More than half of the respondents get depressed with their body weights.

Being obese or overweight has negative effects on an adolescent’s health, both in terms of biological development and socio-emotional development (Dietz, 2004; Ruxton, 2004). In terms of socio-emotional development, adolescents who are overweight are more likely than their normal weight counterparts to have lower self-esteem, be depressed, and have more problems in relationship with peers. (Irwin; 2004: Schwimnver, Burwinkle, and Varni, 2003) 4. Do you use slimming products? Yes ____No ____ In Table 3, among our 30 respondents 18 are using slimming products which is equivalent to 56% of the total.

Only 46% respondents or 12 of them refuse to use slimming products. There are a high percentage of teenagers using slimming products. Aside from slimming products other teenagers uses other interventions in order to lose weight. Those types of interventions are: combination of caloric restriction, exercise, reduction of sedentary activity, and behavioural therapy. 5. Who influenced you to use these products? In Table 4, According to the graph the highest percentage is for peers which is 43%, the media gave 23% influence. 12% answered their family gave them the influence, 24% said others.

It is seen in the graph that adolescents are greatly influenced by their peers. In this stage of their lives they consider their peer’s opinion very important. Adolescents have strong needs to be linked and accepted by friends and the larger peer group. 6. Do you think slimming products are safe to use? In Table 6, the pie graph shows that 53% of the surveyed users of slimming products strongly agree that slimming products are safe to use, 13% of them just agree, 3% of them believe that it is sometimes safe, 10% of them disagree while 20% of them strongly disagree.

A large percentage of slimming products users believe that the product they use is safe but there is also a large percentage wherein they believe that it is not safe to use these products. 7. Commonly used Slimming Products In Table 7, the pie graph shows that 43% of the surveyed respondents are non-users of dietary products, 335 are users of slimming tea, 23% uses slimming pills and 7% uses other slimming products. Though teens are aware of their figure, only a small percentage of them take the risk to use dietary products. 8. Actions of Slimming Products

In Table 8, among the surveyed users of slimming products, 56% uses the slimming product in which its action is oil is excreted together with the stool, 28% decreases the appetite and 17% speeds up metabolism. Slimming products primarily have chemicals that prevent the absorption of fat in the intestine, an enzyme called lipase (produced primarily by the pancreas) breaks apart fat in food so that it can be absorbed into the body. These products block the action of lipase and thereby prevent the breakup and absorption of fat and the unabsorbed fat combines with waste materials and promotes bulk excretion. 9. Effectiveness of Slimming Products

In Table 9, the pie graph shows that 44% of the surveyed teenagers who use slimming products said that the slimming product they use is very effective, 28% of them said it is effective, 22% said it is not that effective and only 5% of them said that it has no effect. Most users of slimming products achieved maximum satisfaction due to its effectiveness. A large percentage of users trust the products they use because they attain their expectations. Chapter V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations This chapter shall discuss about the summary, conclusions, and recommendations derived from analysis of the study.

Summary of Findings The study was conducted to prove that more teenagers are likely prevalent users of slimming/weight loss products that are available in the market today, which would help them achieve their desired body figure and be accepted with their peers. The researchers also presented literature regarding physical, cognitive, and psycho-social aspects about teenagers’ behavior about slimming products. The information gathered could help society understand the benefits and bad effects to patronizing users. The research study was descriptive in nature wherein a researcher-made questionnaire was utilized to gather data.

Thirty (30) participants from Far Eastern University – Manila were interviewed within the university premises. The interviews were conducted from 30 April 2010 to 5 May of the same year. The findings were outlined according to the perception brought about by slimming products upon the lives of selected Far Eastern University students in terms of the benefits and advantages gained; problems and disadvantages encountered; and the reason and influential factors for usage. For the advantages of slimming products it was stated that these products considered as the fastest way possible treat obesity and achieve their desired body figure.

It acts by blocking fats to be absorbed in the body and then excreted in the body easily. During this stage, these people are more concern about their image and they’re eager to try everything to gain popularity, be accepted by their peer groups, and feel good about them. Factors influencing teenagers to use these products are Self-consciousness, Environment including peers, and Media influence including Advertisement. Conclusions Teenager years are where major adjustments and changes take place in one’s life. One of which is that in this particular stage of our lives as adolescents we tend to become conscious about ourselves.

How do they look, how they dress, and their body image are most of the concerns of a teen, mostly girls. Adolescents try to follow the latest trends when it comes to fashion, entertainment, sports, etc. They are very outgoing, adventurous, and love to try new things because of curiosity. Aside from those characteristics teens are easily influenced by their people around them, their family, the society, media and most especially among the given are their peers. Their peers’ opinions and how they look at him or her matter a lot for adolescents.

Because of the fact that they are prone to conform to what is “in” and are very adventurous or outgoing they are the most susceptible user or patrons of fashion items, beauty products and including slimming products. Focusing more on slimming products, we the researchers have came up into a conclusion. Teenage use of slimming products have been increasing significantly due to their intrinsic characteristics of being self-conscious easily persuaded by the media (magazines, TV ads, etc. ) or by their friends. Aside from that obesity which is also prominent with teenagers causes their lack of self-esteem and depression to some.

We have also proved that usages of Slimming products are not advisable to teens considering its harmful effects on the user’s health like Anorexia, GI disorders, Kidney Malfunction, etc. Therefore our study also claims that sufficient exercise, balanced diet and refrain a sedentary lifestyle are best remedy for those opting for a desirable body. Recommendations To the future researchers who will make use our research as a basis, 1. Be more systematic so that you would come up with a more efficient result. 2. Be more careful and cautious with the information you’ve gathered. 3.

Be more vigilant and perceptive so that you won’t miss a detail needed in your research. 4. Be patient while doing your thesis so that you would came up into an organized and complete research. 5. Hopefully, may you be able to widen the scope of your research and not limit yourself in FEU grounds. To the people involved in our research specifically to the users of slimming products and to its manufacturers, 1. Be cautious about the products that you use and endorse. 2. Know and investigate first about its action and effect especially to human’s health. 3. Be sure that the products meet its standard quality and it is safe to use 4.

And keep in mind that it is better to consult experts like doctors and dieticians than to trust claims. SURVEY FORM Name of the Respondent (optional):___________________________________ Age: ____ Kindly answer the following neatly and politely. Thank you. 1. Are you conscious about your body figure? Strongly Agree ___ Agree ___ Sometimes ___ Disagree ___ Strongly Disagree ___ 2. Do you want to lose weight? Yes ___ No ___ 3. Do you get depressed with your body weight? Strongly Agree ___ Agree ___ Sometimes ___ Disagree ___ Strongly Disagree ___ 4. Do you use slimming products? Yes ____No ____ . Who influenced you to use these products? Peers ___ Media ___ Family ___ others (please specify) ____________ 6. Do you think slimming products are safe to use? Strongly Agree ___ Agree ___ Sometimes ___ Disagree ___ Strongly Disagree ___ 7. Commonly used Slimming Products Slimming Teas ___ Slimming Pills ___ others ___ none ___ 8. Actions of Slimming Products Speeds up Metabolism ___ Decrease appetite ___ Stool is excreted with oil ___ 9. Effectiveness of Slimming Products Very Effective ___ Effective ___ Not that effective ___ No effect at all ___ FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY

Institute of Nursing Manila To whom it may concern, Good day! We are group of nursing students coming from Far Eastern University IN section BSN219 and we are conducting a survey regarding teen’s usage of slimming products. Please answer the questionnaire honestly. There are no wrong answers and we rest assure you that the information gathered will be kept confidential. _________________________ _______________________________ Date Signature over Printed Name Abstract The purpose of this study is to assess teenagers, especially women who use slimming products.

This is to identify the reasons why did they choose and patronize dietary products and to understand why they risk their health just to become slimmer. For us to gather necessary information, we designed a survey containing questions which we think we need in our research. In order for us to collect data, we searched in the FEU library every after class and also we refer from internet websites. Most teenagers patronized slimming products and believed that it has no effect to their health. Most of them agree that they achieved their desired body figure for the fastest time possible but none of them investigate first before using the product.

Most of them were influenced by their peers, advertisement and family. An individual has one’s own perception of what they want to be. The concept of self-awareness during adolescence has a big impact on the identity of teens making them think of ways wherein they could justify and make some improvement specifically with their physical appearances. Many factors help determine self awareness such as peers, media, family and through technological advancement. Teenagers risk their health believing that slimming products could help them achieve their desired body figure not knowing its adverse effects.

Teenagers Use of Slimming Products An Undergraduate Research Presented to Prof. Arthur P. Pizaro Department of English Far Eastern University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English 2 (Intermediate Communication Arts and Skill) by Arceo, Abraham Alli Cruz, Regine Lorraine Legaspi, Kim Christopher Paraiso, Jessica Marie Vargas, Justin Kenneth May 18, 2010 References Books Atwater, E. (1992), Santrock, John W. (2007), Rankin, E. (2004), & Rosenberg, A. (1979), Adolescence: Self Consciousness. Adolescence (11th ed. ), McGraw-Hill, Inc. Helms, R. (2006), Hutton, B. (2004), Curran, MP, & Ferguson, D. 2004), Changes in Body Weight and Serum Lipid Profile in obese patient’s treatment with Orlistat in Addiction to hypocaloric diet: A systematic view of randomized clinical treats. Textbook of Therapeutic Drugs & Disease Management (8th ed. ), McGraw-Hill, Inc. Van Evra, J. (2004), Rutherford, A. (1994), Nature of Advertising’s Appeal: Product Information Versus Iamges Television & Child Development (3rd ed. ). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Roberts, D. (2004), Steinberg & Morris (2001), Nature of Advertising’s Appeal: Body Image & Physical Attractiveness. Television & Child Development (3rd ed. ).

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. MacArthur, M. (1989), Tricks to Lose Weight Fast: Slimming Products. Health for All Ages (2nd ed. ) McGraw-Hill, Inc. Pilliterri, A. (2004), Peer Influence on Teenagers, Maternal & Child Nursing: Caring for A Childbearing Family (5th ed. ). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Dietz, B. (2004), Ruxton, O. (2004), Adolescents: Obese and Overweight in Teenagers: Biological & Sociological Effects. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Irwin, A. (2004), Schwimmer, Burwinkle, & Varni (2003), Adolescent: Social Acceptance in Teenage Years. Adolescence (11th ed. ), McGraw-Hill, Inc. Web http://hubpages. om/hub/Health-Review-of-Slimming-Tea http://www. slimmingaustralia. com/2009/05/use-of-diet-pills-by-teenagers-increasing. php Appendices Table of Contents Abstract Title Page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Page Chapter 1: Problem and its Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction/ Research Background1 Statement of the Problem2 Significance of the Study2 Scope and Delimitations of the Study3 Theoretical Framework3 Theoretical Model4 Definition of Terms4 Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature and Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Introduction5 Related Literature5 Related Studies6 Chapter 3: Research Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction10 Subjects/ Respondents of the Study10 Locale of the Study10 Instruments Used11 Data Gathering procedures11 Treatment of the data12 Limitations of the Study12 Chapter 4: Presentation and Analysis of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Introduction13 Presentation of Data13 Analysis of Data16 Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Introduction21 Summary of Findings21 Conclusions21 Recommendations22 Bibliography23 Appendices Curriculum Vitae Letter to the Respondents . APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfilment of the requirements in English 2 (Intermediate Communication Arts and Skills), this undergraduate research entitled, “Teenagers are more likely users of Slimming/Weight Loss products to Lose Weight Fast,” has been prepared and submitted for approval by Abraham Alii Arceo, Regine Lorraine Cruz, Kim Christopher Legaspi, Jessica Marie Paraiso, and Justin Kenneth Vargas

Signature Date ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Approved as partial fulfilment of the requirements in English 2 (Intermediate Communication Arts and Skills). _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

Prof. Arthur P. Pizaro ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to extend their deepest gratitude to God Almighty for giving us awe-inspiring knowledge and heavenly wisdom to accomplish this work. We could not put into words how Your power, love and grace O Lord had touched us in everyday. Our believe and faith in You is our ultimate source of strength, Your word is the bread that sustain our lives. To You do we bring back all the glory Father. Also, we thank those who had contributed something that led to the success of this research study.

To our respondents who answered our questions earnestly and willingly, to the researchers to whom we share this success, we owe it onto each other without the effort of one, we couldn’t have done it. Although still special credit must be bestowed upon the person who gave us strength, shed light when we were at a lost, through you Mr. Kim Christopher Legaspi truly we had strive to be the best researcher we could be. You motivated and inspired us to contribute our time, effort, and knowledge the way you did for yourself too. And for that, we are in dept and grateful to you.

We thank ourselves for at the start we were in confusion and hopeless but during the process we had gain trust in each other but moreover for ourselves and in our own capabilities. We would like to thank our parents for financially, and emotionally supporting our needs and guiding us towards success. Truly they are the greatest hand-made of the Lord, purposely driven in molding, shaping and accompanying us to become the best that God willed for us to be. Our deepest and greatest gratitude and love for your continuous sharing of your love, time and understanding to us.

We are not your precious gift from God; you are the one who made us feel more than blessed. Thank you for taking care of us. We appreciate you more than any of our words could express. We love you more than our lives. Last, but definitely not the least Mr. Arthur Pizaro, Thank you for allowing us to perform our research not only because you were asked to but because this was your passion. Thank you for sharing your expertise in English and for guiding us when we needed it. The best of luck to you, your love life, career, family, and future endeavours Sir.

God Bless we had fun knowing you, thanks again for the learning you have imparted. CURRICULUM VITAE Name:Kim Christopher D. Legaspi Date of Birth:October 10, 1991 Parents: Resty Legaspi Rufina Legaspi Address:Meycauayan City, Bulacan Religion: Roman Catholic Educational Background: Elementary: San Isidro – San Roque Academy ’98-’04 High School: Meycauayan College ’04-’08 College: Far Eastern University ’08-Present (Currently taking BS Nursing) Achievements: Consistent Honor Student (Kinder-Elementary) Class Historian (Grade 6) 2nd Honors (1st- 2nd yr. HS) 8th Honor (3rd Year)

High School: Poster Making Awardee Name:Abraham Alli I. Arceo Date of Birth: June 29, 1986 Parents:Rosemarie I. Arceo Rodrigo A. Arceo Address: Marikina City Religion: Roman Catholic Educational Background: Elementary: John Muir Elementary School High School: Bear Creek High School College: Far Eastern University ’08-Present (Currently taking BS Nursing) Achievements: National Honor Society Member California Scholarship Foundation Scholar Top 16 out of 639 students graduated in HS. Name:Jessica Marie A. Paraiso Date of Birth:February 6, 1991 Parents:Atilano M. Paraiso Eloisa A.

Paraiso Address:San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan Religion: Roman Catholic Educational Background: Elementary: Village Montessori School High School: Village Montessori School Far Eastern University ’08-present (Currently taking BS Nursing) Achievements: Elementary: Consistent Honor Student High School: 3rd year: 7th Honorable Mention 4th year: 2nd Honorable Mention Name:Regine Lorraine R. Cruz Date of Birth:January 30, 1992 Parents:Reginald Dominic R. Cruz Lorvie E. Cruz Address:Malolos City, Bulacan Educational Background: Elementay: Mary Montessori School Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos

Far Eastern University ’08-present (Currently taking BS Nursing) Achievements: Elementary: Grade 6: Extemporaneous Speech High School: Theater Arts Medalist Name:Justin Kenneth I. Vargas Date of Birth:April 20, 1991 Parents:Jaime M. Vargas Jocelyn I. Vargas Address:Valenzuela City Religion:Roman Catholic Educational Background: Palanan Kinder School St. Marys Academy of Manila Our Lady Of Lourdes College Far Eastern University ’08-present (Currently taking BS Nursing) Achievements: Elementary: Grade 6: Top 5 High School: Consistent Top Student 3rd yr. : Top 4 Elected SK Councilor (Manila City)

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