CHAPTER Total Quality Management Before studying this chapter you should know or, if necessary, review 1. 2. Trends in total quality management (TQM), Chapter 1, page Quality as a competitive priority, Chapter 2, page 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter you should be able to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Explain the meaning of total quality management (TQM). Identify costs of quality. Describe the evolution of TQM. Identify key leaders in the ? eld of quality and their contributions. Identify features of the TQM philosophy. Describe tools for identifying and solving quality problems.
Describe quality awards and quality certi? cations. CHAPTER OUTLINE De? ning Quality 138 Links to Practice: General Electric Company; Motorola, Inc. 140 Cost of Quality 140 The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) 142 The Philosophy of TQM 147 Links to Practice: The Walt Disney Company 150 Links to Practice: The Kroger Company; Meijer Stores Limited Partnership 153 Quality Awards and Standards 159 Why TQM Efforts Fail 162 OM Across the Organization 162 Inside OM 163 Case: Gold Coast Advertising (GCA) 166 Case: Delta Plastics, Inc. 167 136 000 DEFINING QUALITY • 137
E veryone has had experiences of poor quality when dealing with business organizations. These experiences might involve an airline that has lost a passenger’s luggage, a dry cleaner that has left clothes wrinkled or stained, poor course offerings and scheduling at your college, a purchased product that is damaged or broken, or a pizza delivery service that is often late or delivers the wrong order. The experience of poor quality is exacerbated when employees of the company either are not empowered to correct quality inadequacies or do not seem willing to do so.
We have all encountered service employees who do not seem to care. The consequences of such an attitude are lost customers and opportunities for competitors to take advantage of the market need. Successful companies understand the powerful impact customer-de? ned quality can have on business. For this reason many competitive ? rms continually increase their quality standards. For example, both the Ford Motor Company and the Honda Motor Company have recently announced that they are making customer satisfaction their number one priority. The slow economy of 2003 impacted sales in the auto industry.
Both ? rms believe that the way to rebound is through improvements in quality, and each has outlined speci? c changes to their operations. Ford is focusing on tightening already strict standards in their production process and implementing a quality program called Six-Sigma. Honda, on the other hand, is focused on improving customer-driven product design. Although both ? rms have been leaders in implementing high quality standards, they believe that customer satisfaction is still what matters most. In this chapter you will learn that making quality a priority means putting customer needs ? rst.
It means meeting and exceeding customer expectations by involving everyone in the organization through an integrated effort. Total quality management (TQM) is an integrated organizational effort designed to improve quality at every level. In this chapter you will learn about the philosophy of TQM, its impact on organizations, and its impact on your life. You will learn that TQM is about meeting quality expectations as de? ned by the customer; this is called customer-de? ned quality. However, de? ning quality is not as easy as it may seem, because different people have different ideas of what constitutes high quality.
Let’s begin by looking at different ways in which quality can be de? ned. Total quality management (TQM) An integrated effort designed to improve quality performance at every level of the organization. Customer-de? ned quality The meaning of quality as de? ned by the customer. 138 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DEFINING QUALITY The de? nition of quality depends on the role of the people de? ning it. Most consumers have a dif? cult time de? ning quality, but they know it when they see it. For example, although you probably have an opinion as to which manufacturer of athletic shoes provides the highest quality, it would probably be dif? ult for you to de? ne your quality standard in precise terms. Also, your friends may have different opinions regarding which athletic shoes are of highest quality. The dif? culty in de? ning quality exists regardless of product, and this is true for both manufacturing and service organizations. Think about how dif? cult it may be to de? ne quality for products such as airline services, child day-care facilities, college classes, or even OM textbooks. Further complicating the issue is that the meaning of quality has changed over time. Today, there is no single universal de? ition of quality. Some people view quality as “performance to standards. ” Others view it as “meeting the customer’s needs” or “satisfying the customer. ” Let’s look at some of the more common de? nitions of quality. Conformance to speci? cations How well a product or service meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. • Fitness for use A de? nition of quality that evaluates how well the product performs for its intended use. • Value for price paid Quality de? ned in terms of product or service usefulness for the price paid. • Support services Quality de? ed in terms of the support provided after the product or service is purchased. • Conformance to speci? cations measures how well the product or service meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. For example, the dimensions of a machine part may be speci? ed by its design engineers as 3 . 05 inches. This would mean that the target dimension is 3 inches but the dimensions can vary between 2. 95 and 3. 05 inches. Similarly, the wait for hotel room service may be speci? ed as 20 minutes, but there may be an acceptable delay of an additional 10 minutes.
Also, consider the amount of light delivered by a 60 watt light bulb. If the bulb delivers 50 watts it does not conform to speci? cations. As these examples illustrate, conformance to speci? cation is directly measurable, though it may not be directly related to the consumer’s idea of quality. Fitness for use focuses on how well the product performs its intended function or use. For example, a Mercedes Benz and a Jeep Cherokee both meet a ? tness for use de? nition if one considers transportation as the intended function. However, if the de? nition becomes more speci? and assumes that the intended use is for transportation on mountain roads and carrying ? shing gear, the Jeep Cherokee has a greater ? tness for use. You can also see that ? tness for use is a user-based de? nition in that it is intended to meet the needs of a speci? c user group. Value for price paid is a de? nition of quality that consumers often use for product or service usefulness. This is the only de? nition that combines economics with consumer criteria; it assumes that the de? nition of quality is price sensitive. For example, suppose that you wish to sign up for a personal ? ance seminar and discover that the same class is being taught at two different colleges at signi? cantly different tuition rates. If you take the less expensive seminar, you will feel that you have received greater value for the price. Support services provided are often how the quality of a product or service is judged. Quality does not apply only to the product or service itself; it also applies to the people, processes, and organizational environment associated with it. For example, the quality of a university is judged not only by the quality of staff and course offerings, but also by the ef? iency and accuracy of processing paperwork. DEFINING QUALITY • 139 • Psychological criteria is a subjective de? nition that focuses on the judgmental evaluation of what constitutes product or service quality. Different factors contribute to the evaluation, such as the atmosphere of the environment or the perceived prestige of the product. For example, a hospital patient may receive average health care, but a very friendly staff may leave the impression of high quality. Similarly, we commonly associate certain products with excellence because of their reputation; Rolex watches and Mercedes-Benz automobiles are examples.
Psychological criteria A way of de? ning quality that focuses on judgmental evaluations of what constitutes product or service excellence. Differences Between Manufacturing and Service Organizations De? ning quality in manufacturing organizations is often different from that of services. Manufacturing organizations produce a tangible product that can be seen, touched, and directly measured. Examples include cars, CD players, clothes, computers, and food items. Therefore, quality de? nitions in manufacturing usually focus on tangible product features. The most common quality de? ition in manufacturing is conformance, which is the degree to which a product characteristic meets preset standards. Other common de? nitions of quality in manufacturing include performance — such as acceleration of a vehicle; reliability — that the product will function as expected without failure; features — the extras that are included beyond the basic characteristics; durability — expected operational life of the product; and serviceability — how readily a product can be repaired. The relative importance of these de? nitions is based on the preferences of each individual customer.
It is easy to see how different customers can have different de? nitions in mind when they speak of high product quality. In contrast to manufacturing, service organizations produce a product that is intangible. Usually, the complete product cannot be seen or touched. Rather, it is experienced. Examples include delivery of health care, experience of staying at a vacation resort, and learning at a university. The intangible nature of the product makes de? ning quality dif? cult. Also, since a service is experienced, perceptions can be highly subjective. In addition to tangible factors, quality of services is often de? ed by perceptual factors. These include responsiveness to customer needs, courtesy and friendliness of staff, promptness in resolving complaints, and atmosphere. Other de? nitions of quality in services include time — the amount of time a customer has to wait for the service; and consistency — the degree to which the service is the same each time. For these reasons, de? ning quality in services can be especially challenging. Dimensions of quality for manufacturing versus service organizations are shown in Table 5-1. Manufacturing Organizations Conformance to speci? cations Performance Reliability Features Durability Serviceability
Service Organizations Tangible factors Consistency Responsiveness to customer needs Courtesy/friendliness Timeliness/promptness Atmosphere TABLE 5-1 Dimensions of Quality for Manufacturing Versus Service Organizations 140 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT LINKS TO PRACTICE General Electric Company www. ge. com Motorola, Inc. www. motorola. com Today’s customers demand and expect high quality. Companies that do not make quality a priority risk long-run survival. World-class organizations such as General Electric and Motorola attribute their success to having one of the best quality management programs in the world.
These companies were some of the ? rst to implement a quality program called, SixSigma, where the level of defects is reduced to approximately 3. 4 parts per million. To achieve this, everyone in the company is trained in quality. For example, individuals highly trained in quality improvement principles and techniques receive a designation called “Black Belt. ” The full-time job of Black Belts is to identify and solve quality problems. In fact, Motorola was one of the ? rst companies to win the prestigious Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1988, due to its high focus on quality.
Both GE and Motorola have had a primary goal to achieve total customer satisfaction. To this end, the efforts of these organizations have included eliminating almost all defects from products, processes, and transactions. Both companies consider quality to be the critical factor that has resulted in signi? cant increases in sales and market share, as well as cost savings in the range of millions of dollars. COST OF QUALITY The reason quality has gained such prominence is that organizations have gained an understanding of the high cost of poor quality. Quality affects all aspects of the organization and has dramatic cost implications.
The most obvious consequence occurs when poor quality creates dissatis? ed customers and eventually leads to loss of business. However, quality has many other costs, which can be divided into two categories. The ? rst category consists of costs necessary for achieving high quality, which are called quality control costs. These are of two types: prevention costs and appraisal costs. The second category consists of the cost consequences of poor quality, which are called quality failure costs. These include external failure costs and internal failure costs. These costs of quality are shown in Figure 5-1.
The ? rst two costs are incurred in the hope of preventing the second two. Prevention costs are all costs incurred in the process of preventing poor quality from occurring. They include quality planning costs, such as the costs of developing and implementing a quality plan. Also included are the costs of product and process design, from collecting customer information to designing processes that achieve conformance to speci? cations. Employee training in quality measurement is included as part of this cost, as well as the costs of maintaining records of information and data related to quality.
Appraisal costs are incurred in the process of uncovering defects. They include the cost of quality inspections, product testing, and performing audits to make sure that quality standards are being met. Also included in this category are the costs of worker time spent measuring quality and the cost of equipment used for quality appraisal. Internal failure costs are associated with discovering poor product quality before the product reaches the customer site. One type of internal failure cost is rework, which is the cost of correcting the defective item.
Sometimes the item is so defective that it cannot be corrected and must be thrown away. This is called scrap, and its costs include Prevention costs Costs incurred in the process of preventing poor quality from occurring. Appraisal costs Costs incurred in the process of uncovering defects. Internal failure costs Costs associated with discovering poor product quality before the product reaches the customer. COST OF QUALITY • 141 FIGURE 5-1 Prevention costs. Costs of preparing and implementing a quality plan. Costs of testing, evaluating, and inspecting quality. Costs of scrap, rework, and material losses.
Costs of failure at customer site, including returns, repairs, and recalls. Costs of quality Appraisal costs. Internal failure costs. External failure costs. all the material, labor, and machine cost spent in producing the defective product. Other types of internal failure costs include the cost of machine downtime due to failures in the process and the costs of discounting defective items for salvage value. External failure costs are associated with quality problems that occur at the customer site. These costs can be particularly damaging because customer faith and loyalty can be dif? cult to regain.
They include everything from customer complaints, product returns, and repairs, to warranty claims, recalls, and even litigation costs resulting from product liability issues. A ? nal component of this cost is lost sales and lost customers. For example, manufacturers of lunch meats and hot dogs whose products have been recalled due to bacterial contamination have had to struggle to regain consumer con? dence. Other examples include auto manufacturers whose products have been recalled due to major malfunctions such as problematic braking systems and airlines that have experienced a crash with many fatalities.
External failure can sometimes put a company out of business almost overnight. Companies that consider quality important invest heavily in prevention and appraisal costs in order to prevent internal and external failure costs. The earlier defects are found, the less costly they are to correct. For example, detecting and correcting defects during product design and product production is considerably less expensive than when the defects are found at the customer site. This is shown in Figure 5-2. External failure costs Costs associated with quality problems that occur at the customer site.
FIGURE 5-2 Cost of defects Cost of Defect Product Design Product Production Location of Defect Customer Site 142 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT External failure costs tend to be particularly high for service organizations. The reason is that with a service the customer spends much time in the service delivery system, and there are fewer opportunities to correct defects than there are in manufacturing. Examples of external failure in services include an airline that has overbooked ? ights, long delays in airline service, and lost luggage.
THE EVOLUTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) The concept of quality has existed for many years, though its meaning has changed and evolved over time. In the early twentieth century, quality management meant inspecting products to ensure that they met speci? cations. In the 1940s, during World War II, quality became more statistical in nature. Statistical sampling techniques were used to evaluate quality, and quality control charts were used to monitor the production process. In the 1960s, with the help of so-called “quality gurus,” the concept took on a broader meaning.
Quality began to be viewed as something that encompassed the entire organization, not only the production process. Since all functions were responsible for product quality and all shared the costs of poor quality, quality was seen as a concept that affected the entire organization. The meaning of quality for businesses changed dramatically in the late 1970s. Before then quality was still viewed as something that needed to be inspected and corrected. However, in the 1970s and 1980s many U. S. industries lost market share to foreign competition. In the auto industry, manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda became major players.
In the consumer goods market, companies such as Toshiba and Sony led the way. These foreign competitors were producing lower-priced products with considerably higher quality. To survive, companies had to make major changes in their quality programs. Many hired consultants and instituted quality training programs for their employees. A new concept of quality was emerging. One result is that quality began to have a strategic meaning. Today, successful companies understand that quality provides a competitive advantage. They put the customer ? rst and de? e quality as meeting or exceeding customer expectations. Since the 1970s, competition based on quality has grown in importance and has generated tremendous interest, concern, and enthusiasm. Companies in every line of business are focusing on improving quality in order to be more competitive. In many industries quality excellence has become a standard for doing business. Companies that do not meet this standard simply will not survive. As you will see later in the chapter, the importance of quality is demonstrated by national quality awards and quality certi? cations that are coveted by businesses.
The term used for today’s new concept of quality is total quality management or TQM. Figure 5-3 presents a timeline of the old and new concepts of quality. You can see that the old concept is reactive, designed to correct quality problems after they occur. The new concept is proactive, designed to build quality into the product and process design. Next, we look at the individuals who have shaped our understanding of quality. Marketing, Finance, Accounting Quality Gurus To fully understand the TQM movement, we need to look at the philosophies of notable individuals who have shaped the evolution of TQM.
Their philosophies and teachings have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of quality today. Their individual contributions are summarized in Table 5-2. THE EVOLUTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) • 143 Early 1900s Inspection TIME: FOCUS: 1940s Statistical sampling 1960s Organizational quality focus 1980s and Beyond Customer driven quality FIGURE 5-3 Timeline showing the differences between old and new concepts of quality Old Concept of Quality: Inspect for quality after production. New Concept of Quality: Build quality into the process. Identify and correct causes of quality problems.
Walter A. Shewhart Walter A. Shewhart was a statistician at Bell Labs during the 1920s and 1930s. Shewhart studied randomness and recognized that variability existed in all manufacturing processes. He developed quality control charts that are used to identify whether the variability in the process is random or due to an assignable cause, such as poor workers or miscalibrated machinery. He stressed that eliminating variability improves quality. His work created the foundation for today’s statistical process control, and he is often referred to as the “grandfather of quality control. W. Edwards Deming W. Edwards Deming is often referred to as the “father of quality control. ” He was a statistics professor at New York University in the 1940s. After World War II he assisted many Japanese companies in improving quality. The Japanese regarded him so highly that in 1951 they established the Deming Prize, an annual award given to ? rms that demonstrate outstanding quality. It was almost 30 years later that American businesses began adopting Deming’s philosophy. A number of elements of Deming’s philosophy depart from traditional notions of quality. The ? st is the role management should play in a company’s quality Quality Guru Walter A. Shewhart W. Edwards Deming Main Contribution – Contributed to understanding of process variability. – Developed concept of statistical control charts. – Stressed management’s responsibility for quality. – Developed “14 Points” to guide companies in quality improvement. – De? ned quality as “? tness for use. ” – Developed concept of cost of quality. – Introduced concept of total quality control. – Coined phrase “quality is free. ” – Introduced concept of zero defects. – Developed cause-and-effect diagrams. – Identi? d concept of “internal customer. ” – Focused on product design quality. – Developed Taguchi loss function. TABLE 5-2 Quality Gurus and Their Contributions Joseph M. Juran Armand V. Feigenbaum Philip B. Crosby Kaoru Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi 144 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT improvement effort. Historically, poor quality was blamed on workers — on their lack of productivity, laziness, or carelessness. However, Deming pointed out that only 15 percent of quality problems are actually due to worker error. The remaining 85 percent are caused by processes and systems, including poor management.
Deming said that it is up to management to correct system problems and create an environment that promotes quality and enables workers to achieve their full potential. He believed that managers should drive out any fear employees have of identifying quality problems, and that numerical quotas should be eliminated. Proper methods should be taught, and detecting and eliminating poor quality should be everyone’s responsibility. Deming outlined his philosophy on quality in his famous “14 Points. ” These points are principles that help guide companies in achieving quality improvement.
The principles are founded on the idea that upper management must develop a commitment to quality and provide a system to support this commitment that involves all employees and suppliers. Deming stressed that quality improvements cannot happen without organizational change that comes from upper management. Joseph M. Juran After W. Edwards Deming, Dr. Joseph Juran is considered to have had the greatest impact on quality management. Juran originally worked in the quality program at Western Electric. He became better known in 1951, after the publication of his book Quality Control Handbook.
In 1954 he went to Japan to work with manufacturers and teach classes on quality. Though his philosophy is similar to Deming’s, there are some differences. Whereas Deming stressed the need for an organizational “transformation,” Juran believes that implementing quality initiatives should not require such a dramatic change and that quality management should be embedded in the organization. One of Juran’s signi? cant contributions is his focus on the de? nition of quality and the cost of quality. Juran is credited with de? ning quality as ? tness for use rather than simply conformance to speci? cations. As we have learned in this chapter, de? ing quality as ? tness for use takes into account customer intentions for use of the product, instead of only focusing on technical speci? cations. Juran is also credited with developing the concept of cost of quality, which allows us to measure quality in dollar terms rather than on the basis of subjective evaluations. Juran is well known for originating the idea of the quality trilogy: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. The ? rst part of the trilogy, quality planning, is necessary so that companies identify their customers, product requirements, and overriding business goals.
Processes should be set up to ensure that the quality standards can be met. The second part of the trilogy, quality control, stresses the regular use of statistical control methods to ensure that quality standards are met and to identify variations from the standards. The third part of the quality trilogy is quality improvement. According to Juran, quality improvements should be continuous as well as breakthrough. Together with Deming, Juran stressed that to implement continuous improvement workers need to have training in proper methods on a regular basis.
Armand V. Feigenbaum Another quality leader is Armand V. Feigenbaum, who introduced the concept of total quality control. In his 1961 book Total Quality Control, he outlined his quality principles in 40 steps. Feigenbaum took a total system approach to quality. He promoted the idea of a work environment where quality devel- THE EVOLUTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) • 145 opments are integrated throughout the entire organization, where management and employees have a total commitment to improve quality, and people learn from each other’s successes.
This philosophy was adapted by the Japanese and termed “company-wide quality control. ” Phillip B. Crosby Philip B. Crosby is another recognized guru in the area of TQM. He worked in the area of quality for many years, ? rst at Martin Marietta and then, in the 1970s, as the vice president for quality at ITT. He developed the phrase “Do it right the ? rst time” and the notion of zero defects, arguing that no amount of defects should be considered acceptable. He scorned the idea that a small number of defects is a normal part of the operating process because systems and workers are imperfect.
Instead, he stressed the idea of prevention. To promote his concepts, Crosby wrote a book titled Quality Is Free, which was published in 1979. He became famous for coining the phrase “quality is free” and for pointing out the many costs of quality, which include not only the costs of wasted labor, equipment time, scrap, rework, and lost sales, but also organizational costs that are hard to quantify. Crosby stressed that efforts to improve quality more than pay for themselves because these costs are prevented. Therefore, quality is free.
Like Deming and Juran, Crosby stressed the role of management in the quality improvement effort and the use of statistical control tools in measuring and monitoring quality. Kaoru Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa is best known for the development of quality tools called cause-and-effect diagrams, also called ? shbone or Ishikawa diagrams. These diagrams are used for quality problem solving, and we will look at them in detail later in the chapter. He was the ? rst quality guru to emphasize the importance of the “internal customer,” the next person in the production process. He was also one of the ? st to stress the importance of total company quality control, rather than just focusing on products and services. Dr. Ishikawa believed that everyone in the company needed to be united with a shared vision and a common goal. He stressed that quality initiatives should be pursued at every level of the organization and that all employees should be involved. Dr. Ishikawa was a proponent of implementation of quality circles, which are small teams of employees that volunteer to solve quality problems. Genichi Taguchi Dr. Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese quality expert known for his work in the area of product design.
He estimates that as much as 80 percent of all defective items are caused by poor product design. Taguchi stresses that companies should focus their quality efforts on the design stage, as it is much cheaper and easier to make changes during the product design stage than later during the production process. Taguchi is known for applying a concept called design of experiment to product design. This method is an engineering approach that is based on developing robust design, a design that results in products that can perform over a wide range of conditions.
Taguchi’s philosophy is based on the idea that it is easier to design a product that can perform over a wide range of environmental conditions than it is to control the environmental conditions. Taguchi has also had a large impact on today’s view of the costs of quality. He pointed out that the traditional view of costs of conformance to speci? cations is Robust design A design that results in a product that can perform over a wide range of conditions. 146 • CHAPTER 5 FIGURE 5-4 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Cost Traditional view of the cost of nonconformance Loss No Loss Loss Target 5. 0 tolerances 0. 480 0. 520 Taguchi loss function Costs of quality increase as a quadratic function as conformance values move away from the target. incorrect, and proposed a different way to look at these costs. Let’s brie? y look at Dr. Taguchi’s view of quality costs. Recall that conformance to speci? cation speci? es a target value for the product with speci? ed tolerances, say 5. 00 0. 20. According to the traditional view of conformance to speci? cations, losses in terms of cost occur if the product dimensions fall outside of the speci? ed limits. This is shown in Figure 5-4.
However, Dr. Taguchi noted that from the customer’s view there is little difference whether a product falls just outside or just inside the control limits. He pointed out that there is a much greater difference in the quality of the product between making the target and being near the control limit. He also stated that the smaller the variation around the target, the better the quality. Based on this he proposed the following: as conformance values move away from the target, loss increases as a quadratic function. This is called the Taguchi loss function and is shown in Figure 5-5.
According to the function, smaller differences from the target result in smaller costs: the larger the differences, the larger the cost. The Taguchi loss function has had a signi? cant impact in changing the view of quality cost. FIGURE 5-5 Taguchi view of the cost of nonconformance — the Taguchi loss function Loss Loss Target 5. 00 tolerances 0. 480 0. 520 THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 147 THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM What characterizes TQM is the focus on identifying root causes of quality problems and correcting them at the source, as opposed to inspecting the product after it has been made.
Not only does TQM encompass the entire organization, but it stresses that quality is customer driven. TQM attempts to embed quality in every aspect of the organization. It is concerned with technical aspects of quality as well as the involvement of people in quality, such as customers, company employees, and suppliers. Here we look at the speci? c concepts that make up the philosophy of TQM. These concepts and their main ideas are summarized in Table 5-3. Marketing, Human Resources, Engineering Customer Focus The ? rst, and overriding, feature of TQM is the company’s focus on its customers.
Quality is de? ned as meeting or exceeding customer expectations. The goal is to ? rst identify and then meet customer needs. TQM recognizes that a perfectly produced product has little value if it is not what the customer wants. Therefore, we can say that quality is customer driven. However, it is not always easy to determine what the customer wants, because tastes and preferences change. Also, customer expectations often vary from one customer to the next. For example, in the auto industry trends change relatively quickly, from small cars to sports utility vehicles and back to small cars.
The same is true in the retail industry, where styles and fashion are short lived. Companies need to continually gather information by means of focus groups, market surveys, and customer interviews in order to stay in tune with what customers want. They must always remember that they would not be in business if it were not for their customers. Continuous Improvement Another concept of the TQM philosophy is the focus on continuous improvement. Traditional systems operated on the assumption that once a company achieved a certain level of quality, it was successful and needed no further improvements.
We tend to think of improvement in terms of plateaus that are to be achieved, such as Continuous improvement (Kaizen) A philosophy of never-ending improvement. Concept Customer focus Continuous improvement Employee empowerment Use of quality tools Product design Process management Managing supplier quality Main Idea Goal is to identify and meet customer needs. A philosophy of never-ending improvement. Employees are expected to seek out, identify, and correct quality problems. Ongoing employee training in the use of quality tools. Products need to be designed to meet customer expectations.
Quality should be built into the process; sources of quality problems should be identi? ed and corrected. Quality concepts must extend to a company’s suppliers. TABLE 5-3 Concepts of the TQM Philosophy 148 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT passing a certification test or reducing the number of defects to a certain level. Traditionally, change for American managers involves large magnitudes, such as major organizational restructuring. The Japanese, on the other hand, believe that the best and most lasting changes come from gradual improvements.
To use an analogy, they believe that it is better to take frequent small doses of medicine than to take one large dose. Continuous improvement, called kaizen by the Japanese, requires that the company continually strive to be better through learning and problem solving. Because we can never achieve perfection, we must always evaluate our performance and take measures to improve it. Now let’s look at two approaches that can help companies with continuous improvement: the plan – do – study – act (PDSA) cycle and benchmarking.
Plan – do– study– act (PDSA) cycle A diagram that describes the activities that need to be performed to incorporate continuous improvement into the operation. The Plan – Do – Study – Act Cycle The plan – do – study – act (PDSA) cycle describes the activities a company needs to perform in order to incorporate continuous improvement in its operation. This cycle, shown in Figure 5-6 is also referred to as the Shewhart cycle or the Deming wheel. The circular nature of this cycle shows that continuous improvement is a never-ending process. Let’s look at the speci? c steps in the cycle. • • • •
Plan The ? rst step in the PDSA cycle is to plan. Managers must evaluate the current process and make plans based on any problems they ? nd. They need to document all current procedures, collect data, and identify problems. This information should then be studied and used to develop a plan for improvement as well as speci? c measures to evaluate performance. Do The next step in the cycle is implementing the plan (do). During the implementation process managers should document all changes made and collect data for evaluation. Study The third step is to study the data collected in the previous phase.
The data are evaluated to see whether the plan is achieving the goals established in the plan phase. Act The last phase of the cycle is to act on the basis of the results of the ? rst three phases. The best way to accomplish this is to communicate the results to other members in the company and then implement the new procedure if it has been successful. Note that this is a cycle; the next step is to plan again. After we have acted, we need to continue evaluating the process, planning, and repeating the cycle again. FIGURE 5-6 The plan – do – study – act cycle
Act Plan Do Study THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 149 Benchmarking Another way companies implement continuous improvement is by studying business practices of companies considered “best in class. ” This is called benchmarking. The ability to learn and study how others do things is an important part of continuous improvement. The benchmark company does not have to be in the same business, as long as it excels at something that the company doing the study wishes to emulate. For example, many companies have used Lands’ End to benchmark catalog distribution and order ? ling, because Lands’ End is considered a leader in this area. Similarly, many companies have used American Express to benchmark con? ict resolution. Benchmarking Studying the business practices of other companies for purposes of comparison. Employee Empowerment Part of the TQM philosophy is to empower all employees to seek out quality problems and correct them. With the old concept of quality, employees were afraid to identify problems for fear that they would be reprimanded. Often poor quality was passed on to someone else, in order to make it “someone else’s problem. The new concept of quality, TQM, provides incentives for employees to identify quality problems. Employees are rewarded for uncovering quality problems, not punished. In TQM, the role of employees is very different from what it was in traditional systems. Workers are empowered to make decisions relative to quality in the production process. They are considered a vital element of the effort to achieve high quality. Their contributions are highly valued, and their suggestions are implemented. In order to perform this function, employees are given continual and extensive training in quality measurement tools.
To further stress the role of employees in quality, TQM differentiates between external and internal customers. External customers are those that purchase the company’s goods and services. Internal customers are employees of the organization who receive goods or services from others in the company. For example, the packaging department of an organization is an internal customer of the assembly department. Just as a defective item would not be passed to an external customer, a defective item should not be passed to an internal customer. Team Approach TQM stresses that quality is an organizational effort.
To facilitate the solving of quality problems, it places great emphasis on teamwork. The use of teams is based on the old adage that “two heads are better than one. ” Using techniques such as brainstorming, discussion, and quality control tools, teams work regularly to correct problems. The contributions of teams are considered vital to the success of the company. For this reason, companies set aside time in the workday for team meetings. Teams vary in their degree of structure and formality, and different types of teams solve different types of problems.
One of the most common types of teams is the quality circle, a team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors whose purpose is to solve quality problems. The circle is usually composed of eight to ten members, and decisions are made through group consensus. The teams usually meet weekly during work hours in a place designated for this purpose. They follow a preset process for analyzing and solving quality problems. Open discussion is promoted, and criticism is not allowed. Although the functioning of quality circles is friendly and casual, it is serious business. Quality circles are not mere “gab sessions. Rather, they do important work for the company and have been very successful in many ? rms. Management Quality circle A team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors who meet regularly to solve quality problems. 150 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT LINKS TO PRACTICE The Walt Disney Company www. disney. com The importance of exceptional quality is demonstrated by The Walt Disney Company in operating its theme parks. The focus of the parks is customer satisfaction. This is accomplished through meticulous attention to every detail, with particular focus on the role of employees in service delivery.
Employees are viewed as the most important organizational resource and great care is taken in employee hiring and training. All employees are called “cast members,” regardless of whether they are janitors or performers. Employees are extensively trained in customer service, communication, and quality awareness. Continual monitoring of quality is considered important, and employees meet regularly in teams to evaluate their effectiveness. All employees are shown how the quality of their individual jobs contributes to the success of the park. Use of Quality Tools You can see that TQM places a great deal of responsibility on all workers.
If employees are to identify and correct quality problems, they need proper training. They need to understand how to assess quality by using a variety of quality control tools, how to interpret ? ndings, and how to correct problems. In this section we look at seven different quality tools. These are often called the seven tools of quality control and are shown in Figure 5-7. They are easy to understand, yet extremely useful in identifying and analyzing quality problems. Sometimes workers use only one tool at a time, but often a combination of tools is most helpful. Cause-and-effect diagram A chart that identi? s potential causes of particular quality problems. Cause-and-Effect Diagrams Cause-and-effect diagrams are charts that identify potential causes for particular quality problems. They are often called ? shbone diagrams because they look like the bones of a ? sh. A general cause-and-effect diagram is shown in Figure 5-8. The “head” of the ? sh is the quality problem, such as damaged zippers on a garment or broken valves on a tire. The diagram is drawn so that the “spine” of the ? sh connects the “head” to the possible cause of the problem. These causes could be related o the machines, workers, measurement, suppliers, materials, and many other aspects of the production process. Each of these possible causes can then have smaller “bones” that address speci? c issues that relate to each cause. For example, a problem with machines could be due to a need for adjustment, old equipment, or tooling problems. Similarly, a problem with workers could be related to lack of training, poor supervision, or fatigue. Cause-and-effect diagrams are problem-solving tools commonly used by quality control teams. Speci? c causes of problems can be explored through brainstorming.
The development of a cause-and-effect diagram requires the team to think through all the possible causes of poor quality. Flowcharts A ? owchart is a schematic diagram of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process. It provides a visual tool that is easy to use and understand. By seeing the steps involved in an operation or process, everyone develops a clear picture of how the operation works and where problems could arise. Flowchart A schematic of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process. THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 151 1. Cause-and-Effect Diagram Suppliers Workers Machines 4.
Control Chart UCL Quality Problems LCL Environment Process Material 5. Scatter Diagram Y 2. Flowchart X 6. Pareto Chart % 3. Checklist Defect Type Broken zipper Ripped material Missing buttons Faded color No. of Defects Total 3 7 3 2 A 7. Histogram Frequency Frequency B C D E FIGURE 5-7 The seven tools of quality control A B C D E Checklists A checklist is a list of common defects and the number of observed occurrences of these defects. It is a simple yet effective fact-? nding tool that allows the worker to collect speci? c information regarding the defects observed.
The checklist in Figure 5-7 shows four defects and the number of times they have been observed. It is clear that the biggest problem is ripped material. This means that the plant needs to focus on this speci? c problem — for example, by going to the source of supply or seeing whether the material rips during a particular production process. A checklist can also be used to focus on other dimensions, such as location or time. For example, if a defect is being observed frequently, a checklist can be developed that measures the number of occurrences per shift, per machine, or per operator.
In this fashion we can isolate the location of the particular defect and then focus on correcting the problem. Checklist A list of common defects and the number of observed occurrences of these defects. 152 • CHAPTER 5 FIGURE 5-8 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A general cause-and-effect (? shbone) diagram Suppliers late deliveries out of spec material defects Workers training ability supervision experience Machines maintenance calibration type age Quality Problem temperature dust lighting ventilation process design poor product design poor quality management ut of specification type material grade Environment Processes Materials Control charts Charts used to evaluate whether a process is operating within set expectations. Control Charts Control charts are a very important quality control tool. We will study the use of control charts at great length in the next chapter. These charts are used to evaluate whether a process is operating within expectations relative to some measured value such as weight, width, or volume. For example, we could measure the weight of a sack of ? our, the width of a tire, or the volume of a bottle of soft drink.
When the production process is operating within expectations, we say that it is “in control. ” To evaluate whether or not a process is in control, we regularly measure the variable of interest and plot it on a control chart. The chart has a line down the center representing the average value of the variable we are measuring. Above and below the center line are two lines, called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). As long as the observed values fall within the upper and lower control limits, the process is in control and there is no problem with quality.
When a measured observation falls outside of these limits, there is a problem. Scatter Diagrams Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two variables are related to one another. They are particularly useful in detecting the amount of correlation, or the degree of linear relationship, between two variables. For example, increased production speed and number of defects could be correlated positively; as production speed increases, so does the number of defects. Two variables could also be correlated negatively, so that an increase in one of the variables is associated with a decrease in the other.
For example, increased worker training might be associated with a decrease in the number of defects observed. The greater the degree of correlation, the more linear are the observations in the scatter diagram. On the other hand, the more scattered the observations in the diagram, the less correlation exists between the variables. Of course, other types of relationships can also be observed on a scatter diagram, such as an inverted . This may be the case when one is observing the relationship between two variables such as oven Scatter diagrams Graphs that show how two variables are related to each other.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 153 temperature and number of defects, since temperatures below and above the ideal could lead to defects. Pareto Analysis Pareto analysis is a technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance. The logic behind Pareto analysis is that only a few quality problems are important, whereas many others are not critical. The technique was named after Vilfredo Pareto, a nineteenth-century Italian economist who determined that only a small percentage of people controlled most of the wealth. This concept has often been called the 80 – 20 rule and has been extended to many areas.
In quality management the logic behind Pareto’s principle is that most quality problems are a result of only a few causes. The trick is to identify these causes. One way to use Pareto analysis is to develop a chart that ranks the causes of poor quality in decreasing order based on the percentage of defects each has caused. For example, a tally can be made of the number of defects that result from different causes, such as operator error, defective parts, or inaccurate machine calibrations. Percentages of defects can be computed from the tally and placed in a chart like those shown in Figure 5-7.
We generally tend to ? nd that a few causes account for most of the defects. Histograms A histogram is a chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable. We can see from the plot what type of distribution a particular variable displays, such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical. In the food service industry the use of quality control tools is important in identifying quality problems. Grocery store chains, such as Kroger and Meijer, must record and monitor the quality of incoming produce, such as tomatoes and lettuce.
Quality tools can be used to evaluate the acceptability of product quality and to monitor product quality from individual suppliers. They can also be used to evaluate causes of quality problems, such as long transit time or poor refrigeration. Similarly, restaurants use quality control tools to evaluate and monitor the quality of delivered goods, such as meats, produce, or baked goods. Pareto analysis A technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance. Histogram A chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable. LINKS TO PRACTICE The Kroger Company www. kroger. om Meijer Stores Limited Partnership www. meijer. com Product Design Quality Function Deployment A critical aspect of building quality into a product is to ensure that the product design meets customer expectations. This typically is not as easy as it seems. Customers often speak in everyday language. For example, a product can be described as “attractive,” “strong,” or “safe. ” However, these terms can have very different meaning to different customers. What one person considers to be strong, another may not. To produce a product that customers want, we need to translate customers’ everyday language into speci? c technical requirements.
However, this can often be dif? cult. A useful tool for translating the voice of the customer into speci? c technical requirements is quality function deployment (QFD). Quality function deployment is also useful in enhancing communication between different functions, such as marketing, operations, and engineering. Quality function deployment (QFD) A tool used to translate the preferences of the customer into speci? c technical requirements. 154 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Marketing QFD enables us to view the relationships among the variables involved in the design of a product, such as technical versus customer requirements.
This can help us analyze the big picture — for example, by running tests to see how changes in certain technical requirements of the product affect customer requirements. An example is an automobile manufacturer evaluating how changes in materials affect customer safety requirements. This type of analysis can be very bene? cial in developing a product design that meets customer needs, yet does not create unnecessary technical requirements for production. QFD begins by identifying important customer requirements, which typically come from the marketing department.
These requirements are numerically scored based on their importance, and scores are translated into speci? c product characteristics. Evaluations are then made of how the product compares with its main competitors relative to the identi? ed characteristics. Finally, speci? c goals are set to address the identi? ed problems. The resulting matrix looks like a picture of a house and is often called the house of quality. Next we will consider the example of manufacturing a backpack to show how we would use QFD. We will start with a relationship matrix that ties customer requirements to product characteristics, shown in Figure 5-9. Customer Requirements Remember that our goal is to make a product that the customer wants. Therefore, the ? rst thing we need to do is survey our customers to ? nd out speci? cally what they would be looking for in a product — in this case, a backpack for students. To ? nd out precisely what features students Relative Importance FIGURE 5-9 Relationship matrix Product Characteristics Relationship Strength of Backpack Weight of Backpack Grade of Dye Color Strong Positive Cost of Materials Positive X Negative X Strong Negative Competitive Evaluation 1 X X X 1 1 1 X X X X X 1 2 B 3 A 4 US 5 5 5 5 5 No. f Zippers & Compartments Customer Requirements Durable Lightweight Roomy Looks Nice Low Cost TOTAL 25 20 25 20 10 100 A US/B 2 3 4 2 US 2 US 2 US/A B 3 4 B 3 B 3 A 4 A 4 X US = Our Backpack A = Competitor A B = Competitor B THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 155 would like in a backpack, the marketing department might send representatives to talk to students on campus, conduct telephone interviews, and maybe conduct focus groups. Let’s say that students have identi? ed ? ve desirable features: the backpack should be durable, lightweight and roomy, look nice, and not cost very much. These are shown in Figure 5-10.
The importance customers attach to each of these requirements is also determined and shown in the ? gure. This part of the ? gure looks like the chimney of the “house. ” You can see that durability and roominess are given the greatest importance. • Competitive Evaluation On the far right of our relationship matrix is an evaluation of how our product compares to those of competitors. In this example there are two competitors, A and B. The evaluation scale is from one to ? ve — the higher the rating, the better. The important thing here is to identify which customer requirements we should pursue and how we fare relative to our competitors.
For example, you can see that our product excels in durability relative to competitors, yet it does not look as nice. This means that in designing our product, we could gain a competitive advantage by focusing our design efforts on a more appealing product. Product Characteristics Speci? c product characteristics are on top of the relationship matrix. These are technical measures. In our example these include the number of zippers and compartments, the weight of the backpack, strength of the backpack, grade of the dye color, and the cost of materials.
The Relationship Matrix The strength of the relationship between customer requirements and product characteristics is shown in the relationship matrix. For example, you can see that the number of zippers and compartments is negatively related to the weight of the backpack. A negative relationship means that as we increase the desirability of one variable we decrease the desirability of the other. At the same time, roominess is positively related to the number of zippers and compartments, as is appearance. A positive relationship means that an increase in desirability of one variable is related to an increase in the desirability of another.
This type of information is very important in coordinating the product design. The Trade-off Matrix You can see how the relationship matrix is beginning to look like a house. The complete house of quality is shown in Figure 5-10. The next step in our building process is to put the “roof ” on the house. This is done through a trade-off matrix, which shows how each product characteristic is related to the others and thus allows us to see what tradeoffs we need to make. For example, the number of zippers is negatively related to the weight of the backpack.
Setting Targets The last step in constructing the house of quality is to evaluate competitors’ products relative to the speci? c product characteristics and to set targets for our own product. The bottom row of the house is the output of quality function deployment. These are speci? c, measurable product characteristics that have been formulated from general customer requirements. The house of quality has been found to be very useful. You can see how it translates everyday terms like “lightweight,” “roominess,” and “nice looking,” into speci? c product characteristics that can be used in manufacturing the product.
Note also how the house of quality can help in the communication between marketing, operations, and design engineering. • • • • 156 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT FIGURE 5-10 House of quality X X Product Characteristics Strength of Backpack Weight of Backpack Grade of Dye Color Relationship Strong Positive Cost of Materials Positive X Negative X Strong Negative Relative Importance No. of Zippers & Compartments Customer Requirements Durable Lightweight Roomy Looks Nice Low Cost TOTAL Competitive Evaluation 25 20 25 20 10 100 A B 2 3 4 1. 2 lbs. .8 lbs. .5 lbs. 14 lbs. 10 lbs. 16 lbs. Grade B $8 X X X X X X X X
Competitive Evaluation 1 1 1 1 1 2 B 3 A US 4 5 5 5 5 5 A US/B 2 3 4 2 US/A B 3 4 A 4 A 4 X US B 2 3 US B 2 3 Grade $10 A Grade A $8 US = Our Backpack A = Competitor A B = Competitor B OUR TARGETS Reliability The probability that a product, service, or part will perform as intended. Reliability An important dimension of product design is that the product functions as expected. This is called reliability. Reliability is the probability that a product, service, or part will perform as intended for a speci? ed period of time under normal conditions. We are all familiar with product reliability in the form of product warranties.
We also know that no product is guaranteed with 100 percent certainty to function properly. However, companies know that a high reliability is an important part of customer-oriented quality and try to build this into their product design. Reliability is a probability, a likelihood, or a chance. For example, a product with a 90 percent reliability has a 90 percent chance of functioning as intended. Another way to look at it is that the probability that the product will fail is 1 . 90 . 10, or 10 percent. This also means that 1 out of 10 products will not function as expected.
The reliability of a product is a direct function of the reliability of its component parts. If all the parts in a product must work for the product to function, then the THE PHILOSOPHY OF TQM • 157 reliability of the system is computed as the product of the reliabilities of the individual components: Rs (R1) (R2) (R3) . . . (Rn) where Rs R1… n reliability of the product or system. reliability of components 1 through n Assume that a product has two parts, both of which must work for the product to function. Part 1 has a reliability of 80 percent and part 2 has a reliability of 90 percent. Compute the reliability of the product.
Part 1 . 80 Part 2 . 90 EXAMPLE 5. 1 Computing Product Reliability • Solution: The reliability of the product is R (0. 80)(0. 90) 0. 72 Notice in the previous example that the reliability of the “system” is lower than that of individual components. The reason is that all the components in a series, as in the example, must function for the product to work. If only one component doesn’t work, the entire product doesn’t work. The more components a product has, the lower its reliability. For example, a system with ? ve components in series, each with a reliability of . 90, has a reliability of only (. 90)(. 90)(. 90)(. 90)(. 90) (. 0)5 0. 59. The failure of certain products can be very critical. One way to increase product reliability is to build redundancy into the product design in the form of backup parts. Consider the blackout during the summer of 2003, when most of the northeastern part of the United States was out of power for days. Critical facilities, such as hospitals, immediately switched to backup power generators that are available when the main systems fail. Consider other critical systems, such as the navigation system of an aircraft, systems that operate nuclear power plants, the space shuttle, or even the braking system of your car.
What gives these systems such high reliability is the redundancy that is built into the product design and serves to increase reliability. Redundancy is built into the system by placing components in parallel, so that when one component fails the other component takes over. In this case, the reliability of the system is computed by adding the reliability of the ? rst component to the reliability of the second (backup) component, multiplied by the probability of needing the backup. The equation is as follows: Reliability of 1st Component Reliability of 2nd Component Probability of needing 2nd Component Rs
Notice that if the reliability of the 1st component is . 90, the probability of needing a second component is equal to the ? rst component failing, which is (1 . 90) . 10. Now let’s look at an example. 158 • CHAPTER 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT EXAMPLE 5. 2 Two power generators provide electricity to a facility’s main and backup generator. The main generator has a reliability of 0. 95 and the backup a reliability of 0. 90. What is the reliability of the system? Computing Product Reliability with Redundancy • Solution: The system can be represented in the following way Original 0. 95 Backup The reliability of the system is: Rs 0. 5 [(0. 90) 0. 90 (1 0. 95)] 0. 995 Process Management Quality at the source The belief that it is best to uncover the source of quality problems and eliminate it. According to TQM a quality product comes from a quality process. This means that quality should be built into the process. Quality at the source is the belief that it is far better to uncover the source of quality problems and correct it than to discard defective items after production. If the source of the problem is not corrected, the problem will continue. For example, if you are baking cookies you might ? nd that some of the cookies are burned.
Simply throwing away the burned cookies will not correct the problem. You will continue to have burned cookies and will lose money when you throw them away. It will be far more effective to see where the problem is and correct it. For example, the temperature setting may be too high; the pan may be curved, placing some cookies closer to the heating element; or the oven may not be distributing heat evenly. Quality at the source exempli? es the difference between the old and new concepts of quality. The old concept focused on inspecting goods after they were produced or after a particular stage of production.
If an inspection revealed defects, the defective products were either discarded or sent back for reworking. All this cost the company money, and these costs were passed on to the customer. The new concept of quality focuses on identifying quality problems at the source and correcting them. In Chapter 6 we will learn how to monitor process quality using quality tools, s