Training and Development Literature Review

Literature Review: According to Casse and Banahan (2007), the different approaches to training and development need to be explored. It has come to their attention by their own preferred model and through experience with large Organisations. The current traditional training continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees, in maintaining the uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of work and by recognizing this, they advising on all the problems, which reiterates the requirement for flexible approach.

Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and Desmarais (2007). According to Davenport (2006), mentioned in his recent studies that it’s easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software. Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and developments.

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The “content” and the “access” are the actual factors for the process. It is a representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice in training development. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new meaning of information with electronic learning use. There is a survey confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically, (Meister, 2001).

A manager is that what the other members of the organization wants them to be because it is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the management (Andersson, 2008, Luo, 2002). Most of the managers seems to reject a managerial personality in support of the other truth for themselves (Costas and Fleming, 2009). It has been constantly used in the education of the employees and certification and the training for the customer.

The Internet is having a vast capacity to satisfy the needs of the staff and to cut the cost because there are no binding needs of being present in the classroom (Kiser, 2001. ) Though its not that difficult to see the use of internet as the in accessing all the learning need. Specially, when providing training to huge number of staff, the net can be a lethal tool to cut the cost big time. This shows the change from a fully pre-scheduled curriculum in to open and just in time access (Anderson, 2000).

The training content is changing from being instructor centric in to learner centric which is, to be honest, more adoptable for the learner to learn at their own pace (Gotschall, 2000). The theory of actively learning is started with the propose inquiries of the problem where the participants in the procedure attempt to make skills about the inquiries throughout chain actions and reactions (Yorks, 2000). Shen and Edwards, (2004) You will hardly find any research into international training and management development of Multinational Enterprises.

Not only that especially into International Human Resource Management of Multinational Enterprises initiating from economies other than Western market ones (Shen and Darby, 2004). Scullion and Starkey (2000) also said that “In the international arena, the quality of management seems to be even more critical than in domestic operations, especially when it is related to the training and development of the employees. ” The training and development deals with the fostering, recognising, promoting and using the international managers as the main issues include the international management development scheme.

The approach to international development and training management, factors affecting approaches and promotion criteria to the development and international training management can be expected for playing a main role in MNEs because of the importance to develop a cross-national integrating operations and corporate culture. “The inter-unit linkages can be enhanced by the global firms to create a pool of global managers from anywhere in the world, Bartlett and Ghoshal (2000)”. It is also important sometimes to join the international experience for the management development.

The International experiences had become a traditionally essential to the senior management in most of the Western multinational companies, (Forster, 2002). There are a number of reasons why a detailed study of the current trends in training and development would be of interest to many organisations. First, whilst recruitment and retention has been a focus of much research according to (Barber et al. , 2005; AGR, 2006; Dawson et al. , 2006) and it also transitions to work, Holden and Hamblett,(2007) and early careers (CIPD, 2006; Elias and Purcell, 2005; HESA, 2007), much less attention has been given to detailed training and development.

The subject have been dealt with as an element of the “employer brand” in recruitment to achieve advantage in the increasingly tough market, or as an instrument to improve retention, than an issue in its own right. Some of the recent published research studies in by Connor et al. , (2003) explained the greater variety of approaches now being taken by organisations to training and development, an outcome of trends in both the supply-side and demand-side. An opportunity to learn developments further and also get an update of current issues for employers would be timely.

Studies have pointed the characteristics, attitudes, work preferences and expectations and work styles of current trends of employees (Callender, 2003; CIPD, 2006; AGR, 2006) but implications for the design and implementation of development schemes have rarely been considered. The idea of generational differences is overstated here by some writers who acknowledged that experiences today are very different from those of a few years back, and different approaches to training and development are required (King, 2003). (Connor et al. 2003) have questioned that changes have gone far enough and employers have not responded to the realities of higher trainings in their talent management strategies (Brown and Hesketh, 2004). Hayman and Lorman (2004) debates in due course that the recent years development have not only grown in popularity but have demonstrably more accelerated career progression rather direct developments. While some other indicates that, they do not necessarily result in satisfied theories (Mc Dermott et al. , 2006) or command long term and achievable organisational goals. Cappelli, 2001), but many were dissatisfied that such theories can express themselves effectively (Archer and Davidson, 2008). The meaning of a Manager in organisation, according to research (e. g. Collinson, 2003; Thomas and Linstead, 2002; Watson, 2001), is not a simple to describe. To be honest many researchers question the definitive state of “managerial being” at all, and characterized by a constant state of fluidity. Which will be based on permanence and stability (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002), In short, Identity of a Manager can be described as constantly emerging, as a process of becoming rather than a state of being. The common understanding is that management is something that is clearly identifiable, for example, as a collection of competencies, or as a particular set of roles (e. g. Quinn et al. , 2003)”. This findings are given in management training, as it implies that management is something that can be “learned” through courses and training (Andersson, 2005). The managers “learn” mainly through practice in a durable process of regularly becoming a manager (Watson, 2001), which continues throughout the manager’s working life (Mintzberg, 2004).

The stepping stone to department manager programme is design to provide clear guidance to the candidates who are ready to progress further. Becoming a Manager also means shifting the focus from external factors to internal, site dependent factors (Schatzki, 2005), management proof for development are processual and situational (Andersson, 2008a). The work atmosphere of managers can be described by shifting demands which challenges their identities (Tengblad, 2002, 2006). It simply means that they usually struggle daily with different circumstances and relationships at work (Sveningsson and Alvesson, 2003).

A question might also be answered in relation to an ideal management material (Boyatzis and Akrivou, 2006). The role of HR professionals in the training and development process is stress-reduction and the strategies have been emphasized in recent past. For example, Gilbreath (2008) has argued about HRD (human resource development) professionals have an important role to play in creating healthy environments for the training sessions of related developments using interventions such as and action research.

Francis and Keegan (2006) wants the HR professionals to provide a typical contribution to the well-being of employees and by reducing levels of employee stress they must promote health and well-being. some writers have resolute specifically on work-life balance and the contribution Human Resources Development professionals can offer in reducing employees’ stress by conflicts between work and family life (Grzywacz and Carlson, 2007; Pitt-Catsouphes et al. , 2007). According to Nicola Mindell (1995), most of the organizations looks training and evelopment as a region of the department of Human Resource. It’s responsibility should be given to the line managers. The organisational training and support are essential for expatriates for doing a good job in the assignments (Hurn, 2007; Osman-Gani and Tan, 2005; Selmar, 2005;). Late reactions to the development of technique, change in the market, machinery and under-utilized plant capacity and recruitment problems in a company are always a result of a shortage in skills, this happens because of the lack of planning for the necessary training and development (Staudt et al. 1994). The primary and traditional role of training and development has been to insure that the provided workforce is having the skills, knowledge and attitudes essential to perform a given function well. In further, for the purpose of training and development a competency is a group of related attitudes, knowledge and skills that correlates with effective job performance and could be improved by the training and development (Richey et al. , 2001).

Human Resource Development (HRD) is a title which shows the most recent evolutionary period in the extensive tradition of educating, training and developing people for the reason to contribute towards the achievements of societal objectives, organisation and individual (John P Wilson, 2004). Development is the realisation or growth of the ability of a person, through unconscious or conscious learning. The programmes of development usually include elements of planned experience and study and are frequently supported by a counselling or coaching facility (Manpower Services Commission, 1981:15).

According to Bolton, (1995) the occurring of development comes when the gain in experience is successfully combined with the theoretical understanding which can illuminate it, by giving the increased self-assurance both to perceive and to act how such action relates to its context. The definitions of the development clearly shows that the development indicates movement of a better situation that for the individual means advancing towards the mental and physical potential everyone possess. It also indicates movement and growth by the learning person rather than learning itself (John P Wilson, 2004).

Competences in the UK In the United Kingdom the competence areas for training and development specialists had also been mapped, identified, researched and linked to National/Scottish Vocational Qualifications. It has been structured on the traditional training cycle (Employment National Training Organisation, 2000). The most important role of the training and development person is to ‘Develop human potential to assist the individuals and the organisations in achieving their objectives’ (Employment NTO, 2000:6).

The fact remains that training and development personnel are a motley bunch who by and large service low level needs within the organisation (Harrison, 1997). Planning in the training and development is as significant as in any other form of tasks, performing services or any other actions (Leslie Rae, 2000). The training process is a multifaceted one and takes place a long before the real programme, even as back as the decision-making occasion when some form of training is proposed. Whatever the requirement sources, in any form and for any reasons, the training must be planned from that stage as effectively as possible.

The organisations are finding it very difficult to stand competitive in the world of global economy today. The leaders are using competency, benchmarking, competency studies and competency models with a view to helping the human resource decisions, such as training, development, hiring and promotions. In training and development it is very useful to focus on skills, knowledge and abilities. Training and Development can not anticipate quick enough the changes that occurred in the workplace.

In the present world the training has come up to increasingly important as a knowledge, human capital and skills become tools or competitive within organisations, with the presence of the globalisation of markets, the rapid entry of foreign investment and the increased diversity of the workforce into third world countries (Zakaria, 2000; Bhagat and Prien, 1996). The cost is also considerable of the investment in continuing training which is based on a survey done on 550 enterprises in 42 countries of the world conducted by the Society of America for Training and Development in the year of 2000 (Marquardt et al. 2002), the expenditures of training in the European countries were between 2 to 2. 5 percent of the total expenses. The firms of America is spending up to $US60 billion and the companies of Canada spending about US$4 billion on the training every year, and the averaging employee receiving about 30 hours for the training annually (Belcourt and Wright, 1996). It can be seen very clearly from that the training plays very important role in organisations success and growth in productivity. Bartel 1994), has tried to prove the concept with a look at the link between training and development with the use of 150 firms from another survey of Columbia Business School, and came to know about the positive effect of training and development. It is fact that the training can be seen as a key element of the growth and success in development of the organisation as well as companies. That’s why Schuler and Walker (1990) and Noe and Ford (1992), mentioned the training’s importance as an important part of the strategic planning process of the firm.

In further, Yukl and Tannenbaum (1992), stated about the need of training as a system to be included into the organisational context. The companies always try to create a continuous-learning culture for the same reason – for the organisation life learning is a very important part, in the contemporary particularly, fast-paced and changing world. Because of the changes in technology, process the organisations stand to lose a significant amounts of money from the lost productivity or culture when the employees are not trained properly to handle them.

According to the argument made by the leading management theoreticians “it is a lot more profitable to invest a given amount in knowledge assets rather than spending the same sum on material assets if a company wants its competitive advantage to be maintained because with the lack of knowledge it’s very difficult for an organisation to make use of its resources to produce services and goods (Probst et al. , 2000; Davenport and Prusak, 1998). ” As the knowledge has come out as a key resource of economy and a source for the competitive advantage, effective training can be an effective tool to implant knowledge (Drucker, 1995).

It has always been stressed every now and then that what is the importance of training for the growth as well as for the survival of the companies. But what is called as training ? The training has been described as a learning experience which is planned and designed to create change in an individual’s behaviours, skills or knowledge (Campbell el al. , 1970) and then after was developed as en effort planned by the company to make easy the learning of specific attitudes, skills or knowledge in what the employees need to be successful with their job (Goldstain, 1992).

According to Green (1999), the main reason of training is not only simply for the improvement of the workforce’s skills; instead it serves too many purposes such as promoting a common culture in the company, improvement of the employees’ promise to the company and attraction for the good quality workers. However, it is very difficult for these goals to meet each other. The major problem which most of the business have to face every day is how to make the training effective or what are the possible factors what can guide to effective training are.

The report making a focus on six dimensions which can lead to effective training as explained in the report. Multi-dimensional concept : The need of Assessment for the training According to Holton ( 2000), the instructional and training design perspective always needs assessment is renowned as one key for the effective training program. As an example of the comparison between the needs of assessment for the training to the construction of the house which was made by Duggan (2005) to the diagnosis of the disease.

If a person get sick, it is very important to find out first ‘what is the problem after the sickness? ’ so that it can be cured effectively. On the same way it can be done in an organisation. Before taking a decision about what kind of training should be provided and offered, it is very important to find out for the organisation what the employees needs to be trained to avoid the waste of money and time on training what should not be trained. It has been said that “diagnosis precedes treatment just as needs assessment precedes training. Training needs assessment consists of three different levels of analysis : 1. Analysis of organisation; 2. Work analysis, task, operations and 3. Analysis of individual There are so many different kinds of functions in an organisation which has to be performed by different employees. McGehee and Thayer (1961), added that the effective needs assessments deal with all the three levels of analysis. According to Rossett (1992), the main purposes to conduct needs assessment include disseminating and finding information about : 1).

Actual Performance, 2) Ideal Performance, 3) how to involve parties feel, 4) the cause of the problems and 5) the way to minimize the gaps between actual and ideal performance. The important role of training needs assessment in bringing effective training : An effective training program : The success for an organisation and the return on investment can be ensured by a properly planned training program for the training dollars. Crosby (1979), mentioned in his book “the cost of good training is lower than the cost of not training or of poor training. The good training allows the participants to share the experiences of real-world and relate just-learned skills instead of just to learn theory. The intention is not to place the employees through the training. But to learn and to get the knowledge and to start to apply the lessons learned by the employees (Shafer, 1998). As it is said generally, the system of training should be in the framework of ongoing organisational strategic, where as the programs of training should be in the framework of organisational strategic goals.

According to Brennan and Kaplan (2005), if the participants are offered role models by the training, they would be more likely able to relate what they learned and act accordingly in their job, in the workplace. To carry out this concept efficiently and effectively, they argued that training should be related to the job of employee. If the employee does not feel that he can apply his training to his own work situation, he would gain a little benefit from it. In further, the training should be interesting and engaging.

If the attention would not be paid by the participants, it would be very difficult for them to learn. And they will not be able to remember the presented information. A criteria was set by Kirkpatrick (1987), for effective training based on employees’ knowledge or skills acquisition from training, satisfaction with the training, the better firm performance and the different behaviours of employees in the workplace. An important role of program in providing effective training : Flexible training : Flexibility would come next, once a good program is guaranteed to make training more effective.

Every individual employee has a different need and also different style of learning. Therefore the training needs flexibility to satisfy every individual employee. According to Gamerdinger (1997), as each individual employee has a different style of learning, learning can be promoted by various training methods. The combination of different learning styles and good learning aids provoke participants’ senses, what in turn assists them to internalize the learning. Ambler (2006), stated “when it comes to training no magic would be there. ” Different people have different methods of learning.

For some people hands-on training works best, on the other side from the others training gets the best response in the classroom. It can be said that the programs which are flexible enough to support the various styles of learning are good training programs. According to Haughey (2000), flexibility should appear to be a new doctrine of training. An important role of flexible training in providing effective training : Self-efficacy One finding to emerge from training research is the importance of self-efficacy for enhancing effectiveness (Mathieu et al. , 1993). According to Gravell et al. (2002), Self-efficacy is a behaviour of an individual or a belief in his/her own abilities for performing a task, and self awareness of the abilities, all of which a key role can be played in effective metacognition development. It had been found by Gist (1989), there is a encouraging relationship between trainees’ training performance and self efficacy on an innovative, problem solving task. It is very difficult to make the outcome of the training fruitful without the interest and self-commitment of the learners. Employees who are not good at self-efficacy are less likely to be positive and open in new different situations (Hill et al. 1987), and thus would not be able to cope with the challenges and demands (Gist et al. , 1989). According to Bandura (1997), if the employee has low efficacy, he or she would have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals. In different words, these are the employees who are more likely to become tense and frustrated when the situation will come up with different difficult challenges, and these challenges will be viewed as threats to be avoided instead of challenges to be occupied. In such way this restrict their abilities to gain fully from the training experience.

On the other side, the employees who are confident and optimistic about their performance in training will have positive and hopeful attitudes toward training (Gutherie and Schwoerer, 1994). According to Latham (1988), when the employees finds that the training is very important and that the learning lessons can be helpful them to increase their working performance, what in turn helps them advance in their positions, they would definitely have high self efficacy to move into the training program. An important role of Self efficacy in bringing effective training Social support

According to Bladwin and Ford, 1988; Noe and Schmitt, 1986), the level of social support received from significant others, is another factor which has influenced the effectiveness of training, including supervisors, peers, top management and subordinates. Further said by Fishbein and Stasson (1990), the wants and wishes of significant others would be enthusiastically and willingly carried out by the individuals. Hence, for the effectiveness of training the top management support and the colleagues support is very important. The employees should be provided by the supervisors with on-the-job opportunities to use the skills learned.

According to Rainbird (2000), it is very depressing when the employees have possibilities about the job progression, and the feeling is reinforced by a shortage of support and motivation from their bosses. Further said by Shafer (1998), it is not possible to make the training effective without the support of management along with an effective training program. If the trainees are offered by the supervisors the opportunities to practise the skills what they have learned, they can be involved more actively in the process of training, and can make training a success Ford et al. 1992). Transfer of Knowledge According to Ford and Weissbein (1997), Rouiller and Goldstain (1993), and Bruke and Baldwin (1999), the support of supervisor and peer, the influence of supervisor and their attitudes, can make the training process full of effectiveness and also facilitate the effective transfer of knowledge, which is also said by Ford and Weissbein (1997), Baldwin and Ford (1988), Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992) and Salas and Cannon-Bowers (2000), as another key component of effective training.

Effective transfer of knowledge is the capacity of employees to apply the abilities, skills and knowledge gained from the training to the practice of their work (Baldwin and Ford, 1988). They also said that the employees would be able to transfer new skills to the job when they will be confident with the use of new skills, when they will be aware about the correct situation to apply new skills and whey they will be confident about that the skills and knowledge they have gained and learned from the training are helpful and necessary in their workplace (Noe and Schmitt, 1986).

Converting the newly learned skills into practice with the importance, many researches had been done to look at significant factors affecting training transfer, and result of a transfer climate pointed to the importance (Holton et al. 1997; Rouiller and Goldstein, 1993; Tracy et al. 1995).

According to Rouiller and Goldstein (1993), and Burke and Baldwin (1999) a transfer climate is supporting the transfer of specific training to the work situation, workplace situations and consequences facilitating such as the provision and the influence of feedback from the management, colleagues attitudes toward training and practices on training and the support of organisational. These consequences and social cues remind the employees to apply their skills and learning what they have learned in the workplace.

In further, Clarke (2002), stated by further examined factors influencing training transfer and came to know that shortage of supervisory support with a little or almost no feedback and refusal of the supervisors to be open towards the changes, was a main barrier for the effective training transfer. Massy (2003), argued that training/study quality also needs that the trainers should be aware or should know the ways of knowledge transfer to the trainee. Below mentioned are the questions about the Trainers : Do the trainers have the knowledge of what they have to do ?

What is their education ? Are they having enough experience ? Qualified training personnel : The trainers must be qualified regarding basic experience and knowledge, interactive skills and communication skills (Ross, Malcolm, 2009). They must be appropriate for the situation and also they must be having the abilities to plan such training programs. Time, resources must be provided by the senior management and personnel to the function of training to accomplish training. Leadership should be demonstrated by the senior management in support of training.

The training function must not be limited by cost, resources and time function (Welty, Gordon, 2008). For the success of the training function the tangible support of senior management is critical. According to Larson (2003), Training can make a positive impact on the productivity of an employee, which can be resulted in the higher levels of employee and customer satisfaction. From the example of McDonald’s it has been seen that the training’s low levels gives rise to the higher levels of staff turnover and that the good training’s provision has always a positive effect on the retention of the staff (Thomas et al. 2000). Even after numbers of surveys been done on employee training, still a serious gaps remain about the knowledge of such fundamental matters as to who provides the training, how much training can take place, who gets it and whether the efficacy has been achieved (Joyce et al. , 2000; Lynch, 1998). A number of surveys have stated about the benefits of training. Organisations committed to the training of employee have realised the rewards of motivation, increased skill-sets, knowledge transfer and higher productivity of their employees (Oosterbeek, 1998; Pate and Martin, 2000).

In real, the training related an employee’s job increases an employee’s abilities to perform the tasks which are job-related (Acton and Golden, 2003). The organisations that provides the training send a strong signal to employees regarding the commitment of management to the customer service (Babakus et al. , 2003). The employee’s who are being trained have also been found to result in increasing employee satisfaction and commitment to the organisation, increasing professionalism and facilitating the updating of skills (Bushardt and Fretwell, 1994; Bateman and Strasser, 1984; Cotton and Tuttle, 1986).

According to Bruke (1995), as it is shown in his study the participation in external and internal courses are always beneficial and valuable to the organisations and their employees. Staffs perceiving higher value in official training courses are comparatively more fulfilled with their jobs, which make them to feel better about their organisation (Bruke, 1995). Training’s Evaluation : Training’s core elements commonly contain identifying planning, needs, delivery and evaluation. The power of the experiences of employees on the effectiveness of training has hitherto received scant research attention.

In order to achieving the higher returns on the investment the evaluation of training is very important (Warr et al. , 1999). The training has always been given credit for the improvement of profitability in spite of that many organisations particularly the small businesses failed to effectively evaluate their training program’s success (Santos and Stuart, 2003). According to Reid and Barrington (1997), evaluation is the most difficult part of the process of training to assess. The Model of Kirkpatrick (TKM)’s ierarchy with four different levels which are reaction, behaviour, learning and results has been widely used as a leader to evaluate the training at workplace in the field of organisational and industrial psychology (Kirkpatrick, 1994). At TKM’s model’s first level trainees reactions in terms of enjoyment and satisfaction to a training program or components are always recorded (Warr et al. , 1999). According to Warr and Bunce (1995), enjoyment of the training, its perceived difficulty and its perceived usefulness are the three key participants about the reactions to be captured.

This suggests that in the evaluation of the reactions the trainer-trainee interactions or the quality of trainer is very important. However, the trainer’s important is rarely recognised at all in the literature of training stated by Steiner (1991, P. 271). Surprisingly the suitability of the trainer and the course design can impact on the failure or success of the training program. The second level of TKM is the evaluation of learning which is evaluated in terms of the amount of learning (Warr et al. , 1999).

It can be said that the level to which trainees change attitudes, increase skill and improve knowledge as a result of attending the program (Brown and Sneider, 1998, p. 10). Here most of the researches has hitherto focused on the extent to which have been reached by the trainees targeted competence’s standards instead of the occurred amount of learning during the program (Sackett and Mullen, 1993). The next level is behaviour the definition of it can be “the extent to which the intervention of training has changed the behaviour (Rowden, 2005, p. 32). The fourth level is results which makes a focus on the impact of training on the firm’s bottom line (Parry, 1996). The intention is not to investigate TKM’s different levels as these kinds of activities have proven highly complex to evaluate (Dionne, 1996). Focus on two of TKM’s levels has resulted in a number of hypotheses: The favourable learning experience of an employee has a positive effect on an organisation’s evaluation of an organisation’s provision of training and development. An effectiveness of the designed course has a positive effect on an organisation’s evaluation of an organisation’s provision of training and development.

The same way the trainer’s quality has a positive effect on an organisation’s evaluation of an organisation’s provision of training and development. Job Satisfaction In the organisational studies the Scholars have long been attracted about the reason why certain people are more satisfied than others with their jobs (Ellickson, 2002). Satisfaction of Jobs refers to overall assessment of an employee of her or his work-related experiences and work, which an individual’s values have influenced, beliefs and ideals (Baron, 1976; Chan et al. 2004). Job satisfaction’s measurement is important as “satisfied employees can lead the organisation to the satisfied customers” (Rust et al. , 1996, p. 63). Although the job satisfaction’s widespread interest among practitioners and researchers, there has been hitherto a little attention devoted for the explanation of job satisfaction’s variation among the management and employees. The Job Diagnostic Survey can be called an instrument which has largely determined the relationship between job design and job satisfaction.

The survey was developed by Hackman and Oldman in the year of 1975, assessed employees’ perceptions five job dimensions including variety of skills, identifying task, autonomy, task significance and feedback (Pierce et al. , 1986). According to Marchese (1998), there is a strong relationship between job design and job worth, with salary strongly influenced by responsibility and skill. Satisfaction of Job can be an important motivator for the performance of an employee and has been found inversely relate with turnover (Mak and Sockel, 1999; Rust et al. 1996). In further, allowing talented employees to learn new skills to keep them current on their job functions and training can be used to improve the satisfaction of an employee within the organisation (Rice et al. , 1991). It can be seen from the evidence that training is more likely to have a positive effect on the satisfaction of an employee where employers develop formal, planned approaches to training that connects skill formation to job term, recognition and reward and career progression (Heys and Stuart, 1994).

Many researchers have found satisfaction of job resulting in increased job performance (Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985), reducing staff turnover (Mobley et al. , 1979) and minimising absenteeism of employee (Steers and Rhodes, 1978). According to Ramlall (2004), creation of working environment where employees are committed through job satisfaction improvement. Referred by Hackman and Oldham (1980) and Ramlall (2004) job including multiple talents and task varieties can improve job satisfaction and also can increase retention of an employee. Training’s consequences is an improvement n job design which can be resulted in the higher is satisfaction of an employee with the organisation’s provision of training and development, the higher is job satisfaction of an employee. In the world of today as the organisations look for ways to remain competitive they have appreciably increased their efforts for the development of skills, capabilities of an employee and knowledge to maximize the impact on their organisation. It can be seen from the latest report of ASTD (a national professional organisation for trainers,) the organisations are spending a big amount of $109. 5 billion on workplace training and performance every year (WLP). The average expenditure for the year per employee in the ASTD’s Forum of Benchmarking (BMF) large organisation’s sample increased to $1,424 per employee in the year of 2005, increasing 4 percent from the year of 2004, and the average expenditure is increased up to 3. 7 percent in ASTD Best organisations per employee. It can be seen from the figures that Best Organisations and BMF continue to allocate substantial resources for the training of employee.

In the calculation of the figures ASTD uses each employee’s expenditure, the payroll percentages of the organisations, employee’s training hours and every hour’s training cost. The number of hours of formal training for the employee in the organisations of BMF increased from 35 to 41 hours per employee from the year of 2004 to 2005. According to Ketter (2006), The average number of training hours for each employee rose from 36 to 43 from the year of 2004 to 2005 in BEST organisations. It has been also a significant shift in what is being measured and who the trainers are as the organisational training effort’s outcome.

The companies have grown up more concerned and cautious about competitive intelligence’s value and have caused the organisations to considerably curtail the training activity’s outsourcing. Different researchers and organisations have attempted to value training as an investment of organisation and have used simple methods of valuation for the calculation of return on investment for their training activities. What value can be placed on reduced stress levels? Longer careers? Improved morale? Improved time management? Better qualified staff?

All of these can be returns-benefits on training investment. An argument can be made that the value attachment and relating this to a single reason (i. e. training) is always difficult or impossible and many training ROI assessments are best estimates. Monetizing and measuring the costs and benefits of training: Most of the literature on the benefits and costs of training identifies the benefits and costs indirectly and directly related to the efforts of training undertaken. There is also some dissimilarity on which costs should be included.

As an example according to Campbell (1994), necessary expenses for an organisation, should be excluded from the valuation, and in further according to Phillips et al. , (2007), the indirect costs of training should be treated as a part for the general overhead expenses of an organisation. It is in the measurement and recognition of training’s benefits that the opinion’s divergence appears to be widest. According to Chang (2003), for the employees who are directly involved with producing sales revenue it is a revenue’s change that is appropriate benefit’s measure.

Farrell (2005), stated instead making a focus on employee turnover because training’s benefits will be felt most notably in organisation’s outcome measurement. Training’s benefits should be measured in by the identification of changes in key operating activities which are directly related to objectives and goals of an organisation (Campbell 1994, Phillips et al. 2007, Lengermann 1996 and Tobin, 1998). Campbell (1994), suggested that it is hard to quantify variables include stability of workforce, employee morale, satisfaction of job, absenteeism, improved relations with customers and supervisory development of skills.

Further said by Phillips (2007), changes in those activities: commitment of organisation, customer complaints and teamwork. Lengermann made an argument that measurement of benefits should be in terms of changes in a organisation’s productivity net of changes in salaries of employee that are result of training. Training and development practice’s scope in organisation The activities of Training and Development in the organisations makes a focus on three different levels of analysis : Organisational, team and individual.

The level of individual training and development practices makes the focus on on-the-job training which involves an employee being paired up with employees with more experience and they participate in a process of practice, observation and feedback (Smith and Dowling, 2001. ) Classroom based or off-the-job training uses a combination of discussion, lectures and structured exercises for the development of task specific skills what address the current role requirements (Smith and Smith, 2008. ) An organisation may also use other learning practices individually focused that are more educational in nature.

These could include college courses, open learning programmes or e-learning. These kind of activities are generally not compulsory and depend on the employee motivation in terms of uptake (Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001). Organisations are expected to use a number of activities with the focus of development that are more long-term and less job focused in nature. They include job rotation, secondments, hardship experiences and project work. These activities are designed for the development of more generic competencies which are of importance of an organisation (Zwick, 2006).

Supermarkets in the same way may implement activities for the development of career with individual focus which focus on the development of potential to advance. These include personal plans for development, personal development reviews, developmental assessment centres and multi-source feedback (Birdi et al. , 2007). These practices of individual training and development may be control-based or resource-based. Resource-based practices make a focus on employee’s internal development and include broader career development and development approaches.

Control-based practices make a focus on the extent to which practice of training and development is concerned with monitoring and directing the employee performance. These typically contain the common of the coaching processes and job training practices. Training and development with teams focus interventions focus on the development of collective knowledge’s level and skills including the team mental model’s development. Learning practices of team level focus on the development of knowledge sharing, skills and embedding the knowledge within the team (Senge, 1990).

According to Salas et al. , (2005), team training best practices include the teamwork-related competencies identification of the members of team, training intact teams where possible with the use of team building processes for the clarification of the systematic evaluation of team training and roles. Organisations may utilise a number of team training strategies such as team confrontation sessions, outward-bound interventions and cross-training. Organisations may also use team feedback processes to aid the development of team mental models.

Training and Development practices with organisational focus or HRD focus to match training and development interventions to organisational goals. Organisations may use strategic training needs analysis for the identification of key performance priorities of the organisation, the priority training initiatives that should be implemented and the organisation’s key skill requirements. Organisations mostly use the information what has been derived from strategic training needs analysis for the selection of the most suitable learning strategies with the help of which the organisational performance will be maximised (Smith and Smith, 2007).

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