Transit-oriented development refers to a design of the country to maximise the entree to so as the usage of public conveyance to accomplish sustainable transit, and the sustainable transit can assist accomplish sustainable society as a whole.
Sustainable transit is encouraged by advancing compact development around the major populace installations, bettering the prosaic walking experience, and increasing the handiness to the public theodolite. It frequently incorporates the characteristics to promote theodolite ridership. TOD is a scheme to cover with heavy population and it is a development to incorporate with the theodolite system. A TOD vicinity typically has a centre with a theodolite station or halt of public conveyance, such as coach halt and railroad station, surrounded by comparatively high-density development with increasingly lower denseness development distributing outward from the centre. ( On-line wikipedia, 2012 )
High denseness population with assorted land usage within short distance, TOD aims that people can entree to put more easy with shorter clip which would necessitate less vehicle travel, salvage energy and emit less pollutants. Planing for compact growing of an country, instead than allowing it sprawl out, has the possible to greatly increase the quality of the environment. It prevents jobs of traffic congestion and the environmental debasement associated with urban conurbation.
Tod contains specific characteristics that are designed to promote public conveyance usage and distinguish the development from urban conurbation. Examples of these characteristics include ( Renne, 2009 ) the vicinity is designed for cycling and walking, with equal installations and attractive street conditions. The streets have good connectivity and tracffic appeasement characteristics to command vehicle traffic velocities, such as narrow streets. Mixed-use development is found that includes stores, schools and other public services, and a assortment of lodging types and monetary values, within each vicinity. Efficient parking direction to cut down the sum of land devoted to parking compared with conventional development and to take advantage of the parking cost nest eggs associated with reduced car usage. Transit stops and Stationss are convenient, comfy and secure. ( New urbanism )
As discussed by Newman ( 2009 ) , some strategic planning models are needed as a set of policy tools to assist implementing TOD. He suggests four strategic planning tools ( Newman, in Curtis, 2009, p. 13 ) :
1. A strategic policy model that asserts where centres need to happen and at what sort of denseness and mix ;
2. A strategic policy model that links centres with a rapid theodolite base, about constantly electric rail ;
3. A statutory planning base that requires development to happen at the necessary denseness and design in each centre, sooner facilitated by a specialised development bureau, and
4. A public-private support mechanism that enables the theodolite and the TOD to be built or refurbished through a linkage between the theodolite and the centres it will serve.
An country is created based on a set of urban design criterion and districting guidelines with a heavy population and theodolite system. Increasingly, regional planning techniques are being used to command and form of growing into compact, high-density, mixed-use vicinities, small towns, towns, and metropoliss, organizing a hierarchy. Compact development provides sufficient population and demand to back up theodolite system with a dense web coverage. TODs by and large are located within a radius of 400-800 metres or up to 15-minute walk from a theodolite halt, it increases the location efficiency so people can walk and bicycle to take theodolite as it is considered as an appropriate graduated table for walkers. By bettering the prosaic walking experience and increasing the handiness to the public theodolite, more people will take public theodolite and cut down the flow of cars. The country becomes an attractive and cohesive mixed-use country with commercial, retail and residential utilizations as self-sustaining.
Many metropoliss have faced the challenges of acquiring the right residential denseness because the denseness tends to be really low. Particularly in the North America where people frequently rely on driving vehicles as their chief conveyance manner, the higher-density residential development near theodolite system can restrict the negative impacts to the environment. But TOD is suited in Hong Kong, given the high denseness of population, it is able to back up the development in theodolite system and develop the theodolite web into a comprehensive coverage with high handiness.
Hong Kong as an illustration of TOD
Hong Kong has a entire land country of 1098km2 and a population of 7 million in 2012.
( Census & A ; Statistics Department, 2012 ) The land supply is scarce and residential usage is heavy. Worse still, big proportion of the land is hilly. While a certain part of the land has been designated as state Parkss and catchment countries for reservoirs, much of the land are non executable for development.
With the rapid economic development, urban country in Hong Kong expands in a unmanageable mode to the countryside which can be regarded as urban conurbation. This has created tonss of unpleasant jobs. To command urban conurbation and better use the limited land resource in Hong Kong, new towns are developed to relocate the surging population and plan them into a self-sufficient community with assorted land usage. New town development with TOD is an appropriate planning scheme to cover with the heavy population in Hong Kong.
In early 1970s, the authorities implemented the New Town Development Programme in which new towns were planned to be served by railroad associating to the urban country, for illustration, the New Towns such as Tai Po and Fanling in Northeast served by East Railway. Since the debut of the Third Comprehensive Transport Study in 1999, the Government began to take a proactive function in incorporating land usage and railroad development. Railway would organize the anchor of the hereafter rider conveyance web. Railway Stationss would synchronise with land usage development and go the hubs for conveyance interchanges.
Some topographic points were chosen to develop into new towns as the first planning tool mentioned above. New towns are designed to house a heavy population with the sufficient proviso of public installations such as schools and shopping promenades, and assorted land usage. The new towns are developed into densely-populated country, we can cognize from the figures shown in the tabular array below.
Time of development
Population ( in individuals )
Population denseness ( persons/km2 )
Tseung Kwan O
Tin Shui Wai
The edifices in new town are high rise and represent a figure of estates to concentrate the people, so stops and Stationss can be built to associate them up and for more efficient conveyance. The lodging estates are in assorted types, including public lodging, private lodging and so on at different monetary value as picks to the occupants. Cycling and walking lane are designed to better the prosaic experience and increase the handiness to the public theodolite. Mixed land usage with public installations are developed based on the threshold of the goods and services to supply, many lower order goods and services can be found to do new towns self-maintaining, such as day-to-day necessities and primary and secondary instruction. For illustration, Tin Shui Wai is a new town with many high rise edifices to house a really high denseness of population with the theodolite system of light railroad among itself, Tuen Mun and Yuen Long, and West railway connected to urban countries.
For the 2nd planning tool, the country is designed with a theodolite base. The compact growing of new towns can back up every station of railroad system and develop as a TOD vicinity. Each new town is accessible presents by different lines in mass theodolite system.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mtr.com.hk/eng/getting_around/images/MTR_routemap_510.jpgLook at the map of MTR, we can see most of the country can be reached by taking railroad. The railroad web is heavy and covers most of the dense populated country in Hong Kong. Populous country in daylight, Mongkok, Tsim Sha Tsui and Central, thickly settled country in dark, Tin Shui wai, Tuen Mun and Shatin, all are linked by the railroad system. The distance between every station is close, people can take railroad to any finishs, and the walking distance from place to the Stationss is non long, within the radius of 15-minute walk.
The development of theodolite system and the new towns should be synchronized, the new town development was failed in the past decennaries when the land usage and theodolite development were non synchronized. Tseung Kwan O line ( completed in August 2002 ) and Ma On Shan Rail ( completed in 2004 ) were constructed after two countries have been dumbly populated, the unavailability hinders the development of two topographic points. These are the illustrations of the deficiency of co-ordination between the land usage development and theodolite system.
The 3rd and 4th tools are the development in a centre is sooner facilitated by a specialised development bureau or funded by public or private mechanism. It can be illustrated by the illustration of Taikoo Shing as one of the first successful TODs was Taikoo Shing by Swire Properties Limited ( Swire ) . The development started in 1970s when the MTR Island Line was non yet in operation. When the Island Line started to run in 1985 plus the gap of the East Harbour Crossing Tunnel in 1989, Swire realized the land usage development is profitable from MTR system. In order to capture the impacts of mass theodolite system, development in Taikoo Shing has been diversifying in land usage with retail, office, commercial and residential maps, and leisure comfortss, such as a big shopping promenade called City Plaza.
As a consequence of the New Town Development Programme, a major railroad in the New Territories has linked with the Hong Kong Island line ; more lodging developments including private lodging grew along the major railroad arterias. The closer distance to the MTR Stationss, the denser the residential development. And as the population additions, development besides expands to run into the demand. TODs are therefore good developed in Hong Kong.
Benefits of TOD
More intensive mixed-use development allows an addition in walking and biking within the vicinity, when a theodolite connexion is added to the mix so auto-free travel to other parts of the metropolitan country become more executable. Less car usage means less ingestion of fossil fuels, less air pollution, and lower the disbursement on transit. ( Reconnecting America )
When the features of a peculiar topographic point are recognized as supportive of lower personal transit costs, the pecuniary benefits can be captured by both persons ( in the signifier of greater mortgage borrowing power ) and the community ( in the signifier of lower development costs stemming from reduced demand to construct expensive parking ) . In short, transit-oriented development can be a cardinal portion of a development paradigm that is more environmentally and socially sustainable, and that contributes to higher quality of life. Furthermore, bing historic vicinities are being preserved and enhanced by the propinquity of more diverse lodging, shopping and amusement picks, and the additions in traffic are minimum.
The railroad theodolite system is under extension and Hong Kong population is billowing, believing that Hong Kong is continue to develop at a fast gait. The development of TOD is good to Hong Kong in the sense that sustainable transit can be achieved.