Type of business ownership Sole proprietorship

A concern that is carried on by a exclusive proprietary is owned by one individual, who besides normally runs and manages the concern. There may or may non be people working in the concern these are referred to as employees of the concern and the proprietor is the employer.

The exclusive proprietary receives all net incomes and is lawfully required to bear and fulfill all losingss personally. The exclusive proprietary is personally apt for debts of the concern. So that, the exclusive proprietary has unlimited liability to refund sums owing, or debts, of the concern. For illustration, if the concern incurs debts ensuing from a guarantee claim, so the person will be held responsible for those debts, and any claims will be made against the person ‘s personal assets. As good, exclusive proprietaries are taxed under the personal revenue enhancement system.

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The exclusive proprietary it is easy to put up and may merely necessitate enrollment of the concern name and is free to run the concern as he or she thinks best and is non answerable to a foreman. As for the name of the concern, the name of the proprietor or any other name may be used. Normally, a exclusive proprietary concern requires a little sum of capital to get down with, compared with other signifiers of concern entities. Examples of exclusive proprietary concerns are tailor stores, beauty barrooms, eating houses, Laundromats and mini market.

Type of






Partnership is an association of two or more individuals or entities that carry on concern as spouses. The spouses normally run and manage the concern. However, there may be a soundless spouse who does non take any portion in the running of the concern even though they have contributed capital to the partnership. In a partnership, each spouse is personally apt for all debts incurred by the concern ; in the event of the house ‘s failure, each spouse ‘s personal assets are jeopardized.

In the partnership, the spouses should hold a legal understanding that sets forth how determinations will be made, net incomes will be shared, differences will be resolved, how future spouses will be admitted to the partnership, how spouses can be bought out, and what stairss will be taken to fade out the partnership when needed.

There are two rudimentss signifiers of partnerships, general and limited. In a general partnership, all spouses have unlimited liability, while in a limited partnership, at least one spouse has liability limited merely to his or her investing while at least one other spouse has full liability. Examples of partnership are jurisprudence or accounting houses, medical or dental patterns

In partnership that are many sort of spouse, for illustration:

Apparent Partner: Active and known as a spouse.

Secret Partner: Active but non known or held out as a spouse.

Dormant Partner: Inactive and non known or held out as a spouse.

Silent Partner: Inactive ( but may be known to be a spouse )

Nominal Partner: Not a true spouse in any sense, non being a party to the partnership understanding. However, a nominal spouse holds him or herself out as a spouse, or permits others to do such representation by the usage of his/her name or otherwise

Type of company







Companies limited by portions

Companies limited by warrant

A company is a separate legal entity formed under the Corporations Act 2001.Commonly, its proprietors are called stockholders and their ownership involvements are represented by portions in the company. The separate legal position of the company has many deductions for the entity. First, the company can come in into contracts, incur debts and pay revenue enhancements independently of its proprietors. The proprietors pay single revenue enhancements merely on the company net income paid out to them in the signifier of wages, fillips and dividends.

The stockholders are non apt for the company ‘s debts once the portions they hold have been paid for in full. For illustration, if a company issued $ 1 portions, with 60 cents collectible on application and the staying 40 cents collectible by future installments, the stockholders ‘ liability in the event of the company fall ining would be staying 40 cents on each portion they own. This characteristic is known as limited liability ; that is, their duty is limited to the sum, if any, unpaid on their portions.

As a separate legal entity, a company has many of the rights, responsibilities and duties of a natural individual. It can, through its agents, purchase, ain and sell belongings in its ain name and engage in concern activities by come ining into contracts with others. It has legal position in a tribunal and can action and be sued, is lawfully responsible for its liabilities, and must pay income revenue enhancement merely as a natural individual does.

Different type of concern ownership has different type of features, what is the different between each other? The major different features of each other are revenue enhancement consideration, liability, continuance, easiness and cost of set up.

Tax Consideration

The exclusive proprietary any income to the concern is treated as income to the concern proprietor and all income is reported on single revenue enhancement return, and is taxed in the twelvemonth it is received. Business tax write-offs are permitted. While in partnership, a Partnership Agreement can apportion the net incomes or losingss in any ratio agreed to between the spouses but if there is no Agreement, the net incomes must be allocated every bit. Business tax write-offs are taken by the partnership before the income is distributed to the spouses and claimed on their personal revenue enhancement returns. The net income of a company is taxed to the company when earned, and so is taxed to the stockholders when distributed as dividends. This creates a dual revenue enhancement. The corporation does non acquire a revenue enhancement tax write-off when it distributes dividends to stockholders. Stockholders can non subtract any loss of the corporation.


In Sole owners have unlimited liability and are lawfully responsible for all debts against the concern. Their concern and personal assets are at hazard. In Partnership, spouses are apt for all the debts of the concern and the full sum of these debts can be collected from one or more of the spouses instead than the debt being every bit shared. Spouses can besides be held apt for Acts of the Apostless committed by one of their spouses in the normal class of concern. Owners of a Company have the liability protection of a corporation. That is because, the company exists as a separate entity much like a corporation. A company member can non be held personally apt for debts unless they have signed a personal warrant.

Ownership involvements

Ownership involvements in a company may be sold to third parties without upseting the continued operation of the concern. A exclusive proprietary or partnership, on the other manus, can non be sold whole


The exclusive proprietary remains in being for every bit long as the proprietor is willing or able to remain in concern. When the proprietor dies, the exclusive proprietary no longer exists. The assets and liabilities of the concern become portion of the proprietor ‘s estate. A exclusive owner can freely reassign a concern by selling all or a part of the assets of the concern. In partnership the concern organisation ends with decease, incapacity, backdown or bankruptcy of any spouse, unless otherwise agreed to in a Partnership Agreement. In company signifier a continuity of life, it has the power to be everlastingly and, hence, is unaffected by the decease of an proprietor or director or by the transportation of ownership involvements.

Ease and cost of set up

The exclusive proprietary and partnership it is easy to put up and may register a trade name to advance its merchandises and services. While in company, a company must be registered with the Registrar of Companies. Company cost more to put up and run than a exclusive proprietary or partnership. For illustration, there are the initial formation fees, registering fees and one-year province fees. However, these costs are partly offset by lower insurance costs.


Beside that, a partnership may be comparatively more flexible in the determination doing procedure than in a corporation. But, it may be less so than in a exclusive proprietary. That is because exclusive proprietary direction is able to react rapidly to concern demands in the signifier of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours direction determinations as governed by assorted Torahs and good sense.

Capital Rising

A corporation has many avenues to raise capital. It can sell portions of stock and make new types of stock, such as preferable stock, with different vote or net income features. Partnership hard to lifting extra capital but easier than exclusive proprietary, that is because, exclusive proprietary are the lone proprietor, hence ca n’t sell any portions to fund concern growing, and Bankss are more disbelieving about imparting money to sole proprietaries.

There are several advantages to being a exclusive proprietary. First, the exclusive proprietary entity is a speedy, cheap and easy signifier of concern to set up, and can be cheap to weave down. In this type of concern, there are no specific concern revenue enhancements paid by the company. The proprietor pays revenue enhancements on income from the concern as portion of personal income revenue enhancement payments. A exclusive owner has complete control and decision-making power over the concern, and is hence free to take the way of the concern and it strategies and policies. Sale or reassign can take topographic point at the discretion of the exclusive owner. Exclusive proprietary can command all the plus and money of concern and can take money out of company for personal usage at any clip, every bit long as brand certain the concern measures are paid. Exclusive proprietary is comparative freedom from authorities control. The farther advantage is that the proprietor claims all the net incomes of the concern.

There are several disadvantages to being a exclusive proprietary. Sole proprietary ‘s concern is non a separate legal entity. Therefore, if the concern is involved in any signifier of legal difference, the person proprietor has unlimited liability, which means the exclusive owner of the concern can be held personally apt for the debts and duties of the concern. Additionally, this hazard extends to any liabilities incurred as a consequence of Acts of the Apostless committed by employees of the company. The exclusive proprietary comparatively limited point of view and experience that is because exclusive proprietary is limited by the accomplishment, clip and investing of the single proprietor. Sole proprietary are unstable concern life, the endeavor may be crippled or terminated upon unwellness or decease of the proprietor.

There are several advantages to being a partnership. First, the partnerships are comparatively easy to put up nevertheless clip should be invested in developing the partnership understanding. Partnership files informational revenue enhancement return.A Partnership income is reportable and taxed on spouses ‘ personal income revenue enhancement returns. The chief advantage of a partnership over a exclusive proprietary is that the partnership combines the accomplishments, endowments, and cognition of two or more people, and all spouses have equal rights in the direction of the partnership concern

The chief disadvantages of partnership are partnership is characterized by limitless liability. Therefore, the spouses are to the full responsible for all concern debts and duties, irrespective of their engagement in the entity. The partnership signifier has a limited life therefore it may stop with decease, incapacity, backdown or bankruptcy of any spouse. A great figure of partnerships find themselves involved in differences because of dissensions refering net income sharing or determination devising for the concern. Partnership is limited fiscal therefore it may merely borrow money or usage spouses ‘ nest eggs. Must be dissolved and reformed to acknowledge extra spouses wishing to put. A farther disadvantage is known as common bureau. Common bureau is every spouse acts as an agent for the partnership and for every other spouse. Therefore, a spouse can stand for the other spouses and adhere them to a contract if he or she is moving within the evident range of the concern. Partnership is comparative trouble in obtaining big amounts of capital. This is peculiarly true of long term funding when compared to a corporation. However, by utilizing single spouses ‘ assets, chances are likely greater than in a proprietary.

The chief advantages of organizing a company is the limited liability protection provided to its proprietors. Because a corporation is considered a separate legal entity, the stockholders have limited liability for the corporation ‘s debts. The personal assets of stockholders are non at hazard for fulfilling corporate debts or liabilities. Companies are attractive investing. The constitutional stock construction of a corporation makes it attractive to investors. The company signifier has a continuity of life, it has the power to be everlastingly and, hence, is unaffected by the decease of an proprietor or director or by the transportation of ownership involvements. Other advantages of company is revenue enhancement, proprietors of a company merely pay revenue enhancements on company net incomes paid to them in the signifier of wages, fillips, and dividends. The company pays revenue enhancements, at the company rate, on any net incomes. Companies besides have the ability to raise big sums of capital through public portion offerings. Companies have a set direction construction. The proprietors of a company are stockholders, who elect a Board of Directors, which so elects the officers. Other than the election of managers, stockholders do non take part in the operations of the company.

There are several disadvantages to the company signifier of concern construction. First, the company is more expensive and time-consuming to set up. Companies are monitored by federal, province and some local bureaus, and as a consequence may hold more paperwork to follow with ordinances. Company set up cost are expansive that is because company have to pay many fees to put up the concern there are the initial formation fees, registering fees and one-year province fees. Beside that, paperwork is a immense constituent of the company formalities that must followed. For illustration, concern bank histories and records must be maintained and kept offprint from personal histories and assets. . In company may ensue in higher overall revenue enhancements. C corporations have possible double-tax effects -A one time when the company makes its net income, and a 2nd clip when dividends are paid to stockholders. S corporations can extenuate this revenue enhancement issue. Company is revelation of names of corporate officers and managers. Most provinces do non necessitate that names of stockholders be a affair of public record ; nevertheless, many provinces require that the names and references of corporate officers and managers be listed on one or more paperss filed with the Secretary of State. The proper corporate formalities of forming and running a corporation must be followed, to have the benefits of being a corporation.

I preferred organize a exclusive proprietary. Sole proprietary concern has many advantages suited to organize in Malaysia. First, a exclusive proprietary is the most basic of all signifiers of concern ownerships. Many little concerns are exclusive proprietaries. Next, a exclusive proprietary is easy to set up comparison to partnership and company. Exclusive proprietary does n’t hold to make anything particular or file documents to put one up. Sole proprietary typically requires few if any legal paperss and minimum record maintaining. Beside that, exclusive proprietary may register a trade name to advance its merchandises and services.

The exclusive proprietary is non a nonexempt entity. Income from the organisation is merely added to the proprietor ‘s personal income to find nonexempt income. Sole proprietary merely one individual involved in the concern therefore it is easy to fade out if and when the individual decides to halt operating as a concern.

A exclusive proprietary is the least expensive type of concern construction to set up. There is no demand for a attorney or for an inordinate sum of money to be set aside in order to pay a figure of fees. Corporations are much more expensive to get down up. Therefore, exclusive proprietary can be started reasonably easy with minimum capital demands.

A exclusive proprietary, on the other manus, does non necessitate any set paysheet system or any other fiscal concern construction. Many exclusive proprietaries merely set up a separate history at their banking establishment for their concern financess and record all applicable concern disbursals in the direction of that history.

Since the exclusive owner is non a legal entity, the proprietor is entitled to all net incomes generated from the concern and can exert his entrepreneurial accomplishments to the full. The exclusive owner is the foreman, the proprietor, and the company all in one. Exclusive proprietary provides an person with the ultimate control that they may be looking for when they go into concern for themselves. There are by and large no spouses to reply to and hence exclusive owners can bask being their ain foreman and holding 100 % determination devising abilities and duties including taking personal concern hazards that may stop up paying away good, runing in whatever manner proprietor want.

The most of import ground that I preferred form exclusive proprietary is exclusive proprietary signifiers can enlargement of the concern with extra equity holder alteration of signifier from a exclusive proprietary to a partnership or a transition to a corporation or a Limited Liability Company. Although is hard but it besides have a success instance. A authoritative illustration is the Kamdar Department Store, a multi-million ringgit concern, which was a exclusive proprietary concern for a long clip before it became a private limited company.


1. Accounting text & A ; instances

-Robert N. Anthony -David F. Hawkins -Kenneth A. Merchant

2. Book-keeping and Accounting 5th Edition

-Sheila Robinson & A ; Frank Wood

3. Fiscal Accounting In Australia Second edition

– Allan Duffus

4. Accounting

-Hoggett -Edwards -Medlin -Tilling

5. Accounting

-Warren Reeve Duchac

6. Accounting abnormalities in fiscal statement

– Sesame K.B. Kwok

7. Foundation of Business Accounting Second Edition

– Roy Dodge

8. Fiscal Accounting

– A. Mukherjee – M Hanif

9. Business Accounting 1

– Frank Wood & A ; Alan Sangster

10. Fiscal Accounting Information ( The Alternative to Debits and Credits )

– Porter 1 Norton

11. Principles of Histories

– Fairy Thompson-Hosein


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