Types of Building and Soil Investigation Essay

Undertaking 1

AP Land Berhad has an first-class path record of high quality edifice in South East Asia with the attractive and invention designs. AP Land Berhad is be aftering to construct a mix development planning in Pajam, Negeri Sembilan. As Junior Quantity Surveyor you are instructed to make some research on the type of edifice that can be built in the proposed undertaking.

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  1. Different types of edifice

Table 1.1: Common types of edifice


Residential edifice

Commercial edifice

Industrial edifice


A residential country is a land usage in which lodging predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial countries.

Acommercial buildingis abuildingthat is used forcommercialuse.

Industrial architecture is the design and building of edifices functioning industry. Such edifices rose in importance with the industrial revolution, and were some of the pioneering construction of modern architecture.


  • Apartment block
  • Refuge
  • Condominium
  • Dormitory
  • House
  • Nursing place
  • Townhouse
  • Doroteo arango
  • Bungalow
  • Automobile fix store
  • Convention centre
  • Gas station
  • Hotel
  • Shoping promenade
  • Supermarket
  • Warehouse
  • Restaurant
  • Brewery
  • Factory
  • Foundry
  • Power works
  • Factory

Beginning: Afsar, ( 2014 )

  1. Two constituent of superstructure of Residential Building

Table 1.2: Superstructure of Residential Building





Floor is that parts of a edifice on which furniture, family, commercial, industrial or any other type of points are stored. Floor is used for walking about. Floor separates the different degrees of a edifice. Building is besides named with mention to floor. Like Ground floor, first floor, or a floor that is below land degree like cellar floor

Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in constructing depending on the location and conditions. Sloping roofs are by and large considered better in mountain countries. While, in program countries level roofs are preferred.



Figure 1: Floor


Figure 2: Roof

Beginning: Afsar, ( 2014 )

  1. Characteristic for both constituents in order to better the edifice quality in building industry.

Table 1.3: Characteristic for floor and Roof





Floor is made of different stuffs, utilizing different production techniques and in conformity with the type of room it is intended for

  • high traffic need shocking which is wear-resistant
  • Human protection
  • Protection of ownerships
  • Water protection
  • Thermal insularity
  • Sound resistant
  • Ventilation
  • Structure to transport burden from conditions


The design is besides adapted to the type of the room for which a certain type of flooring is intended, and it is really of import to supply the purchaser with a big choice of different sunglassess and forms.

The design is adapted to the type of edifice and environment. Common type:

  • Pitch roof ( suited for tropical state )
  • Flat roof ( suited for less rain state )


Practical and environmentally friendly solutions for every room, whether it is public, commercial, residential, athleticss installations or solutions for the new physique and redevelopments.

Practical and environmentally friendly solutions for every edifice, whether it is public, commercial, residential and etc.

Monetary value

The quality of the merchandise which guarantees that it last and salvage money in the long tally.

The quality of the merchandise which guarantees that it last and salvage money in the long tally.

Beginning: Tarkett See, ( 2012 )

Undertaking 2

FOSTA Pte Ltd has been appointed by the JTC Corporation to supply dirt probe work and Laboratory Testing Services for their proposed 5 storey research lab undertaking at Woodlands Industrial Park E9, Tunas Bay, and Johor. The chief intent of this dirt probe work is to find the suitableness of the site for the proposed undertaking and to suggest an adequate and economic foundation design.

Soil Survey

The dirt study is safe and economically suited type of foundation for design public presentation, should hold adequate information about the layout of the physical belongingss and the basic stuff interior decorator. ( Faaishah, 2011 )

How to assist your future undertakings or ) dirt study

You can happen chemical belongingss, the physical, the bearing capacity of the dirt and dirt H2O degree alterations in the dirt study.

I am. May vary depending on the location and chemical belongingss, of the dirt in the physical agreement, the range of the proposed construction, even within, the beds in the bed. Can be changed in a rather little country of dirt features, if non decently designed the bearing capacity of foundation dirts that when failure in the hereafter, it is possible to act upon the bearing quality of the dirt, so the edifice conditions, clime alteration, and sites are. ( Famepyramids, 2013 )

II. Determining the capacity of the dirt bearing:

Load capacity of support i⤠Land,

i⤠this precipitate is placed on the construction of the dirt affected any velocity repairing velocity,

The type and deepness of the implicit in choice i⤠,

Choose the appropriate building engineering i⤠,

i⤠foundation for foretelling and work outing the job is likely

If the cause of the sinking of the edifice that can be done chimhaeul i⤠land

III. Significantly impacting the humidness in the foundation, influences the features of the dirt H2O content, or chemical composing of the mineral dirt important difference that may impact the pick of building stuffs, dirt wet degrees. ( Famepyramids, 2013 )

method suited for roll uping degree Celsius ) the sample

Must be based on the testing of the stuff obtained from the Site, including the Land Report:

. The bearing capacity of the dirt.

B. Refer to the recommended foundation design.

The. Packing your design recommendations.

LA. Compaction of the dirt.

Electronicss. Transverse strength ( active, inactive and friction coefficient ) .

Bar. Pitcher.

g. Frost deepness.

You are utilizing a rotary drill boreholes appropriate manner to roll up the sample. Rotary stone boring boreholes, are expected to be used on a difficult surface or nothingness. The land is to be so difficult to back up the edifice burden prognosis for the proposed five-layer research lab undertaking sway your tuna Bay, E9, and Woodland Industrial Park Johor. ( Geonamics, 2012 )

If necessary, the borehole dirt or stone rotary boring techniques are used. Use the drill holes in the Earth rotary motion to continue. Is collected from the nucleus unit from the centre of the drill root dirt samples. Depends on the choice position of the boring equipment is land. Depends on a little ( 2m X 1m Ten 2m high ) self-powered equipment is comparatively equipment. This ring is peculiarly utile in hard conditions need stone nucleus or rotary boring floor. ( Geonamics, 2012 )

Undertaking 3

Is used as a edifice stuff for the filling stuff for edifice and edifice constructions in general purpose concrete. Due to the intent and a broad scope of the strength, is selected in the concrete building industry now is one of economic stuffs.

) Concrete

The composite stuff consisting of H2O, sum and cement concrete is chiefly Is included to accomplish a coveted physical belongings of the finished stuff and additives are normally reinforcement. When these constituents are assorted together, they form a ball in the image organizing solution easy. Over clip, to unite the staying ingredients to organize a stuff, such as rocks, and with a batch of difficult usage and lasting cement matrix. ( Singh, 2007 )

  1. Compare concrete with two others material that have been used in building industry.

Table 2.1: Comparison between Concrete, Steel and Wood.





























Thermal Conductivity




Chemical Resistant




Surface Finish




Beginning: Singh, ( 2007 )

C ) the type of concrete trial

Table 2.1: Type of concrete trial

The type of recoil cock trial slack trial

Is used to find the workability of the fresh concrete the slack trial is defined. Taken to happen the compressive strength of the concrete trial cock recoil

Fully cleaning the interior surface of the cast, and the oil is applied a light coat intervention.

Placed soft horizontal solid and the a…± ) cast, non-absorbent surface.

Each is filled with freshly assorted concrete and four beds in the one-fourth of the tallness of the mold a…? ) cast is about

Is uniformly distributed ( shot ) in subdivision 25 unit of ammunition, and the packing tamping rod ends a…? ) each bed.

After the top bed rodded V ) , and hit the soil degree concrete.

Is removed from the concrete in the perpendicular way instantly rises easy a…µ ) cast.

a…¦ ) the said measuring of the difference in degree between the highest point of the concrete and take the tallness of the cast.

The slack of the concrete in the high VIII ) of the difference is mm. Must be tested against the trial anvil in order to obtain a dependable step to bespeak the range of the anvil suited for different types of makers rebound hammer recoil cock recoil cock consequences, before get downing the & A ; deg ; ) trial.

Apply light force per unit area to a…± ) Plunger – can be extended to fix for separation from the locked place to the trial place.

Keeping mechanism vertically a…? ) to the trial surface, and imperativeness the speculator with regard to the surface of the concrete. The gradual addition in the force per unit area applied to the impact on the cock. ( Do non touch the button while keeping down the speculator you press the button after impact, it will non be noted in that location is convenient when reading recoil. )

a…? ) Take the norm of 15 readings.

Shall be recorded in millimeter of remission of the specimen during the trial measuring consequences downswing. In this instance, prostration or sidelong shears off Any slack stuff, and supply wrong consequences, the trial sample is another repetition. In add-on to mensurating the slack in the perennial trial if the sample is to be shear fact, the above trial piece should be recorded, to bespeak the protruding compressive strength read the show graduated table, with regard to the perpendicular surface, that is, the influence on the degree has been adjusted by the maker of the recoil cock. When used in any other place, it should be noted that an appropriate rectification as specified by the maker.


Figure 3: Slump trial

Figure 4: The cock recoil

Beginning: Singh ( 2007 )

Undertaking 4

Choose the appropriate size of the edifice until the roof system of the 20m Ten 15m is to be completed on one floor cottage.

discourse a ) description and choice of roof system

It is suited in building until the dimensions of 20m Ten 15m of the complete system on one floor cottage roof hip roof. The form of the roof hip roof is normally rather soft slope down walls everyplace. ( QuinStreet, 2014 )

Was chosen for the floor of the bungalow dimensions of 20m Ten 15m is because of excessively much rain drainage is a tropical state on this twelvemonth has the biggest advantage over other roof design hip roof hip roof is because Malaysia conditions to be considered. Because of the angle nemyeon, anyplace on the surface of the H2O on the roof there is small chance for the base. The design encourages rainwater overflow and forestall the prostration of the roof. Were less vulnerable to high air currents, so it can be used in all types of conditions, the last advantage hip manner roof. ( QuinStreet, 2014 )

Or after the roof system selected ) doctrine

In add-on, the HIP procedure called hip roof roof, sides slope downwards to the walls and roof normally in the signifier of a comparatively soft incline with. Therefore, without a roof or gable side and the other perpendicular with the house. A hip roof is a square pyramid form. The triangular sides and two trapezoidal acquire his butt in the house roof. Has a rectangular program nemyeon hip roof. They are about ever the same pitch or in a symmetric joust them to the centre line. The set is a consistent degree of intending that can be mounted on all roof troughs around the hips. The hip roof dormer slanted jinmyeon this frequently. ( QuinStreet, 2014 )


You must be over the other roof hip roof design, the biggest advantage is the H2O drainage. Because of the angle nemyeon, anyplace on the surface of the H2O on the roof there is small chance for the base. Where at that place tend to hold a batch of rain is a good pick for this type of roof ; You encourage away and forestall the prostration of the roof – it is the design of non-execution. The maps that can be integrated into bing constructions and other characteristics that make this manner more popular than others. Has over hip manner roof gable roof so that it can be used in all types of conditions, the last advantage is that it is less vulnerable to high air currents. ( QuinStreet, 2014 )


All the roof design, there are several disadvantages to skip manner. One of them is more than doing a gable roof, and is besides more complex requiring that the stuff ; You will work with the informations than the gable to pay more money. In add-on, because more than any other disadvantage is the gable roof beams, is that there will be more chances for leaks. You must avoid minor issues that are of import geotdeulga proper care. ( QuinStreet, 2014 )

  1. Sketch the subdivision of the foundation, land beam, and floor of the edifice, and besides roof beam and roof system of the edifice.


[ 1 ] Famepyramids. ( July 18, 2013 ) Why Soil Investigation Is Necessary For Your Building Project.Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nairaland.com/1364248/why-soil-investigation-necessary-building ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 2 ] Faaishah, S. ( January 23, 2011 )Soil Investigation.Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //bfp4043soilinvestigation.blogspot.com/ ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 3 ] Singh, K. ( 2007 ) Rebound Hammer. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringcivil.com/rebound-hammer-test.html ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 4 ] Singh, K. ( 2007 )Slump trial. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringcivil.com/workability-of-fresh-concrete-by-slump-test.html ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 5 ] Afsar, J. ( February 09, 2014 )Component of Building: Superstructure.Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringintro.com/uncategorized/building-components-sub-structure-super/ ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 6 ] Geonamics. ( 2012 )Soil InvestigationAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //geonamics.com.sg/geotechnical-division/soil-investigation/ ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 7 ] Tarkett See, ( November 14, 2012 )What are the feature of good floor?Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.timetosee.tarkett.rs/en/analyses-and-trends/what-are-the-characteristics-of-a-good-floor ( Accessed on 06 October 2014 )

[ 8 ] QuinStreet, Inc. , ( 2014 ) Hip Roof Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.selfhelpandmore.com/building/roofing/designs/index.php ( Accessed on 06 October 2014 )


[ 1 ] Frog, C. ( 2014 ) Floor. [ Online image ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.steysonconcretefloors.co.uk/shot-blasted-concrete-floors-gagosian-gallery/ ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 2 ] Hanson. ( 2014 )Roof Tile. [ Online image ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hansonrooftile.com/ ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 3 ] Singh, K. ( 2007 ) Rebound Hammer. [ Online image ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringcivil.com/rebound-hammer-test.html ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )

[ 4 ] Singh, K. ( 2007 )Slump trial. [ Online image ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringcivil.com/workability-of-fresh-concrete-by-slump-test.html ( Accessed on 30 September 2014 )


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