UFO Kinds Essay

Ever since US Air Force Pilot Kenneth Arnold coined the term Flying Saucer, on
24th June 1947, after allegedly encountering nine disk shaped objects while out
flying over the Cascade Mountains, the world wide sightings of such objects, has
increased logarithmically. By 1957 the furor over UFO sightings showed no sign
of abating and the sightings had now been awarded levels of classification by US
Astronomer, Allen. J. Hynek. Hynek created three categories for UFO encounters:
Close encounters of the first kind: nocturnal lights, daylight disks, the second
kind: Physical affects left by UFOs, marks on the ground, car engines stalling
and finally close encounters of the third kind: the actual witnessing of beings
emerging from their craft. But on September 20th 1961, the categorization of
this phenomena took on a fourth dimension when Betty and Barney Hill claimed
while driving home one night, they were allegedly abducted by alien beings. The
Hills were the first individuals in modern history to state publicly that they
had been abducted by extraterrestrial beings, leading to a new era, with reports
of alien abductions occurring world wide. But to be abducted whilst outdoors
like the Hills is considered to be extremely rare, with almost all cases being
reported at night, while the abductee was in bed and without any independent
witness corroboration. The description of the alleged alien abductors varied
widely throughout the world but in the last ten years or so the descriptions of
the abductors have become almost indistinguishable. Therefore, the object of
this project is to try and establish the possibility that a minority of the
human race, could conceivably be being abducted from their beds at night, by a
super intelligent race of extraterrestrial beings or do these people just
perceive that they have been abducted and there is a more down to earth answer
for the abduction phenomena. The first part of this project contends that alien
beings do not come from out a-space but a lot more closer to home or more
specifically inside the human brain. The project’s debate, is that the reason
behind the vast majority of abduction cases might be temporal lobe epilepsy,
epilepsy which triggers a condition known as hypnogogic sleep disorder. When a
person is in the midst of hypnogogic sleep they are almost always completely
paralyzed and suffer hypnopompic hallucinations, hallucinations which give the
sufferer the impression of a presence around their beds with the secondary
effect of floating. When a person reaches this stage of the hallucination they
then interpret it as being an alien abduction experience. The project will then
look at outside influences that might trigger temporal lobe epilepsy, influences
like electrical trauma and or electromagnetic fields, fields that are higher in
density in more areas than others, areas that are located close to radio masts
and electricity pylons. The essay will then look at Dr. Michael Persinger’s
experiments with electromagnetic fields experiments were Persinger was able to
recreate hypnogogic type hallucinations. The next part of the project will then
debate, that a section of the human race is being systematically taken from the
planet, for reasons that are not clear. It will tell of the advantages of night
time abductions and tell of an exceptionally rare case of an abduction with
multiple and credible witness. The project will then reveal the striking
similarities of alleged alien beings and the mythical beings portrayed
throughout different cultures, similarities that are particularly evident within
the prophetic messages given to these said cultures by their gods from the
stars. The second part of the debate will close by putting forward a theory for
the attention we seem to be receiving from our extraterrestrial inquisitors,
suggesting that the emergence of the human race into the nuclear age, might in
part be responsible. The aim of chapter three, is to analyze and evaluate it’s
primary sources of research (Questionnaire and Little Gray Man Experiment)
looking at the statistics and their relationship to the alien abduction
phenomena. The project will then give an interpretation of the findings,
starting with the questionnaire, revealing that there is a pattern throughout
the questionnaire, a pattern showing that the vast majority of people are
willing to believe in un-provable beliefs. The interpretation of the little gray
man experiment, helps to demonstrate the power of the media and the influence it
has in giving people preconceived ideas of what an alien life form might look
like, which might explain why people nearly always see the same being. Chapter
three will then examine the relationship between the mass media and its effects
on peoples opinions and how people appear to be led by the media, contending
that the emergence of alien abductions has become more prolific since the advent
of television and extraterrestrial beings are the result of a war of the ratings
as opposed to a the war of the worlds. The final part of this project will sum
up the subject matter that has been debated (are people being abducted from
their beds at night by extraterrestrial beings or are these people suffering
from a neurological disorder that might be being agitated by the media) and then
draw a conclusion from the debate. Chapter 1 NEUROLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS Alien
abductions are not as straight forward as they seem, do the answers lie in outer
space or is it all in the mind? The vast majority of all alleged alien
abductions, occur at night in bed, just as the potential victim is about to
enter into a deep sleep. Could there be a connection, some theorist believe
there is and one hypothesis suggests, that alien abductions are strongly
connected to sleep paralysis syndrome. Sleep paralysis syndrome, is believed to
be a form of epilepsy or to be more specific, temporal lobe epilepsy
“temporal lobe epilepsy is important to emotions and other sensations, it
is possible that disturbance in this part of the brain is responsible for the
sleep disorder narcolepsy” (Chadwick., 1988, P.14). Narcolepsy manifests
its self in several different ways, depending on the individual sufferer but the
most common outcome is a seizure taking place, whilst the sufferer is still
sleeping, to a rare condition known as hypnogogic sleep. Hypnogogic sleep is the
medical term for sleep paralysis syndrome and this condition is thought to be
closely associated to Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM), which is a phase of sleep
closely related to dreaming. When in REM sleep, the body is believed to be
paralyzed, this is thought to be an in-built safety mechanism to stop people
physically carrying out there dreams, like being violent or trying to run. When
people suffering from this condition awaken, they are fully aware of their
surroundings but the paralyzing symptoms of REM sleep are thought to persist
“people suffering from the hypnogogic sleep disorder, awaken from REM sleep
but their body remains in a state of paralysis with the exception of the
sufferer being only able to move their eyes” (Hufford, 1982, P. 107). When
a person suffering from hypnagogic sleep disorder awakens into an altered state,
as well as the paralysis, the sufferer will often encounter vivid and
frightening dreamlike experiences. These hallucinations are a major component of
the hypnagogic sleep disorder and are so real to the sufferer, that they are
unable to distinguish them from reality. In almost all cases, the same scenario
is played out, beginning with the afflicted person realizing that they are
unable to move any part of their body, this instinctively sends them into a
blind panic. Typically, they then enter into the final stage of hypnogogic sleep
and experience hypnopomic hallucinations. It is at this hypnopomic stage, that
the stupefied victim senses a presence in the room with them, this is usually
coupled with the sensation of floating, making the circumstances ideal for the
terrified recipient of the paralysis, to interpret the situation as an alien
abduction “I was quite conscious of the fact I could not move, conscious of
were I was going and the creature in front of me. I was floating and felt like a
bear on the end of an invisible rope” (Hough.P, 1997, P.50). This is a
fairly typical account of a nocturnal alien abduction experience and contains
all the components to classify it as such. Some people have been so affected by
what they perceive to be an alien abduction, they have then felt compelled to
write about their experience. A good example of this is by the famous horror
writer Whitley Strieber. Strieber was alleged to have undergone a classic alien
abduction scenario “Is someone there? I wondered aloud. the door opened a
few inches and I had a glimpse of a big and glistening black eye, belonging to a
distinctly non human face. Then there is something like a burst of lightning
from above and the house was bathed in light” (Strieber.W, 1987) Strieber
was so overwhelmed by his alien abduction incident, that he was inspired to
write the best selling book Communion, Which allegedly portrayed his abduction
ordeal. Strieber continued to experience what he perceived to be alien
abductions after writing communion, therefore he decided to seek a medical
explanation for his strange encounters. “After undergoing a batch of
psychological and IQ tests he was given a clean bill of health, he was then
given a brain scan (M.I.R) and this also turned out to be negative. finally
Strieber was subjected to a temporal lobe scan (E.E.G) but this time the test
was positive and inconsistencies were found in this area of his brain” (Schnabel.J,
1994). Strieber past the rigorous psychological examinations set before him but
the discovery of anomalies within the temporal lobe region of his brain, is
symptomatic of narcalepsey. Therefore, what Strieber and thousands like him
perceived to be alien abduction, could instead be TLE. It seems more likely
then, that the answer to the alleged alien abductions does not lie in out-a
space but more likely in inner space, within the human brain. One possible
source for the alien abduction phenomenon could be attributed to electrical
activity, particularly electrical trauma to the brain. The human brain is a
highly sensitive bioelectrical organ that continuously conducts millions of
electrical impulses through it’s billions of neurons and in essence it could be
described as a super computer “At any one time , the brain is a junction
box alive with incoming and out going messages. These are carried by thousands
of millions of cells, these cells form such a complex arrangement that we have
little chance of understanding what individual cells do” (Barnhard. C,
1984, P.78). This statement illustrates that the human brain is a delicate
electromagnetic organ and if it is exposed to electrical trauma, this then might
lead to a malfunction. Parapsychologist Albert Budden conducted a study of fifty
alleged nocturnal alien abductees, to his amazement, he found that all fifty had
one thing in common, they had all been exposed to a major electric shock
“Almost invariably I have found that these abductees have had a major
electrical event, they have been struck by lightning or been near lightning or
have suffered major electrocution and this has changed their bodies
permanently” (Budden A, 1998) This remarkable discovery by Budden, helps to
show the ramifications of electricity on the human physiology. Therefore, did
all fifty people in Budden’s study suffer major electrical trauma and were then
abducted by aliens or more realistically, did the electrical event somehow
change the functioning of their brain, altering their perception of reality and
if so could these changes be reproduced in the laboratory? Research carried out
by neuropsychologist, Professor Michael Persenger suggests that the human brain
is susceptible to certain kinds of natural occurring electrical energy.

Persenger theorized that weak electrical impulses sent to the temporal lobes of
the brain would induce hypnopomic like hallucinations. To test his theory
Persenger built a sound and light proof chamber, a subject was then placed in
the booth and a purpose built helmet that was able to generate a weak electro
magnetic field, was placed on the subjects head. Varying electrical impulses
were then sent to the helmet, enabling Persenger to control the electromagnetic
waves sent to the recipients brain. He found that this generated differing kinds
of mystical experiences amongst his volunteers “The kinds of things that
people reported in the chamber when their experiences were amplified by applying
these complex weak electro magnetic fields, would be feelings of floating
through a tube, feelings of being detached, sensations of someone being in the
chamber with them. One subject said he could feel someone tugging at his legs
and genitals so he labeled it as an experience contributed it to the electro
magnetic field. But if you took the same experience when you are alone at night
in bed, the cultural label is, alien abduction” (Persenger, 1998). This
experiment by Persenger, helps to prove that under certain circumstances,
electromagnetic fields can trigger hypnopomic Imagery, but this is in the
laboratory, how could these events take place while we are in bed? The fact is,
we are all bathed in strong electromagnetic radiation but some people are more
susceptible to electro magnetic fields than others. “This is an
environmental health issue and in fact alien abductions are just a very small
part of a much broader issue which is electro magnetic pollution” (Budden,
1998). If people with discrepancies within the temporal lobule area of the
brain, live in the vicinity of electricity pillions, electrical sub stations,
radio masts or any other generator of strong electromagnetic fields, they then
might be living near the very catalyst, that triggers an alien abduction event.

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Chapter 2 Extraterrestrial Explanation for alien Abductions The notion that
people can be taken from their beds at night against their wills by little gray
alien beings and taken aboard a space craft, appears to be an outrageous claim,
but unfortunately for some people it seems to be a fact of life. If the aim is
to abduct a person in the most covert manner possible, then during the night
would logically be the best time to achieve this goal. It is at this time that
the potential abductee is at their most vulnerable, they are usually sleeping
and do not see their abductors until they awaken. On awakening, the victim is
almost always paralyzed and unable to speak, making the conditions ideal for the
abductors to stealthy extract their quarry “Secrecy appears to be
critically important to the aliens in determining the opportunities for
abductions” (Jacobs D.M, 1993, P.12). Nocturnal abductions are also
advantageous in that the absence of the person who is being abducted is likely
to go unnoticed and any memories that they might retain of their abduction
experience, could be attributed to a vivid dream. Therefore, if the abductors
wish to maintain the subterfuge when carrying out their clandestine activities,
it seems more feasible to surreptitiously sequester people from their beds
whilst they are in a transient state, rather than to snatch them from the street
during the day. . One of the most reliable cases of alien abductions with
multiple independent witnesses ever to be documented, was the Brooklyn Bridge
Incident of 1989. The credibility of the witnesses was so convincing that, Bud
Hopkins a UFO investigator involved with the case, felt compelled to write a
book about the whole incident “I have come to the firm conclusion: This
abduction event so drastically alters of the alien incursion in our world that
it is easily the most important in recorded history” (Hopkins, 1994,
Introduction). Hopkins is a leading authority on the alien abduction phenomena
and is renowned for his fastidious approach to his research, therefore it would
be fair to say that his assessment of the validity of this incident would be
held in high esteem. Hopkins noted, in downtown Manhattan, New York City early
on the morning of November 30, 1989 at approximately 3 am, Linda Cottile, a
married mother of two, was seen emerging from an apartment building window
twelve stories above ground accompanied by three small alien figures. Linda and
her captors appeared to be suspended within a blue beam of light which was
causing them to ascend into a large reddish-orange glowing UFO, which then moved
off in the direction of the Brooklyn Bridge. Numerous witnesses, including a
high placed united nations diplomat (who remained unnamed), saw and later
independently substantiated this unbelievable event. It is the presence of the
numerous and influential eyewitnesses to this abduction that makes this event
one of the most reliable known to date. But when Linda Cortile first reported
her abduction to Bud Hopkins, he only conducted an initial investigation and
concluded that there was nothing that unique about the incident, deeming it to
be an archetypal abduction event containing the usual components which included
the common message of imminent destruction for planet Earth. That assessment
changed dramatically when Hopkins later received a letter in which two men,
identified as New York City police officers, described sitting helplessly in
their car and watching three creatures escort a woman (Linda Cottile) into a
reddish-orange glowing oval hovering in the sky “She was floating in mid
air in a beam of whitish blue light. She was then brought up to that oval, she
was being escorted into that thing by three small ugly humanoid creatures”
(Hopkins, 1997, P.4). The occurrence of this event would have gone without
further investigation because of its similarity to the many thousands of
unsubstantiated cases like it but the corroboration of independent and
authoritative witnesses, gave the whole case an new and extremely powerful
dimension. Cases like this one, now seem to be prevalent throughout the world
but if we go back in time and look at different cultures, it appears that alien
abduction occurrences or nocturnal visitations are an age old phenomena.

Throughout recorded history, many cultures have been infused with myths and
legends of night time visitations by strange entities, from the Roman nocturnal
demon, the Incubus: (Night mare) to the malevolent Japanese demon, Kanashibara:
(To tie with iron rope). The ubiquitous presence of these nocturnal creatures
across time and cultures appears to follow a set pattern with the main diversity
of the narratives being in the description of the said entities “The Old
Hag has been regularly reported for more than two thousand years, it has been
attached to a variety of narrative frameworks . . . , But regardless of the
framework, the experiential features have remained the same” (Hufford. D,
P.39, 1982). Huffords statement suggests, that visitations by insidious
creatures during the night, may have played a part in differing societies
throughout history, however today, there seems to be a general concessus amongst
the alleged nocturnal visitations, a unanimity that comes in the guise of alien
beings. Consequently, alien beings may be the successors to our ancient myths
but there is also the possibility that they originally inspired them. To our
ancient ancestors, beings who came from the sky in fiery craft would in all
likelihood be seen as gods, giving rise to many of the legends associated with
the magical beings that have appeared throughout the history of the mankind.

Therefore the alien abduction phenomena of today might be an amplified
resurgence of a phenomena that is as old as the human race. Throughout the
individual epochs of history, differing cultures have prophesied the end of the
world, -the apocalypse’ and one particular civilization, the ancient Maya,
made that very prediction over 5000 years ago. The Maya claimed they were
endowed with prophetic knowledge from their Gods “The religious legends of
the ancient Mayan peoples say the stars were inhabited and that the -gods’
came down from them. A god who became known as Quetzelcoatl taught the Mayas
science, arts and customs and left very wise laws. When Quetzelcoatl left he
boarded a ship which took him to the morning star” (Vondaniken. E, 1993,
P.73) After the Maya had received their visitation from the -star gods’
their technological understanding of the world around them increased
dramatically, this was particularly evident through their grasp of mathematics,
when developing an extremely accurate calendar. Their calendar, accurately
established the duration of the terrestrial year, 365. 24.20 days and the length
of the Venus ion year of 584 days. In 3114 B.C the Mayas prophesied that on July
11, 1991, there would be a solar eclipse over southern central America,
stunningly on that date, some 5105 later, Guatemala City was whiteness to a full
solar eclipse. However, this astonishingly accurately prognostic calendar that
was allegedly given to the Mayas by their gods from the stars, has yet another
prediction, a prediction that chillingly claims, the world as we know it will
come to an end on 22 December 2012 . This type of prediction is abundant
throughout most religions and is one of the most powerful mythologies throughout
the human race but when examining the alien abduction phenomena, one of the most
common traits to emerge, is the conveying of a similar apocalyptic type message
by the alien beings “Scenes of the earth devastated by a nuclear holocaust,
vast panoramas of lifeless polluted landscapes and waters and images of giant
earthquakes, firestorms and floods even fractures of the planet are shown by the
aliens” (Mack. Dr. J.E, 1994, P.40). This unnerving message of mass
destruction is a dominating factor conveyed by the alleged alien beings and
echoes the prophesy set out by the Mayan civilization over 5000 years ago.

Therefore, the primal belief of -the day of judgment’ now seems to be
reemerging, in an age were some poles show that more people are prepared to
believe in aliens, than believe in God. Consequently, it seems that aliens are
now perceived by many, as the modern day equivalent of the horsemen of the
apocalypse and it is they who are the armagedonists of the twentieth century,
reanimating the prophecies of cultures like the Mayan, seemingly preparing us
for annihilation. But why for the past fifty years, have the so called gods from
the stars, ever increasingly made their presence known to mankind an increase
that is seemingly reaching its zenith. The human race appears to have been
intensively scrutinized by extraterrestrial beings for the past fifty years. The
advent of this curiosity could be attributed to the first detonation of an
atomic bomb in 1945. Once man had solved the enigma of splitting the atom, he
may then have sent out a calling card to the rest of the universe, announcing
that planet earth can no longer be considered a primitive civilization. Some
theorists believe that in all likelihood this is the case and many governments
throughout the world know this and are collaborating in a “cosmic”
cover up “There has been a tremendous amount of security put around the
subject. I could go and meet with the deputy director of NASA and they know the
subject is real but they would never go in front of a camera and talk about it,
because it would be the end of their careers professionally” (Greer,
3/2/99) This theory could help to answer the question of why the alien abduction
phenomena is a relatively new occurrence with almost all cases being reported in
the last fifty years. With the development of nuclear weaponry and the
exploration of space, it therefore seems fair to assume that beings from around
the universe would be casting a worried eye on the advancement of mankind. At
the end of the second world war, man kind was technologically evolving at a
staggering rate, with the invention of the atom bomb, rockets and powerful
radar. On a cosmic time scale, this technological evolution could lead to man
visiting the stars, in the not so distant future. The ability to achieve
interstellar travel might therefore be viewed as a potential threat by any
extraterrestrial race that might be living in the locale “If we make an
assumption of the aliens that they are concerned with their own survival and
security, we would expect them to check out all primitive societies in the local
neighborhood and from their view point, we are a primitive society whose major
activity is tribal warfare” (Friedman, 1988, P.67). Ergo, it would seem
plausible that mankind is being scrutinized by extraterrestrial beings for the
purpose of their own preservation and to make sure that we do not bring our
brand of friendship which they might call hostility. Chapter 3 Questionnaire
(Results and interpretation) There is no tangible evidence to conclusively prove
that people are being surreptitiously removed from their beds at night by a race
of super intelligent extraterrestrial beings but despite this fact, there are
some people who implicitly maintain that these events are undoubtedly authentic.

Even with the most precarious evidence, many individuals are willing to except
that UFOs and alien abductions are the results of visitations from beings from
outer space, rather than being of an earthly origin, in essence they “want
to believe” which is a doctrine that is as old as mankind. Throughout the
ages man has instinctively pursued the belief that a higher being or beings
exist and their existence has an overall influence on their lives, a concept
collectively known as religion. Therefore the aim of this study is to establish
a sample group of peoples personal views of the paranormal and to then interpret
the findings. This survey was conducted using opportunity samples with 32 people
taking part, eighteen women (56%) and 14 (44%). Their ages ranged from 20 to 70
of age with 21 (65%) coming from the 30 to 40 age group. Fifty percent of the
people surveyed, said they did not have any religious beliefs with only one
person (3%) declaring they had no beliefs what so ever (religious and
paranormal). Of the fifty percent of people who had religious beliefs only two
people (6%) subscribed to the alien abduction theory, which might suggest that
from a religious point of view, God created man in his own image and therefore
man can be the only intelligent life form in the universe “And God
proceeded to create man in his image, in Gods image he created him, male female
he created them” (Holy Scriptures 1984). Seven (21%) of the religious
people polled acknowledged the possibility of life on other planets, this could
be attributed to the media once again, with the recent and highly publici sed
“ALH840071, Rock from Mars” which purports to contain fossilised life
forms (Bacteria). Only two (6%), were open to the possibility that we had
actually been visited by extraterrestrial beings. But the majority of religious
people tended to be superstitious, ten (31%) and believe in ghosts five (15%)
the superstition could emanate from biblical events such as good Friday and its
connection with Friday the thirteenth and the number disciples at the last
supper could be equated to the number thirteen. Their belief in ghosts could
possibly have its origins with the holy ghost but in all likelihood, religious
peoples beliefs could be affected by the society in which we live, like everyone
else they are not exempt from the exposure of such mediums as the mass media.

All but one of the non religious people had a combination of beliefs but
predominantly they tended to be superstitious, 12 (37%) and believe intelligent
life on other planets 11 (34%). The roots of superstition are as old as mankind
and they have been passed down through generations over the centuries.

Consequently, longevity of superstitious beliefs could account for the high
proportionate number of believers, an overall of 22 (69%). Of the 32 people
poled, 18 (56%) held the view that there might be life on other planets this
also could be attributed to the media. Coverage of the alleged Roswell incident
and the countless UFO based documentaries that are shown to the nation on a
regular basis help to shape peoples perceptions of reality leading people to
believe what the media wants them to believe. People who subscribe to the
extraterrestrial theory for an answer to the alien abduction phenomenon, state
that one of the strongest pieces of evidence to substantiate their claims, is no
matter where the abduction takes place, the same scenario is nearly always
played out. They particularly contend that regardless of were you are in the
world, the being who is kidnapping you, will almost always be small, gray with a
large head and large almond shaped eyes. They claim, it is no coincidence that
these encounters are virtually identical, theorizing that we are being observed
by a race of gray alien beings and therefore the vast majority of reported
abductions are being carried out by that said race. This theory appears to be
plausible and would answer the question of how different people from a variety
of locations around the world, seem to be experiencing the same occurrences but
there could be another more down to earth reason for people witnessing these
same events, namely the media. The mass media reaches out to the far corners of
the earth and it is the media which helps us build our perceptions of the world
around us “The mass media tells people that most things are okay and that
radical change would be bad. This view suggests that the media do not merely
report what is happening, but actively try to influence people’s opinions and
behavior” (Davernport. G.C, 1996, P.288). It would therefore seem more
tenable that it is the influence of the media that predominates our perceptions
of extraterestrials and not actual eye witness accounts as some people believe.

The Little Gray Man Experiment The little gray man experiment, was an
investigation to try and establish if there could be a connection between the
description of the alleged alien abductors that people claim to have encountered
and the media. For the past ten years or so, the media has predominantly
portrayed alien life forms as being little gray men with large heads and this
portrayal has perhaps influenced the description of alleged sightings of such
beings. Therefore, this experiment theorized that the media’s portrayal of these
creatures, could conceivably have an affect on the collective psyche of a group
of eight to ten year old children “Other children and the media provide
powerful models from which children draw their ideas about what to do and
think” (Davernport, 1996, P.174) Because this age group of children has
grown up through the media’s fashionable (and profitable) “Gray
period” for alien beings, it hypothesized, that when asked to draw a
picture of an alien being, the majority of the children would draw a little gray
man. This survey was conducted using the opportunity sampling method with 18
children taking part, 12 (66%) girls and six (33%) boys. Of the 18 children
surveyed nine (50%) drew a little gray type man and nine (50%) drew a multitude
of creatures with no two alike, the only similarities among these creatures was
the multiple appendages emanating from the creatures bodies. The lack of
consensus among this group of drawings, might suggest that these particular
children had no pre conceived ideas of alien beings, implying that they were not
influenced by the media. Of these nine drawings, seven (77%) were drawn by girls
and girls seem not find science fiction as interesting as the boys, resulting in
fewer preconceived ideas about alien life forms. In contrast, the other nine
drawings were all similar and showed consistencies with each other. They were
all humanoid in design with large heads and large dark eyes, helping to prove
the hypothesis of this experiment. If this experiment had been conducted more
than ten years ago, the chances are, that virtually no one would have drawn a
gray alien. Therefore, the origins of these composite drawings may have been
acquired through the fairly recent and on going feeding frenzy over the alien
abduction phenomena, which might account for the similarities in the description
of the beings throughout the world. Since the 1950s, the media has
systematically bombarded a large portion of the worlds population with stories
of beings from outer space, which now seems to be reaching a crescendo with the
arrival of television programs like the X Files. This onslaught by the media,
appears to be helping to fuel peoples insatiable appetite for the UFO phenomena,
which is good news for the television produces as their ratings skyrocket
“Our love of novelty is proving to be a menace and our aesthetic sense-the
basis of all our culture-is likewise being exploited in order to force our
desires along channels which serve a commercial interest of some kind”
(Hass. H, 1970, P.183) This observation by Hass suggests, the media has an
influential effect on our insight into the world around us, shepherding us into
what they would like us to perceive as reality. If you asked people to describe
what an alien being from another world might have looked like before the advent
of such shows as the X Files, you would have got a mixed bag of answers, with
the predominant description being that of a little green man with an antenna on
his head. But if you ask the same question today, you will almost always get the
same answer, a little gray man with a large pear shaped head. The media has
helped to shaped peoples perceptions of what an alien life form might look like,
these resulting preconceptions might help to answer the question of why people
all over the world predominantly see the same image of an alien being.

Therefore, the promoting of the little gray alien by the media, seems to have
led to the staid image of the pre-90s little green man giving way to the more
fashionable little gray man of the 90s. Summary and Conclusion This project has
looked at the much publicized alien abduction phenomena or more specifically, it
has looked at the nocturnal aspect of these alleged occurrences. The project
described how these nocturnal incidents are reported world wide and how most of
them appear to follow a set pattern. The project showed that it was the
repetition of this widespread pattern that helped to substantiate the theories
of both alien abduction advocates and skeptics alike with both camps maintaining
that it is the parallels between each abduction scenario that helps to prove
their hypothesis. Chapter one of the project stated that the alien abduction
phenomena could, in part be as a result of temporal lobe epilepsy. It contended
that this condition is fairly prevalent throughout the human race and has
varying effects on each sufferer. It told how people who are afflicted with this
condition experience effects from seizures to hypnogogic sleep disorder and it
is this disorder which could be the causes of people believing that they have
undergone an alien abduction experience. Chapter one also examined experiments
conducted by Parapsychologist Albert Budden and Dr. Michael Persinger, Budden
and Persinger both theorized, that external electrical activity such as
electricity pylons could trigger an hypnogogic episode, this led Persinger to
build an apparatus to test his theory. With his machine, Persinger was able to
show how weak electromagnetic fields sent to the temporal lobe area of the brain
could trigger hypnogogic hallucinations, consequently, Persinger hypothesized
that naturally occurring electromagnetic fields and the widespread coverage by
the media of the alien abduction phenomena could be the root cause for people
believing that they have been involved in an alien abduction experience. Chapter
two of this project, examined the nocturnal alien abduction phenomena from the
point of view of the alien abduction advocates. It told of the similarities in
alien abductions all over the world and theorized why the vast majority of
abductions take place at night while the victim is in bed at night. It stated
that, a minimum amount of fuss would be created at this time of day, as the
potential abductee and potential witnesses were likely to be sleeping. It then
looked at a seemingly watertight case of an abduction which had a multitude of
credible and influential witnesses, witnesses who were deemed so credible, that
one researcher, Bud Hopkins wrote a book about the whole event, a book which
claimed that the alleged abduction, was the best case ever documented. The next
part of chapter two looked at the alien abduction phenomena of today and the
night creatures that seemingly traversed the worlds of mankind throughout
history, revealing the striking similarities of alleged alien beings and the
mythical beings portrayed throughout different cultures, similarities that are
particularly evident within the prophetic messages given to these said cultures
by their gods from the stars. Chapter two then speculated that one reason for
our visitations could be as a result of mans technological evolution and
emergence into the nuclear age. It theorized, that any intelligent life living
in the cosmic neighborhood, might be apprehensive about mans technological
ascendance and therefore they might be monitoring us as a precautionary measure.

Chapter three, examined the primary research, it assessed the findings of the
questionnaire and the little gray man experiment. The primary aim of the
questionnaire was to establish peoples beliefs religious, paranormal and the
existence of non terrestrial intelligence. The main aim for trying to amass this
information was to show that even though nothing on the questionnaire could be
conclusively proved, people would still want to believe. The hypothesis of the
questionnaire was, if the results of the questionnaire tended to show that
people believed in non tangible entities such as ghosts, then it might be
possible that they would believe in alien abductions suggesting that abductions
are the modern day equivalent of the incubus. The questionnaire revealed, 97%
held unprovable beliefs but only 6% subscribed to the alien abduction theory,
helping to disprove the questionnaires hypothesis. The questionnaires hypothesis
made some crude assumptions and thought it would get a definitive answer,
consequently, the survey demonstrated the diverse complexity of human beings.

The little gray man experiment, was an attempt to show how the media’s recent
portrayal of alien beings as being gray as opposed to their more conventional
colour of green, could be the reason why alleged alien abductees report the same
beings throughout the world. When this media induced image of an alien life form
is coupled with hypnogogic sleep disorder, the sufferer might then have the
ideal circumstances to interpret the event as an alien abduction. The little
gray man experiment theorized, when asked to draw an alien life form, a group of
eight to ten year old children (who had only been exposed to the media’s recent
depiction of alien beings) would predominantly draw a little gray man. Fifty
percent of the children drew a little gray man with the others drawing a mixture
of creatures, the gray creatures all resembled each other suggesting that the
children who drew them had preconceived ideas for alien beings, ideas possibly
generated by the media. Chapter three further explored the psychological link
between nocturnal alien abductions and media, looking at the mass media as a
source for peoples perceptions of the world around them. chapter one explained
how it was physically possible for people to believe that they had been abducted
from their beds at night, through hypnogogic sleep disorder and chapter three
suggested that the media dictated the imagery that they experienced while
suffering an hypnogogic episode. Chapter three gave an account of our developing
obsession with non terrestrial intelligence an obsession which culminated in the
production of such shows as the X Files. Therefore chapter three hypothesized
that, the homogeneous accounts of nocturnal alien abductions might be the result
of the ever growing media attention given to this controversial subject. This
project has looked at both sides of the argument of nocturnal alien abductions
and after much deliberation, it concludes that they are not extraterrestrial in
origin but terrestrial. The reason the essay has come to this conclusion, is
that the only evidence that these events have taken place is anecdotal evidence,
there is no tangible evidence that can conclusively prove that these events are
taking place. However, there is evidence that suggests that these alleged events
are neurological in nature, with a high proportion of abductees showing
anomalies within the temporal lobe region of their brains. When coupled with the
media attention that this subject has received over the past twenty years, these
neurological abnormalities offer an answer that is not speculation but actual
evidence that can be studied, unlike the extraterrestrial theory which appears
to have a more prosaic explanation.

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Davernport. G. C, 1996, Introducing Psychology, Hammersmith London, Harper
Collins. Hass. H, 1970, The Human Animal, London, Hodder & Stoughter.

Hopkins. B, 1997, Witnessed, Soho Square London, Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

Hough Peter & Moyshe Kalman, 1997, The Truth About Alien Abductions, London,
A Cassell Imprint. Hufford David J, 1982, The Terror That Comes In The Night,
Philadelphia USA, Pen Press. Jacobs. David. M, 1993, Secret Life, Westborn Grove
London, Simon & Schuster. Mack. Dr. John. E, 1994, Abduction, Kendal Street
London, Simon & Schuster Ltd. New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures,
1984, USA, International Bible Students Association. Persenger M, Great Balls of
Fire, Discovery Channel, 1998 Shnable, Jim, 1994, Dark White, London, Penguin
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