It is important for the director to be cognizant of single behavior in the topographic point of work to win ( Anon, 2008 ). Directors are confronted with how to acquire people to execute magnificently good on their occupation in all state of affairss ( Nohria et al, 2003 ).What motivate people at work can non be presumed by directors ( Morse, 2003 ). Directors should be able to act upon what actuate their employee with the aim of doing employees to see their ends with the ends of the administration ( Milne, 2007 ). Persons demands and outlook varies and it keeps altering, furthermore the workplace comprises of employees with assorted societal values and different single orientation. Harmonizing to Mckenne ( cited in Anon, 2008:281 ) pull offing motive of employee is like pull stringsing and commanding the employees. Motivating employee is critical in accomplishing greater productiveness and efficiency.
This paper work considers the motivational tools and techniques used in my current topographic point of work United Bank for Africa Plc Nigeria to actuate its employees. It describes how each of the techniques fit to the assorted motivational theories.
Get downing with an overview of United Bank for Africa Plc, analyzing how effectual these tools and techniques are in actuating and back uping the employees of the bank to accomplish superior public presentation and eventually proposing possible recommendations for betterment.
OVERVIEW OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC.
United Bank for Africa Plc ( UBA ) is one of the taking full fiscal services establishment in West Africa that offer cosmopolitan banking and it ‘s quoted on the Nigeria Stock Exchange ( United Bank For Africa Plc, 2009 ). The Head office of the Bank is located at 57, Marina, Lagos Nigeria.
UBA was integrated in 1961 after Nigeria gained independency from Britain. The bank took over concern from the British and Gallic Bank Limited ( BFB ) which started concern in Nigeria in 1948. ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d )
In twelvemonth 2005 there was a amalgamation between the old UBA and Standard Trust Bank, and at that place after there was acquisition of Continental Trust Bank. The amalgamate UBA was the first successful amalgamation in the history of Nigeria Banking Industry ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d )
UBA has 711 subdivisions and retail mercantile establishments in Nigeria and 15 other African states, France, United State of America and United Kingdom. The bank presently has over 13,000 staff globally ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2009 )
As at December 2009, UBA Plc has over 7.2 million clients. The bank offers other fiscal services such as Pension detention, wealth direction, life insurance, investing banking and stock-broking, through its subordinates company ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2009 ).
MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC
Motivation is an interior force that steer people ‘s action and behavior towards attainment of single or organizational ends. Motivation can be viewed as the fulfillment of specific demands and outlook ( Analoui,1999 ).
Modern writers explain motive as: a series of action associating to the head that delivers in exchange behavior ( Linder, 1998 ) ; finding and counsel of action, a susceptibleness to move in a peculiar mode to carry through definite unrealized demands ( Linder, 1998 ).
There are chiefly two different classs to motivational theories, these are ; content theories of motive and procedure theories of motive. Contented theories of motive explain that people are motivated by natural inner forces which come from intrinsic and psychological factor ( Anon, 2008:141 ). These theories believe that people have related set of demands and besides suggested the characteristics that should be present in Jobs ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 1999 ).
Procedure theories explain how people behaviour is instigated, directed and retained. These theories emphasize the fluctuation in single demands and show how motivational differences are formed through the agencies by which single procedure information about them self ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 1999 ; Anon, 2008 ). Beliefs, outlooks, values and mental knowledge determines how people behave ( Anon, 2008:144 ).
The undermentioned motivational tools and techniques are used in United Bank for Africa Plc to actuate its staff:
Employee acknowledgment and Award: UBA Plc operates assorted acknowledgment programmes that recognize both single and group achievements.
CEO Award ceremonial programme is conducted on one-year footing. UBA ‘s top and most first-class staff in different classs are celebrated. One of the chief award classs is the UBA leading Award which get to acknowledge outstanding leaders who demonstrate “ service leading ” i.e leaders who walk the talk ( United Bank for Africa plc [ Intranet ] n.d )
Long service award are given to employees for their priceless parts over the twelvemonth. Gift awards and certifications are given to qualified staff during the Annual CEO Award ceremonial ( United Bank for Africa plc [ Intranet ] n.d ).
Sporadically, staff are requested at the subdivision degree to choose and vote for staff that they have identified as best front service staff and have served in functions that are important to first-class service bringing. Cash Award is given to the victor.
Citation letters are issued to staff by Human capital direction for outstanding public presentation covering assorted countries such as ; Effective Relationship Management, Cost salvaging from fraud bar, Effective discharge of internal control maps, and presentation of command of hard currency card issues, Deposit mobilisation and Budget Achievement. Commendation missive besides attracts 5 Markss to public presentation assessment mark of staff ( United Bank for Africa plc [ Intranet ] n.d )
Further more, The Deputy pull offing Director identifies and recognizes Business directors that have achieved 70 % to 100 % of their monthly budget at the terminal of every month during the Monthly profitableness reappraisal meeting.
Every staff is enjoined to send on ideas/initiatives to the thought coevals box. Every thought submitted to the box is reviewed ; those found appropriate are farther presented to executive direction commission for blessing and subsequent execution. Staff that initiated the implemented thoughts are recognized and issued citation missive ( United Bank for Africa plc [ Intranet ] n.d )
Performance incentive Pay ( PIP ) : The public presentation incentive wage was introduced in 2008 as a tool to actuate staff in accomplishing their specified ends and mark, besides to heighten employee ‘s morale and increase productiveness of both gross revenues and non gross revenues staff. The incentive wage is a fixed per centum of employee wage ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d ). Employees public presentation is measured along with the cardinal public presentation index ( KPI ) and invariably monitored through the public presentation monitoring system named “ INFOPOOL ” ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d ). Info pool gives feed back on employee ‘s public presentation on a hebdomadal footing. For case every hebdomad the Business director who is the caput of the subdivision get an email study on branch public presentation for the hebdomad in country of sedimentation base, income generated and achieved net income against the subdivision budget and mark for the month.
Staff are appraised at the terminal of every one-fourth based on single cardinal public presentation index. Staff that meets between 80 % to 100 % of their public presentation ends earn the full payment of the public presentation incentive wage, those that score between 70 % to 89 % earn merely 80 % of the public presentation incentive wage, while those that score below 70 % earn nil.
Employee preparation and development: UBA is dedicated to the growing and development of its employees and invariably expose them to assorted forums of larning and development. Both in house and external preparation are conducted for staff ” ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 ).
Coaching programme The Bank adopts a coaching programme which is to supply on the occupation preparation for employees that are non executing good on their occupation. A teacher-student relationship is developed between the non-performing employees and their first degree supervisor. The manager and the coachee are to pull up a coaching program which is expected to place and undertake major proficiency spreads that are presently impeding public presentation ” ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 )
The expected result of the programme is to see singular betterment in the managers public presentation, such that it will positively reflect on the overall concern country public presentation ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 )
Staff portion investing trust: The staff portion investing trust strategy offer staff of the Bank the chance to portion in the turning luck of the bank through extremely subsidised loan to buy UBA portions. The strategy opens covering window on the last twenty-four hours of September, December, March and June. On these day of the months, the trust will purchase and sell extra UBA portions to staff at the mean market monetary values. At any window staff can sell the part of their allocation that has vested on them or purchase extra portions to their existing portions.
Most Valuable Performer ( MVP ) programme: The Most Valuable Performers are employees that add monolithic value and maximal impact on the bank bottom line ( United Bank for Africa, 2009 ). They are the top 3 % employees selected from the one-year employee ‘s assessment and they enjoy different benefits such as ; Intensive Career Development chances, A Special Recognition and Awards, A Financial and Non Financial Rewards, Educational Subsidies for extra development like Professional Qualifications, Business Schools etc ( United Bank for Africa, 2009 )
Employee health: UBA employee ‘s health was introduced to convey physical health in staff, better wellness and fittingness, combat and back street emphasis, increase employee ‘s morale and enhance productiveness in the workplace ( United Bank for Africa, 2010 )
The bank has an extremist modern Gym to help employees maintain tantrum and besides to function as an inducement for public presentation betterment. Aerobicss Sessionss are organised for employees twice a hebdomad to hike employee ‘s physical, mental and societal consciousness ( United Bank for Africa, 2010 )
Group household ramble oning to Bond is besides conducted every last Saturday of the month. Staff jog/walk from and back to a cardinal return -off point, friendly association football lucifer is besides played. These every bit serve as an avenue for staff in different location to run into and interact with each other
Learning series on Employee Wellness are sent to all staff via electronic mail every month. The series are designed to high light larning point on how to take attention of your wellness and assorted exercising activities to make with a end of bettering employees overall effectivity and productiveness at work ( United Bank for Africa, 2010 )
The bank besides provide medical strategy for both employees and their immediate household
pay/compensation: UBA plc adopt an attractive and competitory wage construction across assorted classs. Employees are able to accomplish their “ psychological demands ” such as nutrient, shelter, H2O through monthly wage cheque. Although Hertzberg Theory classified wage as hygiene factor that can ensue to a province of “ no dissatisfaction ” ( Anon, 2008:144 ). But it could be argued that wage is a incentive. Harmonizing to Adam ‘s Equity Theory of ( 1965 ) employee compares the ratio of their results to input with the ratio of results to input of other co-workers in the same administration or similar industry. Negative inequality will be perceived if the individual being compared with enjoys greater result for similar input. For case there was a clip in UBA when the Teller ( tellers ) perceived inequality between what they are being paid compared to what other Banks in Nigeria wage to their Edward tellers ( tellers ). This resulted into hapless client service, high rate of absenteeism and high degree of hard currency larceny. In other to increase productiveness and better employee morale at this degree Human capital direction had to carry on a salary study with in the banking industry and instantly did an upward reappraisal of the wage of the Teller to run into up with what is gettable within the banking industry. Since so there had been decrease in hard currency larceny, service rendered to clients improved and staff degree of absenteeism besides reduced.
The effectual the motive tools and techniques in UBA
Employee acknowledgment and Award: Employee acknowledgment is one of the major motivational tools used by the direction of the bank in actuating its work force. Persons and groups are recognised for outstanding behavior and public presentation, citation letters are besides issued out to staff. Name callings of staff given citation letters for the months are published on the Bank monthly Human capital Management Digest and circulated to all staff through electronic mails. These manners of motive have increased employees morale and productiveness. Staff now associates themselves with the ends of the bank and experience happy when they achieve these ends. Harmonizing to ( Kerr, 2003 ) public acknowledgment, missive of grasp and word of congratulations are powerful motivational tools that make employees to concentrate on organizational mark. Individual Self-esteem can be narrowed one time intrinsic motive is non acknowledge ( Lam and Lambermont-ford, 2010 ). Milne ( 2007 ), farther province that acknowledging employee accomplishment can maintain employee ardor for the occupation traveling and will besides ensue to greater undertaking involvement and public presentation.
This motivational tool has helped the bank in accomplishing some of its administration ends such as zero tolerant rate for fraud, for illustration, the bank used to endure a high degree of fiscal losingss as a consequence of processors ( Tellers ) carelessness in processing and honoring deceitful 3rd party check presented for hard currency across the counter. When direction Begin to acknowledge staff attempt in thwarting deceitful check presentation, catching the fraudster, describing suspected deceitful staff through the blowing whistling system introduced in the bank, the degree of fiscal loss in the bank drastically dropped. Edward tellers now exercise due diligence when treating 3rd party checks presented across the counter for hard currency. For case in twelvemonth 2008 my subdivision recorded fiscal loss of N4.5 million through fraud, but in twelvemonth 2009 and 2010 no fiscal loss was recorded through fraud. ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2009 )
Harmonizing to Herzberg ‘s two factors theory of motive, acknowledgment is an intrinsic factor ( incentive ) that causes occupation satisfaction and keeps employees motivated. ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 1999 )
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demand identified five degrees of demands: physiological, safety, societal, self regard, and self- actualizing. Individual self esteem need could be achieved through public acknowledgment of work ( Anon, 2008:142 )
UBA direction manner of recognizing and honoring employees outstanding behavior and public presentation is constitutional with Reinforce theory which explain that “ honor a behavior with acknowledgment instantly that behavior is likely to promote its repetition ” ( Robbins, 1998 ) Staff Recognition, word of congratulations and citation letters were major tools used by the Deputy pull offing manager of UBA Nigeria south bank to do employees to concentrate on organizational mark. He publically recognized and praise regional bank caputs and concern directors, that achieve 60 % and above of their monthly budget and mark during monthly profitableness reappraisal meeting. His actions have positive impact on employees public presentation, and UBA Nigeria south Bank public presentation as a whole. As at July 2010 when DMD UBA Nigeria south bank took over the office, UBA Nigeria south bank was making 35 % of its annual budget, as at December 2010 UBA Nigeria achieved 62 % of its annual mark ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 ). Improved public presentation was every bit recorded in all concern country. Net income from nucleus operation grew from N300m in July 2010 to N1.4bn by December 2010 ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 )
Performance incentive wage: The public presentation incentive wage is another motivational tool used by the direction of the bank to heighten employees morale and increase productiveness. It is a wages system introduced to drive the public presentation direction system and wages outstanding public presentation ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d ). The public presentation inducement wage have increased employee productiveness and morale. Employees increased their attempt and better their public presentation in other to run into the minimal bench grade of the assessment mark of 70 % to gain the public presentation incentive wage. Increase in employee ‘s productiveness besides affected the bank overall public presentation. In twelvemonth 2008 the bank recorded the undermentioned growing ;
Gross gaining increased to N169.6billion from N109.5 billion in twelvemonth 2007 demoing 55 % growing ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2008 ).
Net income after revenue enhancement addition to N40.8billion from N31.2 billion in twelvemonth 2007 ensuing to 90 % growing ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2008 ).
Head line Gaining per portion addition to N3.11 as against N2.61 in twelvemonth 2007 demoing 19 % growing ( United Bank for Africa Plc, 2008 )
As Lam and Lambermont-ford ( 2010:56 ) provinces, ”Extrinsic incentives that provide feedback, acknowledgment and wages aˆ¦ lead to increased self-pride. ”
In UBA Plc Performance incentive wage is used to honor and acknowledge outstanding public presentation and employees get regular feedback on public presentation.
The public presentation incentive wage can be likened to Expectancy Theory by Porter and Lawler ( 1968 ) which province that “ employees will Put in more attempt when they know that they will have valued wagess for undertaking achievement ” ( Anon, 2008:146 ). UBA public presentation incentive wage is the wages for employee undertaking achievement.
It can besides be likened to the Goal- puting Theory of Locke et Al which shows that higher public presentation is achieved when ends are hard, specified and regular feedback is given on public presentation ( Anon, 2008:147 ). In UBA the cardinal public presentation indexs are the hard specified ends. The public presentation monitoring system info pool proctor employee ‘s public presentation and give provender back on public presentation which helps the employee to supervise his or her advancement. Giving provender back on how far and how close people have gone in accomplishing their mark encourage and motivate people to carry through their mark ( Fiorina, 2003 )
This is besides consistent with Hackman Model which suggest that there must be outcome and feedback on undertaking assigned to deduce occupation satisfaction ( Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2004:285 )
Employee preparation and Development: Management committedness to employee ‘s uninterrupted betterment through acquisition and development has resulted into addition in employee ‘s morale, promote invention and creativeness, committedness, trueness and increase productiveness. Employees are continuously exposed to both internal and external Training. Staff who attends external preparation besides conducts a formal cognition and experience sharing session with other staff.
On the Job preparation and cognition sharing is paramount in the Bank. Supervisors invariably train their subsidiaries. Knowledge sharing session is conducted twice in a hebdomad. Lam and Lambermont-ford ( 2010 ) explained that Knowledge sharing is indispensable in transforming employee cognition into organisational competency. Organisational acquisition theoreticians besides argued that employee ‘s ideas of inclusiveness and autonomy is increased by organizational acquisition ( Remedios and Boreham, 2004 )
Assorted research work has shown grounds that preparation and development enhance productiveness and positively impact on the administration overall public presentation ( Ferguson and Reio Jr, 2010 ). Holzer et Al ( cited in Ferguson and Reio 2010 ), noted how uninterrupted preparation on the occupation in Michigan fabricating house resulted to decrease of bit rate in the administration. Bartel ( cited in Ferguson and Reio Jr, 2010 ) besides noted that developing programme addition labor productiveness. The result of research conducted by Ferguson and Reio ( 2010 ) every bit shows that developing and development have positive impact on administration public presentation.
With mention to ERG theory, employees developing and development can assist to fulfill intrinsic desire for personal development by increasing chances for growing. It besides aligns with Maslow ‘s demands of ego realization, which is the demand to develop one ‘s possible ( Fincham and Rhodes, 1999 )
Harmonizing to McClelland developing increase the demand to accomplish ( Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2004:285 )
In UBA, uninterrupted preparation on the occupation has improved employees turn around clip on the occupation, increase employee ‘s cognition on the Bankss merchandises and processing, improved employees ability and daring to sell the bank merchandises, consequence to delivering of good service to clients and have by and large impacted positively on the overall public presentation of the bank. The bank recorded growing in its Deposits by 7.4 % from N1.25 trillion in December 2009 to N1.34 trillion as at September 2010 ( United Bank for Africa Plc, n.d )
Coaching programme: The Bank besides adopt a coaching programme whereby the supervisor and the subsidiary come together to turn to public presentation job. The purpose of the coaching attack is for the supervisor and the subsidiary to come together, to place what is impeding low-level public presentation and aid to better subsidiary capableness on the occupation through acquisition and development.
Pillit ( 2007 ) wrote that employee ‘s productiveness can be increased by 15 % through coaching and mentoring programme, this is based on the pilot trial conducted at BT wholesale.
Bagshow and Bagshow ( 2002 ) illustrated how the coaching enterprise adopted by WF Electrical and Euthwaite ( 2 ) resulted into growing in gross and net income.
In UBA coaching and mentoring programme has built assurance in employee ‘s communicating, people are able to discourse their public presentation with their manager, who in bend communicate to their coachee where they are in country of their undertaking achievement, what is expected of them and how to carry through their ends. Employees have become more resourceful and bold in accomplishing their mark ends, they have every bit align their single ends with the bank aims. The coaching programme has shown to hold a positive fiscal impact in UBA. As before stated UBA recorded growing in all country of operation in twelvemonth 2010 compared to twelvemonth 2009, net income before revenue enhancement was N16.9 billion as at Q3 2010 comparison to the loss of N13.5 billion in 2009 ( united Bank for Africa Plc, 2010 )
The coaching and mentoring programme is constitutional with ERG Theory of Motivation because it fosters self development, built assurance in employees, promote employee to larn and turn.
Staff portion investing trust: This strategy gives every UBA staff the chance to portion in the turning luck of the Bank.
The staff portion investing fund is truly working and has increased employees public presentation, trueness and committedness. In March 2006 UBA portions was sold and allotted to interested staff of the bank at N11.50k per portion, ( www.cashcraft.com ) staff were given chance to subscribe for the figure of unit they wish but there was maximal figure of unit that could be allotted to each staff depending on staff class. In June 2007 the direction of the bank decided to buy back the portions back from staff at the predominating market monetary value of N47.77k per portion ( Cashcraft Management, n.d ). Staff histories were credited with full returns of their stock investing, For case a staff that invested N230,000 in March 2006 got N955,44 by June 2007. This is an incremental value of over 200 % on investing. This direction action boosted employee ‘s morale and increased productiveness, Staff that did non subscribe for the company portions during the first opened window day of the month instantly subscribed at the 2nd window day of the month and thenceforth.
It was noted that IBM turn around it concern positively by utilizing stock option as a motivational tool ( landry, 2003 )
The trust strategy is consistent with Herzber ‘s two factors Theory, Motivation and Hygiene factors. The staff portion strategy can supply employees with intrinsic motive by increasing chance for fiscal growing and engagement in the work itself, being a interest holder in the bank ( Robbins, 19980
Most Valuable Performer ( MVP ) programme: It is a programme that identifies, develop and retain the top performing artists in the Bank. The MVP programme enhances empleoyees personal growing Harmonizing to Herzberg argued that ego fulfillment was found in all personal growing experience. ( Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2004 )
The MVP programme can be likened to Herzberg ‘s motive factor which is made up of continuum taking from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The MPV programme creates possibilities for growing, promotion and greater duty. It enables growing toward self realization ( Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2004 )
The MVP programme is consistent with ERG theory, it gives identified employees the chance to larn, develop their accomplishments and calling, it gives avenue for growing through fast path publicity, the opportunity to see growing is a beginning of a incentive ( Fincham and Rhodes, 1999 ).
The MVP programme can be linked with Need for accomplishment. The identified MVPs are High winners they find their occupation more ambitious and they are more concern about their calling growing ( Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2004 ).
Employee health /Jogging to bond programme: The Employees health and jogging to bond gives employees the chance to make physical exercising after work and besides make a forum for staff of different section to run into each other to interact and socialise
This can be linked to Maslow ‘s Theory which demonstrates that “ lack demands are satisfied when occupations are available aˆ¦aˆ¦therefore a societal demand becomes of import incentive at the work topographic point ” ( Ficham and Rhodes, 1999: 132 ), the proviso of gym Centre, forming jogging to bond programme give employees the chance to fulfill their societal demands.
In UBA Employee health as nature health in workers, better wellness and fittingness, hike morale and increase productiveness in the workplace
Having examined the assorted theoretical attacks to motive, it can be concluded that there is no best manner of actuating employees in an administration. Peoples needs differ, people emerge from different civilization and what people want from their occupation differs. UBA direction demand to acknowledge and react to this diverseness and besides need to continually convey out the best in people. The direction of UBA can besides see constructs such as Job redesign, Job expansion and Job enrichment, to do work more interesting, to increase the figure and scope of activities performed, besides to add higher degree duties to a occupation.