Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2 path 28 was built by Malayan Public Works Department to link vicinities near the boundary of Kuala Lumpur. The full main road system consists of Federal Route 28, from Sri Damansara to Sunway Interchange and from Sunway Interchange to Sri Petaling Interchange. MRR2 is by and large referred to Route 28 since Path 28 occupies about two-thirds of the system. Construction on this ring route would split on 3 stage. These subdivisions include Kepong-Gombak, Gombak-Ampang and Ampang-Sri Petaling. The contract period is 36 months and was completed in 34 months ( May 1999 to March 2002 ) .
The Kepong Flyover was reported to be defective because 31 of 33 pillars back uping the overpass were reported to hold obvious clefts. Public concern about the safety issues at Kepong Flyover was due to the hazards faced by at least 4,300 automobilists utilizing the overpass at a clip. Probes were held by the authorities and as a consequence, Kepong Flyover was closed to traffic and so
Initial findings by PWD suggested that the impermanent hoisting Crane mounted on the lasting RC structural wharfs to establish the precast beams to the span decks could hold exerted force per unit area on the concrete trave and caused the clefts. It is found that the construction at the 11th bundle of the MRR II was found to be unstable because of the strain and caused the beams to divide at three subdivisions. The PWD, which carried out its ain investigation, revealed that the MRR II ‘s Kepong Bridge, was non stable due to internal redistribution of forces and alternate burden waies due to giving of support caused by inordinate hot temperature there was no homogeneous drying, externally and internally, because of derived function ( uneven ) drying of concrete.
British Halcrow Consultancy Ltd said the clefts that have appeared on 31 of the 32 traves since 2000 nil to make with the design. Halcrow has found a rare phenomenon — the enlargement of a chemical compound, ettringite, had caused serious clefts. The compound contains Ca, aluminum, O, sulfate, and H2O. Halcrow recommended to JKR to waterproof the span instantly, so that the delayed ettringite formation ( DEF ) would non ensue in farther clefts. Ettringite is found in cement. Normally, it does no injury. But, under rare conditions such as during concrete hardening, temperature making over 70 degree Centigrade in the presence of sulfate and plentifulness of H2O, ettringite is formed, spread outing perilously. If all the clefts are non waterproofed, more H2O seeps into them, worsening the state of affairs.
The Sun DailyA reported that the MRR2 clefts due to plan defect and improper anchorage of traves that was supposed to be the finding of fact of Halcrow. The design besides did non bespeak the proper anchorage of the beams and the columns. Halcrow ‘s study was prepared by its span technology manager Roger J.Buckby and submitted to the Works Ministry. The chief cause of inordinate snap in the crosshead to the T-shaped wharf is a lack in the design and the anchorage of the columns reinforced into the crosshead. There is besides a lack in the design of the cross support in the top of the crossheads to defy dividing forces between bearings. The horizontal snap in the crosshead straight above the columns is a direct consequence of the unequal anchorage of the column bars into the crosshead.
On 4 February 2006, the Kepong Flyover was closed to traffic from 10:30 ante meridiem after serious amendss on the overpass was confirmed. Traffic jam besides has rose due to the incompletion of the MRR2 on 8 December 2006 ; the Kepong Flyover was reopened to all traffic.
On 3 August 2008, Kepong overpass was closed to all traffic after three of the 18 C fiber panels on pillar 28 had peeled off. Pillar 28 is where the German adviser Leonhardt Andra und Partner ( LAP ) did the fix works as a sample for Malayan contractor to follow.
Misdemeanor of Code of Ethical motives
Section II ( 2 ) ( a ) – Engineers shall set about assignments merely when qualified by instruction or experience in the specific proficient Fieldss involved.
The Kepong Flyover was reported to be defective because 31 of 33 pillars back uping the overpass were reported to hold obvious clefts. The applied scientists and contractors were responsible in this instance. The chief cause of inordinate snap in the crosshead to the T-shaped wharf is a lack in the design and the anchorage of the columns reinforced in the crosshead. There is besides a lack in the design of the cross support in the top of the crosshead to defy dividing forces between bearings. The horizontal snap in the crosshead straight above the columns is a direct consequence of the unequal anchorage of the column bars into the crosshead.
Section II ( 1 ) ( a ) – If applied scientists ‘ judgement is overruled under fortunes that endanger life or belongings, they shall advise their employer or client and such other authorization as may be appropriate.
In this instance, public concern about the safety issues at Kepong overpass was due to the hazards faced by at least 4,300 automobilists utilizing the overpass at a clip. Despite legion fixs and much of taxpayers ‘ money spent, people are oppugning the safety and status of the span despite the confidences by the relevant governments. Users or clients were deprived of use of the span doing them to utilize other engorged roads, waking up early to go and returning place tardily, utilizing more gasoline and Diesel, more clip wasted on roads and doing users more tired. The cost here is political cost.
Section II ( 3 ) ( B ) – Engineers may show publically proficient sentiments that are founded upon cognition of the facts and competency in the capable affair.
Harmonizing to British Halcrow Consultancy Ltd that has sought the service of Glascow University, ettringite is found in cement. Normally, it does non harm. But, under rare conditions such as during concrete hardening, temperature making over 70 degree Centigrade in the presence of sulfate and plentifulness of H2O, ettringite is formed, spread outing perilously. If all the clefts are non waterproofed, more H2O seeps into them, worsening the state of affairs.
Section II ( 3 ) ( a ) – Engineers shall be nonsubjective and true in professional studies, statements, or testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such studies, statements or testimony which should bear the day of the month indicating when it was current.
Plants Minister Datuk S.Samy Vellu imposed a joke order on his officers stating that he entirely will manage any questions on the Middle Ring Road 2 ( MRR2 ) Kepong flyover repairs. But he was loath to reply inquiry on the overpass which had been closed for fixs to clefts on 30 pillars which had attracted the Anti-Corruption Agency ‘s attending.
Prevention & A ; Safety Guidance
The technology society codifications of moralss, NSPE ( National Society of Professional Engineers ) has provided counsel in managing or forestalling the event from go oning, as discussed below.
Section III ( 9 ) ( vitamin E ) – Engineers shall go on their professional development throughout their callings and should maintain current in their forte Fieldss by prosecuting in professional pattern, take parting in go oning instruction classs, reading in the proficient literature and go toing meeting and seminars.
Based on a statement by the Public Work Department ‘s adviser, Kohler & A ; Seitz, they have indicated that faulty design had caused the pillars of MRR2 overpass to check. This means that the cleft might be caused by defective design by the applied scientists. Mentioning to the codification of ethic above, the MRR2 applied scientists should be up to dated towards the latest design. The word of ‘faulty design ‘ should hold non occurred at all because the MRR2 is cost up to RM 238.8 million. So, the MRR2 design applied scientists should better their design accomplishment so that their design will non hold serious job in the hereafter.
Section III ( 1 ) ( a ) – Engineers shall admit their mistakes and shall non falsify or change the facts.
The applied scientists shall accept the truth sing their faulty work on the MRR2. Consultant Company, Kohler & A ; Seitz have indicated that faulty design had caused the pillars of MRR2 overpass to check. In this instance, they with the aid of authorities were denying that statement. Then, authorities had to name British Halcrow Consultancy Ltd to analyze the clefts that have appeared on 31 of the 32 traves since 2000. This was a immense waste of money and times. They should be responsible if the clefts occurred is because of their errors.
Section II ( 1 ) – Engineer shall keep paramount the safety, wellness, and public assistance of the populace.
In planing and building procedure of MRR2, the applied scientists should keep paramount the safety, wellness, and public assistance of the populace. They must obey the criterion approved by the governments in taking the stuff used. This is because, if they use inexpensive and low quality stuffs to derive maximal net income, they might jeopardize public that will utilize the main road in the hereafter.
Section III ( 1 ) ( degree Fahrenheit ) – Engineers holding cognition of any alleged misdemeanor of this Code shall describe thereon to allow professional organic structures and, when relevant, besides to public governments, and cooperate with the proper governments in supplying such information or aid as may be required.
For the interest of populace ‘s safety, wellness and public assistance, applied scientists should make whistle blowing. Whistle blowing is an act by an employee of informing the populace or higher direction of unethical or illegal behaviour by an employer or supervisor. In MRR2 instance, if they have qualified all the 4 conditions to make whistle blowing, they are obligated to make this. It is acceptable to blow the whistling to protect the public involvement.
ETHICAL THEORIES & A ; PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE
Definition of utilitarianism is balance between good and bad effects of an action
The good thing is MRR2 brought travel within easy range
The bad thing is the controversial Issues.
Right Ethical motives
Definition of right moralss is the people have the cardinal rights that other people have a responsibility to esteem
The right to utilize the overpass safely
Do non desire to maintain stuck in traffic jam as a consequence from the closing of the MRR2
Do non desire to see the few well-connected companies or persons net income at the public disbursal
Duty Ethical motives
Definition of responsibility moralss is people have responsibilities to protect the rights of others
Fidelity: the responsibility to maintain promises
Contractors and applied scientists have failed to plan and construct the overpass in conformity with the contract
Justice: the responsibility to acknowledge virtue work curate does non take any action against the irresponsible contractors and adviser
Beneficence: the responsibility to better the conditions
Repairs cost RM40 mil to RM70mil
Cause by improper planning and hapless cost appraisal and hapless administrative of the Work Minister
This disbursals could be reduced if he appointed a dependable contractor to construct the overpass
Virtue Ethical motives
Engineers did non to the full oversee the undertaking
Minister did non give account of the RM70 million measure
No actions taken towards original contractors
Denied clefts were due to plan defect
Did non construct harmonizing to right specifications and designs
Case Analysis & A ; Problem Solving
For the first closing, 31 of 33 pillars back uping the overpass were reported to hold obvious clefts.
At some pillars and grades, there were more than 7000 clefts detected
Probes were carried out by 4 different parties, viz. Maunsell, Sharma & A ; Zakaria ( the interior decorator ) , Kohler & A ; Seitz Engineering Services ( appointed by the contractor ) , Halcrow Consultants Ltd. ( appointed by JKR ) andA Leondhardt Andra und Partner ( LAP )
Kepong Flyover was closed to traffic and so reopened with merely 4 out of 6 lanes
Plants Minister reminded the populace that the clefts were non due to plan defect
Halcrow Consultants Ltd. suggested the design did non follow with the demand of BS5400, the improper anchoring of the column rebar to the traves and the formation of ettringiteA ( Delayed Ettringite Formation were responsible for the clefts
Ettringite is found in cement, the enlargement of a chemical compound, had caused serious clefts
For the 2nd closing 4 February 2006, the Kepong Flyover was closed to traffic from 10:30 am after serious amendss on the flyoverA and reopened on December 8, 2006.
For the 3rd closing, on 3 August 2008, Kepong overpass was closed to all traffic after three of the 18 C fiber panels on pillar 28 had peeled off
Pillar 28 is where the German adviser Leonhardt Andre und Partner ( LAP ) did the fix works as a sample for Malayan contractor to follow.
The cleft on the pillars that support the overpass ensuing the MRR2 can non be opened for traffic and immense jam was occurred.
Although probe had been carried out, the cleft on the pillar still occur.
Based on the probe, chief job is because of the MRR2 design did non follow the BS5400 demand.
The accident make us to be more cognizant of the safety of people that used the overpass
Interior designer of the MRR2 unable to do a design that follow the specification of overpass that leads to check on the pillars.
The deficiency of communicating accomplishments between the squad makes the accident repeated and can non be fixed faster.
Government should happen the company that are capable plenty to construct the span and do trouble-shooting decently.
To happen a solution for the instance, the flow charting technique is used because it is easy to understand and it is able to demo the concatenation of event happens by following the bit-by-bit attack.
Fig. 2 Flowchart for MRR2 accident
From the flow chart drawn, it is obvious that job occurs because of the design and stuff used did non follow the specification. Although there were squads that assemble to look into the job, they can non happen the exact solution on how the job occurs. Different squads come out with different job and solution. To forestall it from go oning once more, interior decorator should follow the regulations and do certain stuff used are right picked
What Should Have Done by Peoples Involved?
All the people involved in the accident should hold done otherwise in avoiding the accident from happen to the overpass, as described below:
Engineers – Design Engineer should hold designed the overpass intelligently and professionally to avoid design defects. Besides, the applied scientists should hold tested the overpass for its lifetime and capableness to back up the busy traffic so that the overpass can work without checking.
Management – Should hold monitored the whole undertaking by itself to guarantee everything is done consequently and no design defects should happen. The quality of the overpass should hold been examined by the direction squad.
Government – Should hold assigned the building undertaking to reliable builder so that the excess 1000000s of ringgit will non be spent to mend the overpass. After the incident happened, the Ministry should inform the populace about the causes of the chapped pillars and admit the errors done by the ministry.
Local authorization – should set more concern on the undertaking by supervising the building and acquiring study of the building advancement from clip to clip. In add-on, local government/authority should hold evaluated the whole undertaking and the contractor ‘s capableness before O.K.ing the undertaking.
All in all, immense amount of public tax-payers money, amounting to a few hundred million ringgit, were used to transport out all these fixs. There were negotiations of judicial proceeding, but someway, as clip went by, things merely fizzled out. Even though this major span was closed to the public three times, and 1000000s of public ringgit had been spent on fix work, yet there was no public question in order to happen out as to what had really gone incorrect, so that everyone including civil and structural applied scientists could larn from the errors. In shutting, this span is still being carefully monitored by the Malayan authorities.
Maverick, SM. , Project Report Middle Ring Road 2, February 2006
Maverick, SM. , Risk, Health & A ; Safety, February 2006
Charles B. Fleddermann. , Engineering Ethics ( 3rd Edition ) , Pearson Practice Hall, University of New Mexico, 2008
Main Portal for Kementerian Kerja Raya
Fuel monetary values likely to drop The Star Online August 4, 2008 – Monday
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Berita Harian,2006, PM: MRR2 ditutup lindungi keselamtan pengguna, 5th Mac, Malaysia
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