Vital Role In Making Profit Commerce Essay

The chief mark of any organisation is to gain net income and for this it need to hold many factors. One of the chief factors of organisation which plays a critical function in doing net income is employees, which can besides be stated as plus of a company. And we all know that it ‘s a immense loss for any organisation to lose an employee who is to the full trained and had been working in the organisation for a long period. Hence, an organisation should ever seek to actuate its employees at work so that they give their best and do n’t believe of go forthing the occupation. If employees are motivated at work it non merely helps in employee keeping but besides in increasing employee efficiency which leads to an addition in end product. Harmonizing to Winterton ( 2004 ) to set up an effectual scheme for accomplishment formation labour keeping must be high plenty for the mean length of service provide a return on HRD investing.

Barrows and Powers ( 2008 ) conceeived that the term motive is derived from ‘motive ‘ which means an thought, need, emotion or organic province that prompts an person to action. There are many act uponing factors that control human behavior and hike an employee to give the best fulfilment while run intoing single demands and emotions. Analyzing these factors and delighting human demands helps to actuate an person. Barth and Hayes ( 2008 ) opine that motive is the employees ‘ avidity to execute efficaciously and to achieve organisational ends while carry throughing some person or personal demands. Bassett-Jones and Lloyd ( 2008 ) pointed out that motive is the procedure of acquiring employees ‘ demand satisfied so that they adjust their personal aims with the organisational aims strategically.

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Boella and Goss-Turner ( 2012 ) implied emphasis in instance of service based industry, motive is critical to guarantee the chaimn of service quality and client accomplishment. To act successfully and dispute with other industries it is indispensable to hold motivated employee base and keep the standard service scopes. Endter ( 2011 ) excellent services provided by employees to recommend make a long-run positive experience and keep client trueness. Demotivated employees present hapless work which is non utile for the wellness of the organisation.

Brenda and Hy ( 2008 ) articulate that constructing motive for employees is possible by doing of an environment those awards excellence at each degree of activity. In Chan and Wong ( 2006 ) pointed the cardinal factors for employee motive that include occupation satisfaction, timely acknowledgment, desired grasp, equal compensation and inspiration. Employee weakening in the industry is rather high. Charles and Marshall ( 2007 ) determined that the bad clang of employee demotivation in any industry is increase in staff turnover purpose. Hence, maintaining employees motivated is important for the extension, endurance and care of the concern.

I am interested in this proposed country of research since it is slightly similar to the experience I have gained while I working in a company for about two old ages. I was good trained and I about knew how to make all work absolutely but due to miss of motive and deficiency of just intervention at work I resigned from that occupation.

1.1. Organization:

The company that I have chosen to make my research is Tesco, since it is the 3rd largest food market store worldwide and 2nd largest in doing net income after Wal-Mart. They have the largest domestic market portion every bit good as international market portion with around 3 billion in gross. Tesco was founded on 1919 by Jack Cohen from a market stall in London ‘s east terminal. It has shops in 14 states and it is one of the leader food market markets in the UK. The name Tesco was founded in 1924 and the first Tesco shop was opened in 1929 in Burnt oak, Middlesex. Originally Tesco in UK merely focused on food market retail merchant but now it has progressively diversified into countries like merchandising of books, electronics, vesture, furniture, gasoline, telecoms etc. There are more than 2900 Tesco shops wholly in 14 states.

1.2. Purpose:

The chief purpose of this study is to look into the human resource operation of one of the busiest and high pressured concern organisation in analysing the factors which affect employee keeping and how direction handles such job in order to diminish high employee turnover. Tesco ‘s client services have been the function theoretical account for UK retail industry. This is because the company really intelligently motivates its employees which raise the client ‘s satisfaction degree. The cognition on this topic is widely available, but is fragmented. This research survey will let identifying and understanding the human resource techniques used by the company for employee motive.

1.3. Research aims:

To reexamine the bing literature on the techniques used by retail sector for employee motive

To carry on a study to estimate the motive degree of the employees

To carry on interviews from the shop directors inquiring about the techniques used by them for employee motive

To measure the part of employee motive towards client satisfaction.

1.4. Research inquiries:

This research will chiefly concentrate following inquiries:

What is employee motive?

What are the assorted constructs and theories of motive which aid in employee keeping?

What are the factors which creates obstructions in employee motive and increase high turnover?

How are these obstructions addressed by the direction and what are the factors that direction should follow in order to actuate its employees at work?

2. Literature Reappraisal:

The literature reappraisal is a description of what has been antecedently researched by different writers. It may hold critical position of either chronologically or comparing similarities and differences between writers and direction schools of idea.

In UK, as viewed in a recent study, Tesco in recent old ages aimed at change by reversaling hapless public presentation in its UK market. One of the most of import ground, clients was excessively abashed to set the cheap and cheerful points in their streetcars.

The chief purpose of this portion is to reexamine relevant literature on employee keeping through motive at work. Harmonizing to Winterton ( 2004 ) there are three chief grounds why employees leave work: retirement, dismissal or voluntary surrender. The first two, retirement and dismissal, are to a great extent influenced by direction, whereas the last represents a personal determination to discontinue work. Hence, voluntary surrender is chiefly occurs when an employee gets better chance in another occupation. Most conceptual theoretical accounts of voluntary labor turnover assume that occupation dissatisfaction is the root cause of labour turnover, and there is considerable grounds of the negative relationship between employee turnover and occupation satisfaction ( Brayfield and Crockett 1955 ; Employee turnover is a high loss to an organisation because the establishment of forces and development estimated that it cost ?1426 in advertisement, recruiting and preparation cost for each fabricating secret agent who leaves ( IPD 1997 ) . Hence, direction should concentrate on actuating employees cause if one employee leaves another had to be hired, which will once more necessitate cost of engaging. Suggested that employee motive is really indispensable for the success of the companies, mainlyly during the current technological alterations.Managers should set up their employees all the necessary tools such as coaching, developing plan, understanding to actuate the employees for a better public presentation ( Chun and Soo, 2008 ) . There should be active disposal and guidancewhich will steer the employees to endeavor for the organisational aspiration.

One of the chief factors heightening employee keeping is talent direction. As identified by Lewis and Heckman ( 2006 ) endowment direction focuses on sourcing, developing and honoring employee endowment. Talent direction in an organisation must include public presentation direction, leading development, work force planning, and enlisting of the best endowments in the industry. The acquisition, use, development and keeping of the human capital are the most of import undertaking of the human resource direction in today ‘s organisation. Today the human resource section of an organisation has the duty to implement schemes and policies that would assist the organisation to carry through the purposes and aims of the organisation therefore organisations that implement endowment direction procedure are more likely to develop and efficaciously pull off their human capital which finally leads to the growing and development of the organisation ( Handfield, 2001 ) .

Hence, labour keeping schemes should hence concentrate on these four countries ( Winterton, 2004 ) ;

Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the consequence of a broad scope of factors that affect quality of working life and the most influential illustrations are Maslow ‘s ( 1943 ) hierarchy of demands and Herzberg ‘s ( 1968 ; Herzberg et Al. 1959 ) theory, in which incentive, the presence of which create occupation satisfaction, are distinguished from hygiene factor, the absence of which produce occupation dissatisfaction ( Winterton, 2004 ) . Vroom ‘s anticipation theory ( 1964 ) , considered whole work environment and argues the persons are motivated to work when they anticipate accomplishing what they expect from their occupations.

Maslow hierarchy of demands:

Psychological demands: These are the basic needs that every employee required for their endurance. These include nutrient, H2O and O. Barth and Hayes ( 2008 ) opined that in employees in the industry besides seek for wage, heat, air so as to guarantee their endurance.

Safety demands: Safety demands are concerned for a safe and unafraid physical and economic environment. Tesco provides the security of formal contracts of employment every bit good as pension and illness strategies and the option to fall in a brotherhood to give people a sense of belonging. It ensures wellness and safety in the work topographic point.

Social demands: Social needs trades with the demands for love and belongingness. Included here are the demands for friends and compassion. Supportive household. Tesco promotes squad and group working at assorted degrees. The company “ Steering Wheel ” assesses single and group work and enables store staff to work as a squad. Working conditions and home-from-home ethos encourage long service.






Self-esteem, assurance, accomplishment, regard of others, regard by others.

Friendship, household, sexual familiarity

Security of: organic structure, employment, resources

Morality, the household, wellness, belongings

Breathing, nutrient, H2O, sex, slumber, homeostasis, elimination




Problem work outing

Lack of bias.

Credence of facts

Figure 1: Maslow ‘s Hierarchy theory

( Beginning: Jfetcher, J. , Fall, A. , Gilbert, D. and Wanhill, S. , 2007, p 85 )

Esteem needs: Harmonizing to Maslow one time people being to fulfill their demands to belong they want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. Tesco value emphasise self-respect and regard for others and congratulations for difficult work, its ego estimation,360 degree feedback assessment system aid to acknowledge person ‘s parts and importance.

Self-actualization: Tesco offers Personal Development Plans, acknowledgment of accomplishments and endowments, chance for publicity and calling patterned advance programme. The options fast-track direction programme provides a path for capable staff to make higher degrees. .


Bassett-Jones and Lloyd ( 2008 ) suggested that Maslow ‘s thoughts have been criticized for the deficiency of the conceptual affair. If particular survey is non undertaken, Maslow ‘s theory of hierarchy of demands will look to be right. However, many research workers have opposed this theory and given their ain unfavorable judgments which are as follows:

Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is non lasting. These alterations harmonizing to the state of affairs.

It is non necessary that the demands of one class be strong at a clip and the staying remain unimportant.

Herzberg two factors theory:

Hygiene factors: These factors in contrast created dissatisfaction if they were absent or unequal, dissatisfaction of their work make non take to higher degrees of motive. Hygiene factors include working status, quality of supervising, salary, position, occupation security, disposal. It is those factors that are non strong subscribers to satisfaction but that must be present to run into a worker ‘s outlooks and prevent occupation dissatisfaction.

Motivation factor: Tesco aims to actuate its employees both by paying consideration to hygiene factors using satisfiers. It motivates and empowers its employees by relevant and timely communicating, by delegating duty and affecting staff in determination devising. It holds forum every twelvemonth in which staff can be portion of the treatments on wage rises. It is those factors that are strong subscribers to occupation satisfaction.

Figure 2: Herzberg two factors theory

( Beginning: Herzberg. F. ( 1974 ) . Motivation-hygiene profiles: Pinpointing what ails the organisation. Organizational Dynamics, 3 ( 2 ) , 18-29 )

Expectancy theory: Vroom:

Vroom theory is based on single ‘s factors such as personality, accomplishments, cognition, experience and abilities.

The theory suggests that although persons may hold different sets of ends, they can be motivated if they believe that:

There is a positive correlativity between attempts and public presentation,

Favorable public presentation will ensue in a desirable wages,

The wages will fulfill an of import demand,

The desire to fulfill the demand is strong plenty to do the attempt worthwhile.

The theory is based upon the undermentioned beliefs:


Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with regard to outcomes [ wagess ] .The demand of an employee for money, publicity, time-off, benefits ) . Management must detect what employee ‘s value.


Employees have different outlooks and degrees of assurance about what they are capable of making. Management must detect what resources, preparation, or supervising employees need.


The perceptual experience of employees as to whether they will really acquire what they desire even if it has been promised by a director. Management must guarantee that promises of wagess are fulfilled and that employees are cognizant of that.

Vroom suggests that an employee ‘s beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically to make a motivational force such that the employee Acts of the Apostless in ways that bring pleasance and avoid hurting.




Figure 3: Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory

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Organizational committedness: The consequence of organisational committedness on labour keeping is emphasized in much of the turnover literature ( Winterton, 2004 ) . Satisfaction tends besides to be systematically and strongly related to subjective studies of organisational committedness ( Lee & A ; Mowday, 1987 ; Williams & A ; Hazer, 1986 ) . Mayer and Allen ( 1991 ) distinguished three constituents of organisational committedness: affectional, continuation and normative committedness.

1. Affectional Committedness:

It is the most common type studied and refers to “ an employee ‘s emotional fond regard to and designation with the organisation ” ( The Pennsylvania State University, 2010 ) .A Affectional committedness can heighten occupation satisfaction because employees agree with the organisation ‘s aims and rules, because employees feel they are treated reasonably in footings of equity, and because employees receive organisational attention, concern, and support ( Hawkins, W.D. 1998 ) .

2. Continuance Committedness:

It refers to an employee feeling that he/she has to remain with the company because the costs of go forthing are excessively great. This is manifested by an person who maintains committedness to the organisation because he/she is unable to fit salary and/or benefits at another employer.A The vested clip and attempt put into their work has developed what could be considered non-transferable investings such as a retirement program, relationships with other employees, and other particular involvements that may hold accumulated over clip. For illustration, in today ‘s disruptive economic system it is likely to see an addition in the sum of employees who have a continuation committedness to the organisation, as it is non merely difficult to happen a occupation to fit salary and/or benefits of another, but it is difficult to happen a occupation at all.A

3. Normative Committedness:

Of the three types of committedness, normative is the least researched of all of them and refers to the employee that feels that he/she owes it to the employer to remain out of a sensed duty. These feelings of duty may come because the employer takes a opportunity on the employee when cipher else would. In bend, the employee feels indebted to the employer. Therefore, by a show of trueness and responsibility, it would be hard to go forth.

Labour market chances: Labour market status may be expected to hold a profound influence on labor turnover since employees are less likely to discontinue if there are few alternate occupation chances. Hence, no affair how much employees are dissatisfied in their occupation they will barely believe of discontinuing unless they get another better occupation in the market. Furthermore, direction can besides act upon employee perceptual experience through pass oning information associating to the benefits of employment in their endeavor, implicitly doing the comparing with alternate labour market chances ( Winterton ( 2004 ) .

Ease of motion: Ease of motion is a cardinal factor impacting existent separation, although it is hard to divide its consequence from organisation committedness and occupation satisfaction ( Trevor, 2001 ) . Ease of motion is a comfort that an employee feels to discontinue the occupation. Hence, so as to diminish easiness of motion direction should supply an employee with assorted inducements. Harmonizing to ( Winterton, 2004 ) fiscal inducements, family- friendly policies and preparation are three ways of cut downing easiness of motion.

2.1. Employee Motivation:

Motivating employees can be a director ‘s majority of competition. Employee motive is a cardinal to overall success of an organisation. An apprehension of an applied work force, besides known as organisational behavior, can extremely actuate work force. Endter ( 2011 ) opined that employee motive is non new in the universe of human resource direction. Eshetu ( 2012 ) suggested that motive is derived from the word “ motivation ” which means thought emotion or organic province that prompts a adult male to action. Motive is a centralised factor that brings about a adult male ‘s behavior. Josse and Robert ( 2007 ) indicated that motive is the manner of deriving the demands of people realized with a position to acquire them to work hard for the achievement of organisational aims. Motivation is nil but an act of attractive force, a existent force that forces single to take stairss to carry through end ( s ) . From the text of physiological context, motivations of a human being can be defined as hungriness, thirst, turning away of hurting, demand for air and slumber, riddance of wastes, of organic structure temperature. All these factors are unschooled motivations and native in the being ( Kovach 2007 ) .

2.2. Importance of Employee ‘s Motivation:

Chun and Soo ( 2008 ) affirm that directors these yearss are watchful about increasing importance of employee ‘s elemental motive. Endter ( 2011 ) found that if employees are motivated towards work so they try to give in their best attempt which boosts dependability of the company. Therefore, employee who beats in service bringing to the client should be satisfied in footings of their occupation willing so that they can be motivated for supplying better quality of services. Fred et Al. ( 2007 ) disagreed that employee motive is built over a period of clip and does non guarantee the addition in term of office. However, it can non be rejected that if employees of any company are good motivated so the quality of work done is much better when related to any other company. Motivated employees have greater consolidation of attempt and likely to do errors. The fact is that employee motive is straight allied to concern net incomes, and more self-motivated the employees will be, the more differentiated and successful the concern will be. They are likely to demo greater trueness to the company and have less desertion. An unmotivated work force will be opposite raging its function in the environment. It can negatively impact both the quality of the work and how employees carry out their work.

Tesco considers that concern depends on two groups, people clients and staff. It acknowledges that staffs are different and have separate life styles outside of work. Tesco support staff with a work/life balance and offers reward through:

flexible working

free or decreased rate wellness benefits

price reduction gym rank

competitory wages

staff price reduction

Company portion option.

3. Research Methodology:

3.1. Introduction:

The chief purpose of this subject research methodological analysis is to depict how informations will be collected for this survey. The research inquiries will be the chief focal point for aggregation of informations with the aid of quantitative method. In UK merely there are about 3000 Tesco shops ; hence in London Tesco shops are located in the spread of every 10 to 20 proceedingss. In my local country there are at least 15 shops which will be my chief focal point in aggregation of informations. Therefore I will be sing these shops personally to roll up information for my study. Harmonizing to McClelland, 1995 cognizing which data- assemblage methods or combination of methods to utilize depends on a figure of factors, such as organisational civilization, environment, policies, and the effects or causality that drove the undertaking ( Martin, 2000 ) . Research methodological analysis provides a structural model to transport on with the procedure of research in a systematic mode. Leedy and Ormrod ( 2012 ) pointed out that appropriate methodological analysis helps to decide the research jobs and fulfill the research aims.

3.2. Research Method Outline:

Researcher chooses the doctrine of belief as the research deals with factors related to societal facts and events. To prove bing theories, research attack has been chosen along with qualitative and quantitative informations aggregation. Descriptive research design helps to show, explicate and analyze collected informations utilizing statistical methods, tabular arraies and charts.

3.2.1. RESEARCH Approach:

Cresswell ( 2007 ) asserted the importance of exemplifying the research attack as an effectual scheme to increase the cogency of societal research. The major portion of this chapter is the presentation of the research attack. The research adopted a qualitative research attack.

There are chiefly two types of attack deductive and inductive. Deductive research attack allows the research to set up a hypothesis by utilizing theory. Assortment of informations and information is collected by the research worker to corroborate or reject the hypothesis to decide issue ( Gill and Johnson 2010 ) . Inductive research is a flexible attack because there is no demand of pre-determined theory to roll up informations and information. The research worker uses observe informations and facts to make at probationary hypothesis and specify a theory as per the research job. This helps the research to give inductive statements ( Mertens 2008 ) .

3.2.2. RESEARCH Onion:

One of the most hard things about understanding research design is that bookmans disagree about the name, the order and the nature of research phases. Disagreement was really clear between Crotty ( 2007 ) and Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) . Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) classified research into six phases and labelled the theoretical account which presented them as ‘the research onion ‘ . Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) divided the research to include: doctrines ; attacks ; schemes ; picks ; clip skylines ; techniques and processs. On the other manus, Crotty ( 2007 ) narrowed them down to be: epistemology ; theoretical position ; methodological analysis ; methods.

Figure 4: Research Onion

( Beginning: Saunders et al. , 2009, p 52 )

3.2.3. Qualitative Research:

Qualitative research is about survey the brief of a market from first to last in-depth examine that the environment and history for advertisement production. ( Malhotra, 2004 ) said Qualitative Research is an irregular, analyzing explore line of show aggression stand on little sample projected to do available merely round the corner and considerate of the crisis state of affairs. ( Houser, 1998 ) staying that by qualitative examine method research workers know how to acquire some advantages: The donee can increase an excess extended accepting of the phenomenon of concentration than with quantitative do research. It is concerted or flame extraordinary state of affairs that could non be accepted through comprehensive quantitative methods. The research workers can experience with informations collected plants alloted during the discovery, based on the issue that come up.

3.2.4. Quantitative Research:

Quantitative research is sing the step of a bazar and cheques that measure with informations. Chiefly frequently the figures adhering related to publicize sum, market place split, and publication, install base and publicize argument charge. It is besides worn to drive secure mode, felicity, promise and a pick of other practical market place statistics that can be tailed over clip. Quantitative research helps the sellers to finish buyer watchfulness and attitude amongst unlike maker to diagonse on the whole client activities in a market place by diverting an analytical sample of clients and the market place as a complete. ( Muijs, 2004 ) originate that quantitative explore is illumination phenomenon by cod arithmetic informations that are analyse by agencies of exactly based method.


Harmonizing to my research subject attending I have chiefly used qualitative examine method. Qualitative investigate is added zealot in natural universe so quantitative examine. But from clip to clip I tried to envelop quantitative investigate technique every bit good to look at the pick. Qualitative and Quantitative chief informations have been collected by client scrutiny and single interview leave shopping subdivision director and employees of Tesco. I have visited many shops at hetrogeneous countries in London.

3.2.6. INFORMATION Collection:

There are two types of informations that have been used in this research, Main Data and Secondary Data. Main information has been possessed by tempting some meeting with patronage, shop director of online shopping subdivision foreman ; professional etc. ( Exuberant et Al. 2003 ) said to hasten chief informations is to roll up by the member precisely for the trouble at give. On top of the earlier manus child informations have been earlier gathered ( by the research workers or by others ) for a figure of past intents. ( Malhotra, 2004 ) show that Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data are chief informations. ( Gibson, 2004 ) said that the informations fall ining method chosen is to supply a good base on which to reason some decision. Every inquiry was intented so that existent informations could be gathered, each probe import certain issue or convinced informations. Minor informations composed from book, diary, Newspaper, publication, brochure, concern web sites, Researchers web sites etc.


Within qualitative research, the receiver is extremely concerned in roll uping and resolves the information. In this information the assemblage and scrutiny are frequently supervised consequently, instead than as separate and disconnect facet. Harmonizing to ( Saunders et Al. 2004 ) , qualitative information is base on intending spoken from side to side linguistic communication and fall ining Markss in non-standardized informations require allocation into class and scrutiny behavior from side to side the usage of apprehensiveness.


This work has particularly used bench, chart, and patty diagram to analyze quantitative informations. These are the basically used to use informations scrutiny means in advertisement research. These are easy and for with no problem apprehensible review. ( Quarterman and Parks, ( 2003 ) found that chief informations observation means that the member confident the information foremost manus. The irregular and unfastened ended inquiry has been produced by crisp history.


For the aggregation of secondary informations with will assist in judging the information collected, I am traveling to bespeak for the organisation study and paperss available. It will back up in beef uping the quality and give information to guarantee the safety and authorization of informations collected.I encompass used Internet examine for electrical diary, deliberate records book ; some explore besides deliberate which has complete by others, periodical, web sites of Tesco. ( Phase, 2003 ) set up that the bounds of less of import informations scrutiny embrace the deficiency of handiness of information, the mistake of databases for certain investigate inquiry, and the complexness obtain precise certificates on the database.

3.2.10. QUESTIONNAIRE Design:

As there are tonss of people working in a individual subdivision of Tesco harmonizing to the size of it, it is non possible for me go and take interview of each and every staffs, hence I have decided to do a questionnaire focussing on my subject and chiefly staffs working in Tesco. Paper and pencil questionnaire are frequently used to garner information from a big figure of people. Hence to have every bit much as response available I have decided to travel personally and administer questionnaire to staffs every bit far as possible. The study besides used Dichotomous and multiplex option organisation as good.

3.2.11. Interview:

In each and every subdivision of Tesco there are different directors like subdivision director, shop director, responsibility director etc. hence, these are the people whom I will be questioning for my informations aggregation. For this I will be utilizing structured interview where there will be same pre- determined inquiries for all. In this research meeting has been conducted synchronously, like a typical face-to-face meeting, so that I could speak about each question. This method was practical when the meeting was conducted with the director of superstore. The meeting was conducted from side to side phone and chiefly of the juncture face to confront confab.

3.2.12. POPULATION AND Sampling:

My chief focal point will be Tesco Green Street, Upton Park since I am one of the staff of that subdivision. It is a Tesco tube which is bigger in size that other Tesco express which we can see in every individual street due to which there are more than 30 staffs and more than 5 directors in different sector. Hence, I will be choosing at least one director, one supervisor for interview and at least 15 staffs for questionnaire from this subdivision and one individual from direction country and two to three staffs from other subdivisions harmonizing to its size and population. For this procedure I will be utilizing simple random trying method.


The most of import portion of research is that all the findings of informations must be dependable and valid. The inquiries that are to be asked in interview will be structured and simple to understand by interviewee. Questionnaire will be prepared and presented for proving so that unneeded and undependable inquiries will be removed. All interviews will be done in polite mode in order to demo regard and to avoid interviewer prejudice. The questionnaire will be prepared strictly on ethical land so that there wo n’t be any biasness and all staffs will be assured about privateness and confidentiality of their response. They will besides be ensured that overall informations that are being collected is merely for academic intent.


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