Term Definition


a measure of kinetic energy.

Thermal Expansion The increase in volume that results from an increase in temperature.


the energy that is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures.
Radiation Radiation
Convection the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter.


he transfer of energy from one object to another object through direct contact.

Earth System

all of the matter, energy and processes within Earth’s boundary.

Geosphere the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth.


the thin, solid outermost layer of the geosphere.

Mantle the hot layer of melted rock below the crust that gently moves.


the dense center layer of the Earth.


all of the liquid water on Earth.


all of the frozen water on Earth.

Atmosphere mixture of mostly invisible gases that surrounds Earth.
Biosphere all of the living organisms and the areas of the Earth where living organisms are found.

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