Vocab For Matter And Elements

Term Definition
matter anything that takes up space and has mass
mass the material that matter is made up of
volume how much room/space matter takes up
density D=m/v the amount of material/stuff mass takes up within a specific space
atom smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter
electron particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus, it has a negative charge and an attractive force to bond with other atoms
proton particle of an atoms that positive charge located in the nucleus
neutron particle of an atom with a neutral/no charge located in the nucleus along with the proton
Periodic Table large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties
element the simplest substance that cannot be broken down, they also make up all the matter in the universe
periods/rows rows that tell how many energy levels each elements has for the electrons to move around
groups or families/columns columns that tell how many valence electrons each element has/ the number of electrons that can move in its outer shell/ energy levels
valence electrons the electrons that move on the outer shell/ energy level of an atom
atomic number how many protons an element has inside the nucleus/ usually is the same # of electrons and neutrons
atomic mass the measurement of the mass for an element's atoms
chemical property a whole new substance that is irreversible and has a reactivity
physical property the appearance, size,shape,texture stays the same substance
ionic bond when elements either gain or lose an electron during bonding
covalent bond when elements share electrons during bonding
chemical change/reaction elements bond together due to an attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
compound/molecule two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio/pattern creating a whole, new and different substance
mixture two or more elements combine together keeping their original properties, they DO NOT CHANGE into a new substance
nobel gases all of the elements in GROUP 18- they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell
halogens all of the elements in GROUP 17- they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in Group 1 because they have 7 valence electrons nad want to be stable
alkali metals all of the elements in GROUP 1- they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron
metalloids elements between metals and non metals that can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons
endothermic Chemical reaction that absorbs energy

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