Vocab for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
*Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass The material that matter is made up of.
Volume How much room/space matter takes up
Density D = mass divided by volume The amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific space.
*Atom The smallest part on an element, The building blocks of all matter.
*Electron The particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus with a negative charge and attractive force that allows it to band with other atoms creating everything in the universe.
*Proton A particle of an atom with a positive charge found inside the nucleus.
*Neutron A particle of an atom with no charge found inside the nucleus along with the proton
*Periodic Table A large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties.
*Element A substance that can't be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe.
*Periods/Rows Rows that tell you how many energy levels each element has for the electrons to move around.
*Groups or family/columns Columns that tell how many valance electrons each element has
*Valance electrons The electrons move in the outer shell of an atom
*Atomic number How many protons and neutrons are inside the nucleus
*Atomic Mass The measurement of the mass for an elements atoms
*Chemical Property The ability of substances to combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules
*Physical Property The state of matter and appearance of a substance
Ionic Bond when elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
Covalent Bond when elements share electrons during bonding
*Chemical change/reaction Elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
*Compound/molecule Two or more elements combine together creating a whole, new and different substance
*Mixture Two or more substances mixed together keeping their original properties
*Nobel Gasses All of the elements in Group #18~ they have 8 electrons in their outer shell and are the most stable
*Halogens All of the elements in Group #17~ they have 7 balance electrons and are very reactive bonding easily with elements in Group #1
*Alkali Metals All of the elements in Group #1~they only have one valance electron so they are very reactive
Metalloids They have 3-7 valance electrons. Elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way
*Endothermic Chemical reaction that absorbs thermal energy.
Exothermic The production cold.

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