Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass The material that matter is made up of.
Volume How much room/space matter takes up
Density D= m/v the amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific shape.
Atom Smallest part if an element, the building blocks of all matter.
Electron Particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus
Proton Particle of an atom with a positive charge located inside the nucleus.
Neut Particle of an atom with a neutral/ no charge located inside the nucleus along with the proton.
Periodic Table Large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties.
Element The simplest substances that cannot be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe.
Periods/ Rows Rows that tell and say how many energy levels needed for what each element has for the electrons to move around.
Groups or Family or/ Columns Groups or columns that tell how many valence electrons that an element owns/ the number of electrons that can move around to the outer shell/ energy level.
Valence electrons The electrons that move on the outer shell / energy level of an atom.
Atomic number How many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is same number of neutrons and electrons.
Atomic Mass The measurement of the mass for an elements atoms.
Chemical Property When substances combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules.
Physical Property The apperence of a object, and the state of matter of a substance.
Iconic Bond When elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding.
Covalent Bond When elements share electrons during bonding.
Chemical Change/ reaction Elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change.
Compound/ Molecule Two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio/pattern creating a whole, new and different substance.
Mixture Two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they do NOT change into a whole new substance/ compound.
Nobel Gases All of the elements in Group #18- they are the most stable elements because they have 8 electrons in their outer shell.
Halogens All of the elements in group #17- they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in group 1 because they have seven valence electrons and want to be stable.
Alkali Metals All of the elements in group 1- they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron.
Metalloids Elements between metals and non-metal that can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons.

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