Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mass the material/ stuff that matter is made up of – it can be measured
space/volume the specific area/place that matter takes up
density D=m/v the amount of mass in a specific volume of space
atom smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter
electron particle of atom with negative charge, moves around the nucleus and has an attractive force that allows it to bond with other atoms creating everything in the universe
proton particle of an atom with a positive charge located inside the nucleus
neutron particle of an atom with a neutral / no charge located inside the nucleus along with the proton
Periodic Table large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties
element the simplest substances that cannot be broken down/ they make up all matter in the universe
periods/rows rows that tell how many energy levels each elements has for the electrons move around
groups or family/columns columns that tell how many valence electrons each element has/ the number of electrons that can move on its outer shell/ energy level
valence electrons the electrons that move on the outer shell / energy level of an atom
atomic number how many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is the same number of neutrons and electrons
atomic mass the measurement of the mass for an elements atoms
chemical property the ability of substances to combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules
physical property the state of matter and appearance of a substance
ionic bond when elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
covalent bond when elements share electrons during bonding
chemical change/ reaction elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
compound/ molecule two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio/ pattern creating a whole, new and different substance
mixture two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they do NOT change into a new substance/ compound
Nobel/ Gases all of the elements in Group #18 – they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell
Halogens all of the elements in Group #17

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