Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
matter anything that takes up space and has mass
mass the material that matter is made up of
volume how much room/space matter takes up
density D=m/v the amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific space
atom the smallest unit of matter that builds up all matter
protons positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus
neutrons particles with no charge that accompany protons in the nucleus of an atom
electron negatively charged particles that move around rapidly outside of an atom's nucleus and that has an attractive force that bonds atoms together
Periodic Table A chart that classifies elements by their physical and chemical properties
element makes up all matter in the universe, cannot be broken down, and is the simplest substance.
periods/rows The rows that make up the Periodic Table and tell us how many energy levels an element has
groups or family/columns The columns in the periodic table that tell us how many electrons are in an atoms outer energy level
valence electrons The electrons in an atom's outer energy level
atomic number The number of protons in an element, also usually determines the number of neutrons and electrons
atomic mass The mass of an element's atoms
chemical property The ability a substance has to combine with others to form new ones
physical property includes a substance's appearance and state of matter.
ionic bond This occurs when elements lose or gain an electron while bonding
covalent bond this happens when elements share an electron while bonding
chemical change/reaction this occurs when the electron's attractive force bonds two elements together creating a reaction or change
compound/molecule two or more elements that combine in a set ratio making a whole new substance
mixture two or more substances that are combined, but retain their properties and are not a whole new substance, thus not chemically combined
Nobel Gases All of elements in Group #18 that are the most stable elements because they have eight valence electrons
Halogens all elements in group #17 they are very reactive with elements in group #1 because they have 7 valence electrons and want to be stable
Alkali Metals all elements in group #1- all have only one valence electron and are very reactive
Metalloids elements with 3-7 valence electrons between metals and non-metals that can react either way
Endothermic a chemical reaction that absorbs energy (decrease in temp)
Exothermic a chemical reaction that produces energy (heats up)

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